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Current Status of Neuiron-Scattering Research and Facilities in the United States Panel on Neutron Scattering Solid State Sciences Committee Board on Physics and Astronomy Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington. D.C. 1984

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to -associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct government, the public, and the communities. It is administered and the Institute of Medicine. Engineering and the Institute of in 1964 and 1970, respectively, National Academy of Sciences. of their services to the scientific and engineering jointly by both Academies The National Academy of Medicine were established under the charter of the The work reported here has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Materials Sciences, under grant No. DE-FG01-81ER10844, and by the National Science Foundation under grant No. DMR-8119500. Available from National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418

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PANEL TO ASSESS THE CU~R1~ STATS OF FACILITIES ~ RES ~ CH IN NEU1KON SCATTERING JOHN J. RUSE, National Bureau of Standards, Chairman JOHN D. AXE, BrooLhaven National Laboratory ROBERT J. BIRGENEAU, Massachusetts Institute of Technology WALTER L. BROWN, AT&T Bell Laboratories JUERGEN ECEERT, Los Alamo s National Laboratory DONALD M. ENGELMAN, Yale University GERARD H. LANDER, Argonne National Laboratory RALPH M. MOON, JR., Oak Ridge National Laboratory RAYMOND L. ORBACH, University of California, Los Angeles ROBERT ULLMAN, Ford Motor Company JULIA R. WEERTMAN, Northwestern University SAMUEL A. WERNER, University of Missouri, Columbia Consultant to the Panel 1 J. MICHAEL ROWE, National Bureau of Standards SSSC Liaison to the Panel MICRAEL E. WILKINSON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory iii

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SOLID STATE SCIENCES COMMITTEE WILLIAM F. BRINEMAN, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Chairman ALBERT NARATH, Sandia Laboratories, Chairman Elect MARTIN BLUME, Broothaven National Laboratory ROBERT T. BATE, Texas Instruments, Incorporated H. KENT BOWEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JEROME B. COHEN, Northwestern University F.REn R. GAMBLE JR., Schlumberger-Doll Research ROY G. GORDON, Harvard University VINCENT JACCARINO, University of California HERBERT H. JOHNSON, Cornell University WILLIAM D. NIX, Stanford University S. ELAINE B. PETRIE, Eastman Kodak Company JOHN J. QUINN, Brown University ALBERT I. SCHINDLER, Naval Research Laboratory ROBB M. THOMSON, National Bureau of Standards MICHAEL E. WILKINSON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Consultants to the Committee WESLEY N. MATHEWS JR., Georgetown University CHARLES E. REED, National Research Council Staff DONALD C. SEAPERO, National Research Council 1V

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BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY RAN S FRADENFELDER, University of Illinois, Chairman FELIX B. BOEHM, California Institute of Technology RICHARD G. BREWER, IBM Corporation DEAN E. EASTMAN, IBM Corporation JAMES E. GUNN, Princeton University LEO P. EADANOFF, University of Chicago W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado NORMAN RAMSEY, Harvard University MARSHALL N. ROSENBLUTH, University of Texas WILLIAM P. SLICa1ER, AT&T Bell Laboratories SAM B. TREIMAN, Princeton University DONALD C. SEAPERO, Staff Director v

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COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND RESOURCES HERBERT FRIEDMAN, National Research Council, Chairman ELEAN R. BLOUT, Harvard Medical School WILLIAM BROODER, Princeton University BERNARD F. BURKE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology HERMAN CHERNOFF, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MILDRFn S. DRESSELHAUS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology WALTER R. ECEELMANN, Sohio Petroleum Company JOSEPH L. FISHER, Office of the Governor, State of Virginia JAMES C. FLETCHER, Burroughs Corporation WILLIAM A. FOULER, California Institute of Technology GEBHART FRIEDLANDER, Broothaven National Laboratory EDWARD A. FRIEMAN, Science Applications, Inc. EDWARD D. GOLDBERG, University of California CEARLES L. HOSLER JR., Pennsylvania State University CONRAD B. ERAUSEOPF, Stanford University CHARLES J. MANKIN, Oklahoma Geological Survey WALTER H. MANE, University of California GEORGE E. PARE, Xerox Research Center ROBERT E. SIEVERS, University of Colorado HOWARD E. SIMMONS JR., E.I. do Pant de Nemours and Company, Inc. JOHN D. SPENGLER, Harvard School of Public Bealth RATTEN S. YODER JR., Carnegie Institution of Washington RAPHAEL G. EASPER, Executive Director LAWRENCE E. McCRAY, Associate Executive Director vi

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PREFACE In the spring of 1983, the Solid State Sciences Committee, in implementing one of a series of studies addressing the health of this discipline, called together a group of experts to assess the present status of U.S. facilities and capabilities in the field of neutron-scattering research. The Panel was also asked to review recent trends in the D.S. neutron- scattering user community and to identify critical gaps in U.S. capabilities in this field with respect to those abroad. The Panel was charged to address primarily applications of neutron-scattering techniques in the condensed-matter, chemical, and biological sciences. It should be noted that a number of other critical scientific and technological areas (some of which are listed in Chapter 3 of the report) require the use of high-performance neutron sources. It is clear that these applications will have important implications in any discussion of the design and utilization of neutron sources in the future. The Panel concluded that the United States has fallen behind Western Europe in the use of cold neutron beams and high-resolution spectroscopy. U.S. reactors remain world class in terms of neutron-beam intensities, but the United States lags in the development of new instrumentation on the reactors. An additional problem is that they are aging. Existing sources will be 20 to 25 years old by 1990. The long-range implications are serious with respect to many fundamental new applications of neutron-scattering research ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ those of In the materials-related disciplines, including technological importance. The Panel's report stresses the need for an immediate U.S. commitment to the development and installation of state- of-the-art instrumentation at our present research reactors; for support to permit full investigation and development of pulsed sources; and to begin planning for the next generation of neutron sources. The Panel emphasized the importance of involvement of the user community in all stages of planning of new facilities. The Solid State Sciences Committee unanimously endorses the Panel's conclusions and recommendations. We urge the federal research agencies to move as quickly as possible to strengthen U.S. capabilities in this highly competitive and technologically promising field of research. William F. Brinkman, Chairman Solid State Sciences Committee vii

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CONTENTS 1. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 2. INTRODUCTION 3. CURRENT STATUS OF NEUTRON-SCATTERING FACILITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 4. 1 4 6 Facility Descriptions 7 The User Community 17 Comparison With the European Community 22 OVERSEAS NEUTRON-SCATTERING FACILITIES Research Reactors Pulsed Neutron Sources RECENT NED'l'KON-SCArlERING RESEARCH IN LEE UNITED STATES; COMPARISONS WITH EUROPE Condensed-Matter Physics Neutron Optics Chemistry Biology Polymer and Colloid Science Materials Science and Engineering 6. FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES: FACILITIES AND RESEARCH Condensed-Matter Physics Chemistry Biology Polymers Materials Science Neutron Optics APPENDIX A. INSTITUTIONAL SPONSORS OF USERS OF MAJOR NEUTRON-SCATTERING FACILITIES IN THE UNITED STATES (JULY 1982-JUNE 1983) ix 26 26 31 34 34 56 59 69 77 83 90 91 93 94 96 97 98 103

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