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References Armington, Catherine, and Marjorie Odle 1982 Small Business how many jobs? The Brookings Review 1(2):14-17. Ayers, Robert, and Steven Miller 1981 The Impacts of Industrial Robots. Report number CMU-RI-TR 8 1-7. The Robot- ics Institute, Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie-Mellon University. Bassi, Laurie J. 1982 The EffCect of CETA on Participants' Post-Program Earnings. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute. Bell, Terrell H., and Kenneth B. Hoyt 1974 Career Education: The USOE Perspective. Occasional Paper No. 4. Columbus, Ohio: The Center for Vocational Education, Ohio State University. Bendick, Marc 1982 Employment, training and economic development. In John L. Palmer and Isabel V. Sawhill, eds., The Reagan Experiment. Washington, D.C.: The Urban In- stitute Press. Benson, Charles, and Gareth Hoachlander 1981 Descriptive Study of the Distribution of Federal, State, and Local Funds for Vocational Education. Final report of the Project on National Vocational Educa- tion Resources. School of Education, University of California, Berkeley. Birch, David 1981 Who creates jobs? The Public Interest (Fall):3-14. Borus, Michael E. 1983 A Descriptive Analysis of Employed and Unemployed Youth. Paper prepared for the Committee on Vocational Education and Economic Development in De- pressed Areas, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 84

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References 85 Bushnell, David S. 1980 The Role of Vocational Education in Economic Development. State of the Practice Report. Prepared under contract number 300-79-0762 with the U.S. Department of Education. Center for Public Resources 1982 Basic Skills in the U.S. Work Force: The Contrasting Perceptions of Business, Labor, and Public Education. New York: Center for Public Resources. College Entrance Examination Board 1977 On Further Examination. Report of theAdvisory Panel on the Scholastic Aptitude Test Score Decline. Princeton, N.J.: College Board. Commission on Higher Education and the Economy of New England 1982 A Threat to Excellence. Wenham, Mass.: New England Board of Higher Educa- tion. Committee for Economic Development 1982 Public-Private Partnership: An Opportunity for Urban Communities. New York: Committee for Economic Development. Congressional Budget Office 1982 Improving Youth EmploymentProspects: Issues and Options. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Budget Office. Corman, Louise 1980 Basic Skills Proficiencies of Secondary Vocational Education Students. National Institute of Education, Vocational Education Study Publication Number 4. Wash- ington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. Design for Academic Progress for the 80's Task Force #5 No The Information Economy: Exploiting an Infinite Resource. New York. date Diaz, William A., Joseph Ball, and Carl Wolfhagen 1982 Linking School and Workfor Disadvantaged Youths. The YIEPP Demonstration: Final Implementation Report. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. Ellwood, David T., and David A. Wise 1983 Youth Employment in the Seventies: The Changing Circumstances of Young Adults. Working Paper No. 1055. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Eco- nomic Research, Inc. Elsman, Max, and the National Institute for Work and Learning 1981 Industry-Education-Labor Collaboration: An Action Guide for Collaborative Councils. Available from the Superintendent of Documents (No. 731-147), U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C.: National Institute for Work and Learning. Evans, Rupert N. 1981 Vocational education and reindustrialization. Pp. 227-251 in Katy B. Green- wood, ea., Contemporary Challenges for Vocational Education. Arlington, Va.: American Vocational Association. Farkas, George, D. Alton Smith, Ernst W. Stromsdorfer, Gail Trask, and Robert Jerrett 1982 Impacts from the Youth Incentive Entitlement Pilot Projects: Participation, Work, and Schooling over the Full Program Period. New York: Manpower Demonstra- tion Research Corporation. Fonte, Richard, and Vernon Magnesen 1983 Triton College and General Motors: the partnership model. American Education 19(1):22-24.

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86 References Foster, R. Scott, and Renee A. Berger, eds. 1982 Public-Private Partnership in American Cities: Seven Case Studies. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath. Gadway, Charles J., and H. A. Wilson 1976 Functional Illiteracy: A Brief Summary and Highlights of an Assessment of 17-Year-Old Students in 1974 and 1975. Washington, D.C.: National Assess- ment of Education Progress. Gardner, John A., Paul Campbell, and Patricia Seitz 1982 Influences of High School Curriculum on Determinants of Labor Market Ex- periences. Columbus, Ohio: National Center for Research in Vocational Educa- tion. Ginzberg, Eli 1982 The mechanization of work. Scientific American 247(3):67-75. Glover, Robert W. 1982 American apprenticeship and disadvantaged youth. Pp. 165-201 in Robert E. Taylor, Howard Rosen, and Frank C. Pratzner, eds., Job Training for Youth: The Contributions of the United States Employability Development System. Colum- bus, Ohio: National Center for Research in Vocational Education. Gold, Gerald G., Bryna Shore Fraser, Max Elsman, and John Raukin 1981 Industry-Education-Labor Collaboration: A Directory of Collaborative Coun- cils. Available from the Superintendent of Documents (No. 729-091), U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D. C.: National Institute for Work and Learning. Grasso, John T., and John R. Shea 1979a Effects of vocational education programs: research findings and issues. Pp. 101-192 in The Planning Papers for the Vocational Education Study. Washing- ton, D.C.: National Institute of Education. 1979b VocationalEducation and Training: Impact on Youth. Berkeley, Calif.: Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education. Grubb, W. Norton 1979 The phoenix of vocational education: implications for evaluation. Pp. 195-215 in The Planning Papers for the Vocational Education Study. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Education. Gunn, Thomas G. 1982 The mechanization of design and manufacturing. Scientific American 247(3): 115- 130. Hanson, Royce, ed. 1983 Rethinking Urban Policy: Urban Development in an Advanced Economy. Com- mittee on National Urban Policy, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Levin, Henry M., and Russell W. Rumberger 1983 High-tech requires few brains. Washington Post, January 30. Levine, Marsha, and Denis P. Doyle 1982 Private meets public: an examination of contemporary education. Pp. 272-329 in Jack A. Meyer, ea., Meeting Human Needs: Toward a New Public Philosophy. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Lewis, Morgan V., and Donna M. Mertens 1981 The effects of job training. Pp. 149-165 in Katy B. Greenwood, ea., Contempo- rary Challenges for Vocational Education. Arlington, Va.: American Vocational Association.

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References Lusterman, S. 87 1977 Education in Industry. New York: The Conference Board. Mallar, Charles, Stuart Kerachsky, Craig Thornton, David Long, Thomas Good, and Patricia Lapoczynski 1978 Evaluation of the Economic Impact of the Job Corps Program: First Follow-up Report. Princeton, N.J.: Mathematica Policy Research. Mallar, Charles, Stuart Kerachsky, Craig Thornton, Michael Donihue, Carol Jones, David Long, Emmanuel Noggoh, and Jennifer Schore 1980 Evaluation of the Economic Impact of the Job Corps Program: Second Follow-up Report. Princeton, N.J.: Mathematica Policy Research. Martin, Wayne 1981 Student Skills in the Seventies, National Assessment Progress Report. Compact, Spring: C1-C4. Reprint 438, Denver, Colo.: Education Commission of the States. McKinney, Floyd L., Stephen J. Franchak, Ida Halasz-Salster, Irene Morrison, and Douglas McElwain 1981 Factors Relating to the Job Placement of Former Secondary Vocational Educa- tion Students. Columbus, Ohio: National Center for Research in Vocational Education. Mertens, D. M., D. McElwain, G. Garcia, and M. Whitmore 1980 The Effects of Participating in Vocational Education: Summary of Studies Re- ported Since 1968. Columbus, Ohio: National Center for Research in Vocational Education. Meyer, Robert H. 1981a An Economic Analysis of High School Vocational Education, I. Vocational Education: How Should ItBe Measured ? Washington, D. C.: The Urban Institute. 198 lb An Economic Analysis of High School Vocational Education, II. The Determi- nants of Participants in Vocational Education: The Role of Schools and Personal Characteristics. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute. 1981c An Economic Analysis of High School Vocational Education, III. The E;f/7ect of Vocational Education on Post Secondary School Choices. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute. 1981d An Economic Analysis of High School Vocational Education, IV. The Labor Market Effects of Vocational Education. Washington, D. C.: The Urban Institute. Meyer, Robert H., and David A. Wise 1982a High school preparation and early labor force experience. In Richard B. Freeman and David A. Wise, eds., The Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature, Causes, and Consequences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1982b The Transition from School to Work: The Experiences of Blacks and Whites. Working Paper No. 1007. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research. National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering 1982 Science and Mathematics in the Schools: Report of a Convocation. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Association of State Directors of Vocational Education 1981 The Role and Responsibility of Vocational Education in Economic Development and Productivity. Arlington, Va.: National Association of State Directors of Vocational Education.

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88 References National Center for Education Statistics 1981 The Condition of Vocational Education. Prepared by Mary A. Golladay and Rolf M. Wulfsberg. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. National Commission for Employment Policy 1981 The Federal Role in Vocation Education. Washington, D.C.: National Commis- sion for Employment Policy. 1982 8th Annual Report: The Work Revolution. Report No. 15. Washington, D.C.: National Commission for Employment Policy. National Commission on Excellence in Education 1983 A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform. Washington, D.C.: National Commission on Excellence in Education. National Institute of Education 1980 The Vocational Education Study: The Interim Report. Publication No. 3. Wash- ington, D.C.: National Institute of Education. 1981 The Vocational Education Study: The Final Report. Publication No. 8. Washing- ton, D.C.: National Institute of Education. National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee 1982 Vocational Preparation and Occupations, 3d ed. Vol. 1.: Education and Occupa- tional Code Crosswalk. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. New York City Public Schools No Training Opportunities Program 1981-82. Final Evaluation Report, Board of date Education Project I.D. #0427. New York: Office of Educational Evaluation, New York City Public Schools. Nunez, Ann R., and Jill Frymier Russell 1981 Manufacturers' Views of Vocational Education. Columbus, Ohio: National Cen- ter for Research in Vocational Education. Office of Technology Assessment 1983 Automation and the Workplace: Selected Labor, Education and Training Issues. Washington, D.C.: Office of Technology Assessment. Paul, Krishan K., and Ellen A. Carlos 1981 Vocational Educators' Handbook for Economic Development. Arlington, Va.: American Vocational Association. Robison, David 1978 Training and Jobs Programs in Action: Case Studies in Private-SectorInitiatives for the Hard-to-Employ. New York: Committee for Economic Development; Scarsdale, N.Y.: Work in America Institute, Inc. Rosenfeld, Stuart 1981 A Portrait of Rural America: Conditions Affecting Vocational Education Policy. Vocational Education Study Publication No. 6. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Education. Schilit, Henrietta, and Richard Lacey 1982 The Private Sector Youth Connection. Volume 1: School to Work: A Planning Manualfor Educators and Business People. New York: Vocational Foundation, Inc. SER/Jobs for Progress No The Federal Role in Vocational Education. Dallas: SER/Jobs for Progress. date Stanback, Thomas M. Jr., Peter J. Bearse, Thierry J. Noyelle, and Robert A. Karasek 1981 Services: The New Economy. Totowa, N.J.: Allanheld, Osmun & Co.

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References 89 Stromsdorfer, Ernst W. 1979 The effectiveness of youth programs: an analysis of the historical antecedents of current youth initiatives. Pp. 88- 11 in Bernard E. Anderson and Isabel V. Sawhill, eds., Youth Employment and Public Policy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice- Hall. Sullivan, Sean 1983 Private Initiatives to Improve Youth Employment. Paper prepared for the Com- mittee on Vocational Education and Economic Development in Depressed Areas, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Taggart, Robert 1981 A Fisherman's Guide: An Assessment of Training and Remediation Strategies. Kalamazoo, Mich.: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. Task Force on Education for Economic Growth 1983 Action for Excellence: A Comprehensive Plan to Improve Our Nation's Schools. Denver: Education Commission of the States. Twentieth Century Fund 1983 Report of the Twentieth Century Fund Task Force on Federal Elementary and Secondary Education Policy. Prepublication copy. New York: Twentieth Century Fund, Inc. U.S. Department of Education 1981 Vocational Education. Report by the Secretary of Education to the Congress. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Planning, Budgeting, and Evaluation 1978 National Study of Vocational Education Systems and Facilities. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Vedder, Richard K. 1982 Robotics and the Economy. Staff study for the Subcommittee on Monetary and Fiscal Policy of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, March 26, 1982. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Worthington, Robert M. 1981 Re-Thinking Education and Work in the United States for the 1980's. Paper presented to the UNESCO International Conference in Education, Geneva, Switzerland, November 10-19. 1982 Youth employability in the context of the 1980's. In Robert E. Taylor, Howard Rosen, and Frank C. Pratzner, eds., Job Training for Youth. Columbus, Ohio: National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

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