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APPENDIX A Selected Tables on Youth Employment and Unemployment The following tables are drawn from "A Descriptive Analysis of Employed and Unemployed Youth," written for the committee by Michael E. Borus. The paper will appear in modified form in a book on youth employment problems to be published by W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. These tables were created from data in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Experience. The National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Experience are conducted annually with over 12,000 young people. When weighted, as in the following tables, they represent the national population born in the years 1957 through 1964 (for further details on the NLS, see the National Longitudinal Surveys Handbook published by the Center for Human Re- source Research, Ohio State University, 19821. Special analyses were made for this report using the spring 1981 survey wave. These data are used to describe the characteristics of employed and unemployed young people as of that time. Most of the analyses are limited to those who were ages 16-21 at the time of that interview. Since the interviews were conducted in spring 1981, some born in 1965 had their 16th birthday prior to the interview and are excluded from the NLS. As a result, the data presented here underrepresent 16-year-olds, including only those whose birthdays fell after the spring. The approximately 800,000 youngest 16-year-olds in the population are not represented in the sample. This biases slightly the employment-to-population ratios (upward) and the unemployment rates (downward). 91

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92 Appendix A Some questions on discrimination and other perceived barriers to em- ployment were asked of all young people in 1979 and were not repeated. For these variables, the data presented include all those ages 16-22 as of spring 1979. It is unlikely that there have been substantial changes in these perceptions between 1979 and the present. TABLE A-1 Percentage Distribution of Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex, Employment Status, and Age, Spring 1981 16 17 18 19 20 21 Total Females Employed 38 43 52 60 62 61 53 (581)(893)(1,034)(1,225)(1,244)(1,242)(6,218) Unemployed1617151171012 (245)(353)(303)(214)(140)(210)(1,466) Out of labor46403330312934 force(710)(830)(650)(610)(633)(597)(4,030) Unemployment rate30282315101519 Males Employed38505764648458 (620)(1,071)(1,096)(1,232)(1,244)(1,474)(6,736) Unemployed18221715151016 (296)(463)(323)(285)(291)(192)(1,849) Out of labor44292621211626 force(729)(612)(492)(413)(402)(325)(2,973) Unemployment rate32302319191222 Total Employed38475562636756 (1,201)(1,965)(2,129)(2,457)(2,487)(2,715)(12,954) Unemployed18191613111014 (541)(816)(625)(500)(431)(402)(3,315) Out of labor45342926262330 force(1,439)(1,442)(1,142)(1,023)(1,035)(922)(7,002) Unemployment rate31292317151320 . NOTE: Those age 16 born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands.

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Appendix A 93 TABLE A-2 Percentage Distribution of Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex, Employment Status, and Race, Spring 1981 Black HispanicWhite Total Females Employed35 4757 53 (582) (341) (5,296)(6,218) Unemployed 22 12 1112 (364) (90) (1,011)(1,466) Out of labor 43 41 3234 force (715) (298) (3,018)(4,030) Unemployment rate 38 21 1619 Males Employed 45 57 6158 (714) (422) (5,601)(6,736) Unemployed 24 20 1416 (383) (151) (1,315)(1,849) Out of labor 31 23 2526 force (495) (168) (2,310)(2,973) Unemployment rate 35 26 2322 Total Employed 40 52 5956 (1,296) (762) (10,896)(12,954) Unemployed 23 16 1214 (747) (242) (2,326)(3,315) Out of labor 37 32 2930 Force (1,209) (466) (5,328)(7,002) Unemployment rate 37 24 1820 NOTE: Those age 16 born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands.

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94 Appendix A TABLE A-3 Percentage Distribution of Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex, Employment Status, and Enrollment Status, Spring 1981 Enrollment Status as of 1981 Interview High-School Enrolled in Enrolled in Dropout High School College High School Graduate, Not Enrolled Total Females Employed3343527253 (522)(1,615)(1,295)(2,781)(6,218) Unemployed201561212 (309)(555)(153)(448)(1,466) Out of labor4742421734 force(730)(1,583)(1,064)(646)(4,030) Unemployment rate3726111419 Males Employed6045527958 (1,082)(1,871)(1,232)(2,551)(6,736) Unemployed251861516 (447)(767)(150)(479)(1,849) Out of labor153641626 force(269)(1,518)(972)(212)(2,973) Unemployment rate2929111622 Total Employed4844527556 (1,603)(3,486)(2,527)(5,332)(12,954) Unemployed221761314 (756)(1,322)(303)(928)(3,315) Out of labor3039421230 force(1,000)(3,101)(2,037)(859)(7,002) Unemployment rate3227111520 NOTE: Those age 16 born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands. School enrollment status was not available for 17,500 young people.

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Appendix A 95 TABLE A-4 Percentage Distribution of Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex, Employment Status, and Educational Attainment, Spring 1981 Highest Grade Completed as of 1981 Interview Some Less Than High 12th 1-3 Years 4 Years Graduate 8th Grade School Grade College College School Total Females Employed 20426562 96053 (71)(2,065)(2,702)(1,356) (18)(0)(6,218) Unemployed 2216125 4012 (74)(790)(488)(113) (1)(0)(1,466) Out of labor 58422433 0034 force (199)(2,114)(984)(727) (0)(0)(4,030) Unemployment rate 5128158 5019 Males Employed 49507258 9210058 (224)(2,729)(2,797)(972) (13)(1)(6,736) Unemployed 2620136 0016 (119)(1,095)(521)(108) (0)(0)(1,849) Out of labor 25301536 8026 force (116)(1,671)(573)(611) (1)(0)(2,973) Unemployment rate 35291610 0022 Total Employed 37466860 9410056 (294)(4,795)(5,499)(2,328) (31)(1)(12,954) Unemployed 2418126 2014 (194)(1,885)(1,008)(222) (1)(0)(3,314) Out of labor 39361934 3030 force (315)(3,785)(1,557)(1,338) (1)(0)(7,002) Unemployment rate 4028159 3020 NOTE: Those age 16 born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January l, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands. Educational attain- ment was not available for 17,500 young people.

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96 Appendix A TABLE A-5 Percentage Distribution of Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex, Employment Status, and Marital Status, Spring 1981 Marital Status Married, Never Spouse Married Present Other Not Available Total Females Employed5448 53 4353 (5,104)(902) (151) (61)(6,218) Unemployed1212 19 1912 (1,165)(218) (55) (27)(1,466) Out of labor3341 28 3834 force(3,126)(769) (81) (53)(4,030) Unemployment rate1919 27 3119 Males Employed5685 87 6558 (5,868)(662) (87) (118)(6,736) Unemployed1612 10 1816 (1,713)(94) (10) (32)(1,849) Out of labor283 3 1726 force(2,912)(25) (3) (32)(2,973) Unemployment rate2312 10 2122 Total Employed5559 62 S556 (10,972)(1,564) (238) (179)(12,949) Unemployed1412 17 1814 (2,878)(312) (64) (60)(3,314) Out of labor3030 22 2630 force(6,039)(794) (94) (85)(7,002) Unemployment rate2917 21 2520 NOTE: Those age 16 born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands. Information on marital status was not available for 323,700 young people.

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Appendix A 97 TABLE A-6 Percentage Distribution of Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex, Employment Status, and Presence of Respondent's Children in the Household, Spring 1981 Children in Children Not Household in Household Total Females Employed 335753 (564)(5,654)(6,218) Unemployed 151212 (258)(1,202)(1,466) Out of labor 523134 force (902)(3,126)(4,030) Unemployment rate 311819 Males Employed 765858 (342)(6,394)(6,736) Unemployed 171616 (76)(1,773)(1,849) Out of labor 82626 force (34)(2,939)(2,973) Unemployment rate 182222 Total Employed 425756 (905)(12,049)(12,949) Unemployed 151414 (334)(2,976)(3,314) Out of labor 432930 force (936)(6,065)(7,002) Unemployment rate 272020 NOTE: Those age 16 born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands. Information on children in the household was not available for 6,900 young people.

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98 Appendix A TABLE A-7 Percentage Distribution of Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex, Employment Status, and Living Arrangements at Time of 1981 Interview Away From Household Living with in College Living in Own Parents or Military Household Total Females Employed54395453 (4,007)(398)(1,813)(6,218) Unemployed1431112 (1,071)(34)(360)(1,466) Out of labor31573534 force(2,292)(580)(1,158)(4,030) Unemployment rate2181719 Males Employed57347758 (4,888)(365)(1,484)(6,736) Unemployed1871216 (1,556)(70)(222)(1,849) Out of labor25591226 force(2,210)(630)(223)(2,973) Unemployment rate24161322 Total Employed56376356 (8,891)(763)(3,296)(12,949) Unemployed1651114 (2,628)(104)(583)(3,314) Out of labor28582630 force(4,412)(1,210)(1,381)(7,002) Unemployment rate23121520 NOTE: Those age 16 born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands.

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Appendix A 99 TABLE A-8 Percentage Distribution of Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex, Employment Status, and Region of Residence, Spring 1981 North Northeast Central South West Total Females Employed5656465953 (1,271)(1,966)(1,871)(1,109)(6,218) Unemployed1411131312 (312)(391)(515)(248)(1,466) Out of labor3133412834 force(709)(1,140)(1,648)(531)(4,030) Unemployment rate2017221819 Males Employed6256556558 (1,453)(2,022)(2,025)(1,234)(6,736) Unemployed1221141416 (287)(751)(535)(276)(1,849) Out of labor2623302026 force(618)(839)(1,123)(386)(2,973) Unemployment rate1627211822 Total Employed5956506256 (2,724)(3,988)(3,896)(2,343)(12,949) Unemployed1316141414 (599)(1,142)(1,050)(523)(3,314) Out of labor2828362430 force(1,327)(1,980)(2,770)(917)(7,002) Unemployment rate1822211820 NOTE: Those age 16 born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands. Information on region of residence was not available for 12,600 young people.

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100 Appendix A TABLE A-9 Percentage Distribution of Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex, Employment Status, and Residence in Rural or Urban Area, Spring 1981 RuralUrban Total Females Employed4854 53 (1,252) (4,956)(6,218) Unemployed 11 1312 (281) (1,185)(1,466) Out of labor 41 3234 force (1,072) (2,956)(4,030) Unemployment rate 18 l919 Males Employed 54 6058 (1,411) (5,320)(6,736) Unemployed 15 1616 (389) (1,460)(1,849) Out of labor 31 2426 force (798) (2,155)(2,973) Unemployment rate 22 2222 Total Employed 51 5756 (2,663) (10,271)(12,949) Unemployed 13 1514 (670) (2,644)(3,314) Out of labor 36 2830 force (1,870) (5,122)(7,002) Unemployment rate 20 2020 NOTE: Those age 16 born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands. Information on area of residence was not available for 25,100 young people.

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Appendix A TABLE A-10 Percentage Distribution of Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex, Employment Status, and Residence in the Central City of a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA), Spring 1981 101 In SMSA, In SMSA, Residence Not in In Central in Central Not in Central City of City SMSA City SMSA Unknown Total Females Employed4857475653 (1,429)(2,263)(1,005)(1,436)(6,218) Unemployed1212151312 (364)(466)(310)(327)(1,466) Out of labor4031383234 force(1,168)(1,212)(804)(825)(4,030) Unemployment rate2017241919 Males Employed5661565958 (1,756)(2,301)(1,182)(1,455)(6,736) Unemployed1615171816 (490)(550)(365)(444)(1,849) Out of labor2824272326 force(894)(909)(574)(576)(2,973) Unemployment rate2219242322 Total Employed5259525756 (3,186)(4,564)(2,187)(2,891)(12,949) Unemployed1413161514 (853)(1,016)(675)(770)(3,314) Out of labor3427322830 force(2,062)(2,121)(1,378)(1,402)(7,002) Unemployment rate2118242120 NOTE: Those age 16 born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands. Information on residence location in an SMSA was not available for 165,800 young people. ,'

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102 Appendix A TABLE A-11 Percentage Distribution of Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex, Employment Status, and Local Unemployment Rate in County of Residence, Spring 1981 Unemployment Rate 3.0- 6.0- 9.0- 12.0 5.9% 8.9% 11.9% 14.9% Unknown Total Females Employed5753 42 51 4053 (2,325)(2,971) (455) (384) (82)(6,218) Unemployed1212 13 18 2212 (490)(656) (142) (133) (45)(1,466) Out of labor3135 45 32 3734 force(1,287)(1,939) (490) (240) (74)(4,030) Unemployment rate1718 24 26 3519 Males Employed6157 51 62 64 (2,397)(3,136) (502) (529) (172) Unemployed1416 22 21 22 (537)(857) (219) (177) (58) Out of labor2628 27 17 14 force(1,019)(1,511) (263) (141) (38) Unemployment rate1821 30 25 25 22 Total Employed5955 46 57 5456 (4,723)(6,107) (958) (913) (253)(12,949) Unemployed1314 17 19 2214 (1,026)(1,514) (361) (310) (103)(3,314) Out of labor2931 36 24 2430 force(2,306)(3,450) (753) (381) (112)(7,002) Unemployment rate1820 27 25 2920 NOTE: Those age 16 born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands.

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Appendix A TABLE A-12 Percentage Distribution of Unemployed Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex and Reasons for Looking for Work, Spring 1981 103 Reason Looking for WorkFemalesMalesTotal Need money504849 (737)(879)(1,616) Lost job81211 (125)(228)(353) Quit job1089 (151)(151)(302) Family expenses534 (11)(50)(121) Support self 3 . . (40)(56)(96) Left school243 (32)(69)(100) Enjoy working523 (7)(29)(96) Other111111 (168)(206)(374) No reason given5108 (76)(180)(256) Total100100100 (1,466)(1,849)(3,315) NOTE: Persons 16 years of age born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands.

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104 Appendix A TABLE A-13 Percentage Distribution of Unemployed Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex and Method of Job Search, Spring 1981 Method of Job Search Females Males Total Checked directly with employer 58 58 58 Looked in newspaper 38 26 31 Placed or answered ads 16 8 11 Checked with state employment agency 15 17 16 Used school employment service 6 5 6 Checked with private employment agency 4 3 4 Checked with friends or relatives 14 18 16 Other method 10 9 10 NOTE: Persons 16 years of age born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent.

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Appendix A TABLE A-14 Percentage Distribution of Unemployed Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex and Occupation Sought, Spring 1981 105 Occupation Sought FemalesMales Total Professional, technical,43 3 and kindred (52) (55)(107) Managers and 0 11 administrators (2) (20)(22) Sales workers 12 48 (74) (77)(251) Clerical and kindred 28 515 (415) (85)(500) Craftsmen and kindred 1 127 (20) (215)(235) Operatives, except 2 65 transport (34) (117)(151) Transport equipment 0 32 operatives (5) (51)(56) Laborers, except farm 2 149 (30) (255)(285) Farmers and farm 0 00 managers (0) (0)(0) Farm laborers and 0 11 foremen (1) (18)(l9) Service workers, except 20 1216 private (291) (225)(516) Private household 3 01 workers (47) (0)(47) Any kind of job 27 4034 (396) (731)(1,127) Total 100 100100 (1,466) (1,849)(3,315) NOTE: Persons 16 years of age born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands.

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106 Appendix A TABLE A-15 Percentage Distribution of Unemployed Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex and Minimum Hourly Wage Necessary to Induce them to Accept a Job for Which They Were Looking, Spring 1981 Reservation WageFemalesMales Total Less than $2.5021 2 (32) (24)(57) $2.50-$2.99 1 21 (17) (28)(44) $3.00-$3.24 11 89 (160) (148)(309) $3.25-$3.34 8 77 (118) (123)(241) $3.35 (federal minimum wage) 38 3336 (561) (616)(1,176) $3.36-$3.49 423 (58)(40)(98) $3.50-$3.99141212 (200)(212)(412) $4.00-$4.4981311 (110)(241)(350) $4.50-$4.99232 (27)(58)(84) $5.00-$5.49365 (50)(117)(166) $5.50 or more375 (42)(127)(169) Data not available666 (91)(116)(207) Total100100100 (1,466)(1,849)(3,315) NOTE: Persons 16 years of age born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands.

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Appendix A TABLE A-16 Percentage Distribution of Employed Young Peopl Ages 16-21, by Sex and Occupation, Spring 1981 107 Occupation Females Males Total Professional, technical,444 and kindred(257)(299)(556) Managers and232 administrators(140)(184)(324) Sales workers1078 (598)(488)(1,086) Clerical and kindred37923 (2,306)(632)(2,938) Craftsmen and kindred2148 (110)(971)(1,081) Operatives, except61310 transport(372)(885)(1,257) Transport equipment053 operatives(21)(314)(336) Laborers, except farm21810 (100)(1,223)(1,323) Farmers and farm032 laborers(34)(229)(263) Service workers except302226 private household(1,883)(1,493)(3,376) Private household603 workers(386)(13)(399) Total100100100 (6,218)(6,736)(12,954) NOTE: Persons 16 years of age born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands.

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108 Appendix A TABLE A-17 Percentage Distribution of Employed Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex and Industry, Spring 1981 Industry Females Males Total Agriculture, forestry and fisheries Mining Construction (66) o (9) o (18) Manufacturing, durable goods(289) Manufacturing, nondurable6 goods(389) Transportation, communications,2 and other public utilities Wholesale trade Retail trade Finance, insurance, and real estate Business and repair services2 Personal services (315) 2 (101) 8 (559) 11 (725) 8 (530) 3 (118) (182) 4 (234) 34 (2,318) (118) 38 (2,368) 8 3 (380) (110) 4 (577) 8 (1,014) 7 (912) 2 (300) 3 (352) 36 (4,686) 25 (494)(127)(621) 85 (130)(513)(644) 103 (600) 6 (194) (794) Entertainment and recreation232 services(109)(174)(283) Professional and related221016 services(1,362)(641)(2,004) Public administration 2 (150)(107)(256) Total100100100 (6,218)(6,736)(12,954) NOTE: Persons 16 years of age born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands.

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Appendix A TABLE A-18 Percentage Distribution of Employed Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex and Hours Worked, Spring 1981 109 Hours Usually Worked per WeekFemalesMales Total 0-193124 28 (1,934)(1,639) (3,573) 20-342525 25 (1,553)(1,689) (3,242) 35-403834 36 (2,370)(2,259) (4,629) 40 or more516 11 (328)(1,095) (1,423) Total100100 100 (6,218)(6,736) (12,954) NOTE: Persons 16 years of age born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands. TABLE A-19 Percentage Distribution of Employed Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex and Shifts Worked, Spring 1981 Shifts Usually Worked Females Males Total Day 50 47 49 (3,126) (3,165) (6,291) Evening 15 16 16 (959) (1,094) (2,054) Night 6 8 7 (352) (536) (888) Split 3 4 3 (174) . (234) (408) Variable hours 25 25 25 (1,588) (1,686) (3,274) Total 100 100 100 (6,218) (6,736) (12,954) NOTE: Persons 16 years of age born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands.

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110 Appendix A TABLE A-20 Percentage Distribution of Employed Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex and Hourly Wage, Spring 1981 Hourly Wage Less than $2.50 Females Males Total $2.50-$2.99 $3.00-$3.24 $3.25-$3.34 $3.35 (federal minimum wage) $3.36-$3.49 $3.50-$3.99 $4.00-$4.49 $5.00-$5.49 $5.50 or more Data not available Total 115 (676)(335) s (334)(323)(657) 666 (402)(410)(813) 4 (231) 13 (820) 6 (368) 17 (1,037) 12 (771) 6 (374) 22 (1,488) 4 (274) 100 (6,218) s (1,01 1) 44 (252)(483) 10 (662) 4 (255) 15 (1,021) 12 (802) 8 (510) 15 (926) 4 (241) 100 (6,736) 11 (1,482) 5 (623) 16 (2,058) 12 (1,573) 7 (884) 19 (2,414) 4 (515) 100 (12,954) NOTE: Persons 16 years of age born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands.

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Appendix A TABLE A-21 Percentage Distribution of Employed Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex and General Education Required by Occupation, Spring 1981 111 General Education RequiredFemalesMales Total Up to 8 years1738 28 (1,074) (2,526)(3,600) 9-11 years 59 4451 (3,682) (2,968)(6,650) 12 years 16 1214 (1,021) (779)(1,800) Over 12 years 5 76 (331) (458)(790) Total 100 100100 (6,218) (6,736)(12,954) NOTE: Persons 16 years of age born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands. TABLE A-22 Percentage Distribution of Employed Young People Ages 16-21, by Sex and Specific Vocational Preparation Required by Occupation, Spring 1981 Vocational Preparation Required Females MalesTotal Short demonstration 49 4446 (3,037) (2,974)(6,012) Up to and including 21 2222 30 days (1,327) (1,465)(2,792) 31 days, up to and 22 1619 including 3 months (1,349) (1,057)(2,406) 3 months, up to and 4 138 including 6 months (235) (848)(1,084) 6 months to 1 year 2 22 (116) (170)(286) 1 to 2 years 1 21 (73) (112)(185) More than 2 years 1 21 (71) (105)(175) Total 100 100100 (6,218) (6,736)(12,954) NOTE: Persons 16 years of age born in 1965 (i.e., those having their birthday between January 1, 1981, and the interview date) are not included. This reduces the number of 16-year-olds by approximately 21 percent. Numbers in parentheses represent thousands.

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112 Appendix A TABLE A-23 Percentage Distribution of Young People Ages 16-22 Indicating That Certain Problems Had Caused Them Difficulty in Getting a Good Job, by Sex and Race, Spring 1979 Females Males Problem Black Hispanic White Black Hispanic White Total Age discrimination 46 44 47 47 47 42 45 Sex discrimination 17 13 13 7 5 4 9 Race or nationality discrimination 22 16 3 21 20 4 7 Lack of transportation 37 37 30 43 35 25 30 Lack of experience 13 16 17 11 12 11 14 Lack of education 7 12 6 6 7 5 6 Problem with English 4 18 2 5 18 2 3 SOURCE: David Shapiro, 1981, "Perceptions of Discrimination and Other Barriers to Employment," p. 482 in Michael E. Borus, ea., Pathways to the Future. Columbus: Center for Human Resource Research.