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Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 56 -
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RICHARD McLEAN BADGER May 4, 1896-November 26, 1 974 BY OLIVER R. WULF TH E Q u A ~ ~ T ~ E S of a very careful investigator, as well as those of a gifted teacher combined to make Richarc! McLean Badger an unusual person. The meticulous care shown in his scientific work and in his teaching was also evi- clent in his artistic activities, for he was an accomplishes! painter and a craftsman of great ability. Badger cliect on November 26, 1974, at the age of seventy- eight. He had been a student, teacher, and researcher at the California Institute of Technology for more than fifty years. Though born in EIgin, Illinois, several years of his boy- hooct were spent in Brisbane, Australia, to which city his fam- ily had moved. On the return of the family to EIgin, he com- pletec! his high school work there, following which he went through the Junior College of the EIgin Academy. After this he enrollect at Northwestern University, but World War I in- terruptect this portion of his career. He server! in France in the 31 Ith Field Signal Battalion of the Army. Following the war he entered the California Institute of Technology, receiving there his bachelor of science degree in ~ 921 and his cloctor of philosophy in 1924. He was appointed a research fellow at the Institute, a position he occupied from 1924 to 1928. In 1928-29 he was in Germany in postdoctoral work, as a National Research Council Fellow, at the ~J Univer
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4 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS sities of Gottingen and Bonn. Following this he returned to the California Institute of Technology as assistant professor of chemistry and began, then, his long career of teaching and research. Baclger's many years of teaching undergraduates brought him the aware! of the Manufacturing Chemists Association for college chemistry teaching. This is presented to teachers of undergraduates who have been "personally responsible over a period of years for awakening in students a genuine interest in chemistry, for inspiring them to serious intellectual effort in studying that field, and for developing that interest into a continuing education." His love and enthusiasm for the outdoors and the unex- plored are well illustrated by the occasion when, in early clays, he drove withy close friend to a point in the vicinity of the Big Sur on the coast of California to begin a long back- packing over rough ant! unmarked terrain to encounter friends who hac! started from another point on the coast and were moving towarc! them. He and his companion, after the meeting with the others, continued on to the point at which their friends had left their car, while the friends continued their hike to the point where Badger and his companion had left theirs, the group thus exchanging cars at the ends of the course for the homewarc! trip. The writer of this memoir has been much interested in the oft-repeatect instances, mentioner! when in conversation with others in the course of this work, where Badger took students and colleagues on trips to the California deserts, which he so much loved and which he painted so beautifully. In his research activities Badger was especially well known for his extensive investigations in the fielcis of spectroscopy .. . . . ~ and molecular structure that, with his many students and collaborators, he carried out over a period of four decades. Though known principally for this work, he did his cloc
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RICHARD MCLEAN BADGER . . . 5 torai thesis in the fielc! of thermodynamics under Professor Arthur A. Noyes. This was an ingenious experimental study of the ammonia, carbon (in the form of charcoal), hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen equilibrium, leacling, when combined with heat and heat capacity clata, to a value for the free en- ergy of hydrogen cyanide. The investigation was a difficult one because at a temperature high enough for the equilib- rium to be measured in a static system, the ammonia wouIct be almost completely dissociated, yielding only a trace of hy- drogen cyanide at equilibrium. Using a charcoal that was very active in establishing this equilibrium and yet that did not ctecompose ammonia rapidly (this latter being in accorc! with the knowlecige that charcoal is not a good catalyst for the ammonia synthesis) Badger succeeded, using a flow method, in measuring the equilibrium constant near 800 K, studying, thus, the equilibrium with one of the components in a metastable condition, the ammonia dissociating only slowly in spite of being at a much higher concentration than corresponclec! to equilibrium with its own dissociation prod- ucts at this temperature. During anct following graduate work he coflaboratect with Professor Richarc! Tolman, on the one hand in a theoretical stucly of the entropy of cliatomic gases and the matter of rotational specific heat, and on the other hand, in an inves- tigation that, it seems, may well have been the cause, or at least the main cause, of his entering the field! in which lies the major portion of his life's work. This latter work with Tolman was a study of the corre- sponclence principle, in which, for the first time, a compari- son of experimental ciata was macle of its predictions as to the absolute-rather than merely the relative strength of spectrum lines. The experimental ciata on the absolute inten- sity of spectral lines was, at that time, very limited. Tolman and Badger used Czerny's excellent measurements of the in . .
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6 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS tensities of several lines in the pure rotation spectrum of by drogen chIoricle in the far infrared. To carry this stucly fur- ther it was clear that ciata under higher resolving power wouIcI be of much help. The report of this work with Tolman concluded with the remark that "An attempt to obtain fur- ther ciata for this purpose is already under way in this labo- ratory." To aid in accomplishing such measurements, Badger cle- vised two experimental improvements, which illustrate well, at an early date, his scientific craftsmanship and ability as an instrument maker: a balanced thermocouple and a special type of echIette grating, both of much help in spectrometric investigations in the region of very long waves where the en- ergy available is small. With apparatus incorporating these new helpful features Badger proceeclect to measure the absolute intensity of the absorption of hydrogen chIoricle in the vicinity of SO it. Thus the extensive investigations throughout his life in the field of molecular rotation-vibration spectra tract begun. Foreseeing the importance of such spectra in the stucly of the structures of polyatomic molecules, where, of course, the main chemical interest lay, Badger chose ammonia as a first polyatomic molecule to investigate. This tract a symmetrical pyramidal structure that could lead to some simplification in the increasing complexity of the spectra of polyatomic mol- ecules. He early reported, in a brief note in Nature, the find- ing of an unexpectedly simple spectrum of six lines in the far infrared lying between 55 ~ and ~ 30 lo. This early note opens with an acknowlecigment of the assistance received in the work from Mr. C. H. Cartwright, and it is follower! directly by a paper in the Physical Review by Baclger and Cartwright, "The Pure Rotation Spectrum of Ammonia." Thus began Badger's long series of investigations with a large number of
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RICHARD MCLEAN BADGER 7 graduate students and associates in the field of molecular spectra and molecular structure. An intermission in the work at Caltech occurred at this time, when he spent the year Mentioned above) in Germany on a National Research Council Fellowship. For the first part of the year he was at Professor Franck's Institute in Gottin- gen. There he carried out an interesting research on the fluo- rescence from open (ambient-pressure) flames. Uncler such conditions of high pressure, one might have expected that deactivation by collisions would lead to quenching of the fluo- rescence. Nevertheless, this research showed clearly that pressure broadening offset the eRect of deactivation and by increasing the absorption of the broad lines from the source exciting the fluorescence. A return to the work on the spectra of polyatomic mole- cules was evident in the second part of the year, which he spent at Professor Mecke's Institute in Bonn. Badger and Mecke, recognizing the inherent clifficulties in obtaining sen- sitivity and high resolution in the middle and far infrared, turned to the measurement of the spectra of polyatomic mol- ecules in their overtones anc! combination tones, which lie in the near infrarec! anct visible region of the spectrum. Here there were two important advantages: the use of photo- graphic plates (which now could be sensitized for this regions ~ , permitting extender! exposure times, and the high resolution obtainable with long-focus gratings. Upon going to the use of a long-focus grating and high resolution, they encountered the interesting circumstance that with this considerable laboratory air path, there always appeared in absorption on their plates the lines of an oxygen molecule band at 7600 A, well-known in the solar spectrum, Fraunhofer's A. This band had been measured earlier several times, but always in the solar spectrum where the lines were
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8 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS strongly broadened by the long atmospheric path and diffi- cult to measure, and it had never been observed in absorption in the laboratory. This latter they now had under favorable circumstances for measurement. Since this transition in the oxygen molecule was of some theoretical interest, they pro- ceeded to measure the many lines of the band and to study the combination relations of this electronic transition. The work verified Mulliken's term assignment of ii-3> to it. There followed with Mecke an extensive investigation and analysis of rotation-vibration bands of ammonia in the near infrared and visible. This established several features of the molecule the frequencies of the three fundamental vibra- tions of the symmetrical NH3 pyramid, the two moments of inertia, and the N-H bond length. On return to Pasadena, and utilizing the high resolution obtainable with long-focus gratings and photography, Badger instituted a program for the investigation of the rotation-vibration spectra of a number of the simpler poly- atomic molecules. This developed into a long series of studies with graduate students and associates, continuing into the spectra of molecules of increasingly complicated structure, and becoming the main portion of his life's scientific work. An experimental observation by R. W. Wood and F. W. Loomis concerning the fluorescence of the iodine molecule indicated that there were two forms of the molecule, presum- ably ortho and pare forms analogous to ortho and pare hy- drogen. This led Badger and Urmston at this early date to an interesting photochemical experiment involving separa- tion of two forms of the same molecule. Wood and Loomis had found that the iodine bands in fluorescence stimulated by white light differed from those in the fluorescence excited by the green mercury line A5461 in that half of the lines were missing in the bands observed in the latter case. Badger and Urmston saw that it should be
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RICHARD MCLEAN BADGER 9 possible to remove from the gas the form of the molecule that absorbed the green mercury line if some molecule could be found that reacted preferentially with this optically ex- cited species. This they found in the molecule of hexene, anti they were able to show a small depletion of the number of molecules in the ortho form of the iodine molecule by this photochemical reaction. Recognizing the importance of regularities in behavior from molecule to molecule in unclerstancling the nature of the chemical bond, and giving consideration to the earlier attempts to express these analytically, Badger carried out an extensive survey of the information available on the force constant and internuclear distance in a considerable number of diatomic molecules. The result of this survey lecT him to the expression for diatomic molecules kO(re - 1,j)3 = T.86 x 105, where ko is in i05 dynes/cm, and re and dij are in Angstroms, a relation widely spoken of as "Baciger's rule." This is probably the best known of this type of relation, and what is particularly im- portant, it can be extencled in a rather simple manner, as Badger further showed, to polyatomic molecules. To do this, however, was not entirely devoic! of difficulties. There were but few cases available where one knew inter nuclear distances and at the same time hac] acloquate vibra- tional data. Also it was difficult to know the best form of potential function to apply for polyatomic molecules. Since, in the study of molecular properties, it tract been found that they may be expressed to a good approximation as sums of several individual parts, Badger fount! it convenient to ex- press the potential energy as macle up of three parts. The first and most important part was taken to be clepenclent only on the distances between atoms that are directly bondecl to each other. The second part was dependent on the angles between the chemical bonds, ant! finally, the third part con
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0 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS rained terms arising from interactions between atoms not cti- rectly bonded to each other. These last terms are usually small. Foreseeing the help that spectroscopic studies in the pho- tographic infrared couIct contribute to an understanding of the special type of chemical linkage known as the hydrogen boncI, Badger initiated in 1937 a series of researches that contributed greatly to the elucidation of this phenomenon, as it appears in both inter- and intramolecular boncting by hydrogen atoms. Utilizing the excellent spectroscopic facilities that he had developed, he, with a considerable number of graduate stu dents and postdoctoral fellows, stuclied, over the ensuing years, the spectra of a series of compounds in which this type of linkage occurred, each of these studies helping to clarify the manner in which hydrogen atoms act in forming such a bond. Somewhat early in these researches anc! in a manner rem iniscent of his previous stucly on the relation of force constant and internuclear distance in diatomic and simple polyatomic molecules (the stucly that yielded "Ba(lger's Rule"), he inves- tigatect the relation between the energy of a hydrogen bone! and the frequencies of the bands of an OH group involved in the formation of an intramolecular bond. He was able to throw interesting light on the character of the vibrations of the OH group in their clepenclence on the unusual potential function of such boncts. During World War I! Badger remained! at Caltech work- ing on fundamental physical problems for the Manhattan District and investigating the properties of smokeless powder for the Navy Bureau of Ordnance. He also was engaged in projects for the Office of Scientific Research and Develop- ment ant! the Army Air Corps. Important advances in tech
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RICHARD MCLEAN BADGER 11 nology and instrumentation during these years facilitated his clistinguished work in infrared spectroscopy. Following WorIct War lI, Badger, with his students anct postdoctoral fellows, stuclied organic molecules of increasing complexity and of greater interest to chemists, introducing new experimental techniques in the course of the work. The spectra of urea and thiourea were among the early studies of this kind, which continued into the spectra of polypepticles ant! proteins. A further excellent illustration of his unusual ability in Resigning and constructing apparatus is container] in in- stances that permitted extending these researches not only to organic molecules of greatly increasing complexity, but also to the optical investigation of these substances in the solicI state. The work requires! the use of polarized infrared raclia- tion anct measurements of circular clichroism, working with minute crystalline specimens. It involved the construction of a "microilluminator" with a polarizer of silver chIoricle plates, suitable for measuring the absorption in the infrared of tiny crystals at low temperatures. A still further illustration of his craftsmanship is con- tained in a mechanical mode] that he constructed to aid in the study of the vibrations of the peptide group, a mode! in which unusual attention was given to the character of the springs, helical springs being avoidecI because of the likeli- hood of their having vibrational modes of their own that would interfere. The type of spring used consisted! of a single circular loop of spring-steel wire provided with diametrical projections for attachment to the atoms. The mode] gave au- tomatically about the correct ratio of the force constants for stretching and bending of the peptide group. Treating the increasingly complex spectra of ever more complex molecules presented new ctifEculties. This was both
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12 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS because of their not being resolvable into lines, even with perfect resolution, anct because many or most of these mol- ecules were unsymmetrical rotators. Under these conditions the features of their spectra that were of importance and actual help to the chemist were the envelopes of the bands. Badger gave special effort to the calculation of the theoretical envelopes of the bands of such molecules. At the same time investigations were being carried out on a number of simpler molecules of special interest. Spectra in the visible and ultraviolet, as well as in the infrared, contrib uted to an understanding of their structures anct of their photochemical behavior. Uncertainties regarding the structure of the isothiocyanic acid molecule led Badger, with one of his students, to record a portion of the infrared spectrum of isothiocyanic acid va- por, an analysis of which contributed importantly to an unclerstancTing of the structure of this molecule. The infrared spectrum and molecular configuration of hydrogen persulfide, the sulfur analog of hydrogen perox icle, were studied, the results strongly supporting a chain structure for the molecule. The infrared absorption of the urea molecule in the crys- talline state was recorded, working with single micro-crystals ot urea and with polarized radiation. This was done using the microilluminator with polarizing attachment, mentioned above. The results of this study establishect reasonably well the complete planarity of the urea molecule in the crystal. The structure of the ozone molecule had remained un- certain for a number of years cluring which Badger, with his students an<] postdoctoral associates, macle several contribu- tions to knowledge of the spectrum of this substance in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet. Especially important in one of these was the finding of a new funciamental vibration, vat. This permitted a revised vibrational analysis that left little
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RICHARD MCLEAN BADGER 13 doubt that the molecule was in the form of an isosceles tri- angle with an obtuse apical angle, in accord with the structure incticatecI by electron diffraction studies. The infrared spectra of hydrogen hypochIorite and of cleuterium hypochIorite were stuclies in the T-15 ~ region. These seem to have been the first infrarec! spectral observa- tions of these substances. The O-C! and the WH funciamen- tals were measured as well as the bencling frequency, and the first overtone of the O-H stretching mocle of HOC} was stuct- iec! under high dispersion. This bane! was a goof! example of a hybric! banct, a type of band named and first correctly in- terpretect by Badger ant! his associates. In this case the band was a bane! from a nearly symmetrical-top molecule with the top axis the axis of least moment of inertia. Several studies of the spectra and structure of oxides of nitrogen and relater! compounds by Badger and his co- workers yielclec! important results. Thus, one of these having to clo with the molecule NO2, led to the observation in the infrared of two of the funciamental vibrational frequencies of the molecule and to a structure in accorc! with that incti catec! by electron diffraction observations. Also, an extensive spectroscopic stucly of the infrarec! spectrum anti the structure of gaseous nitrous acid, using both the molecules HONO and DONO, showed that this sub stance exists in two tautomeric forms, apparently bans ant! cis, the cis-form being the form of higher energy. A complete vibrational analysis was given, yielding the OH (anct OD) fre- quencies (both in-plane and out-of-plane) for both the trans- anc! cis-forms. An estimate was given of the ONO angle in both the trans- and cis-forms, from which some conclusions were drawn regarding the electronic structure of the mole cule. From the frequencies and the moments of inertia, es- timates were macle of certain thermodynamic properties of . . nitrous acre ..
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4 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS There followed later a further study of the infrared spec- trum of NO2, resulting in a remarkably complete description of the vibrational and rotational constants of the molecule. Spectroscopic observations on the ultraviolet absorption of the NO molecule removed an uncertainty that had existed for some time concerning a possible pressure broadening in the gamma bands of NO, thought to have been observed by others. It was shown that such cloes not exist. Professor Badger was famed for his teaching, especially in his undergraduate course in physical chemistry. His infor- mal notes, prepared for the students, on his lectures and on the laboratory work were well known for their excellence ant! for having been carefully revised every year. Baciger's last scientific publication illustrates particularly well his concern for helping undergracluate students. In this research he had two collaborators. The work concerned the very weak transition in the oxygen molecule involving the low-lying ilk level. The writer of this biography, in referring back to that research, tract occasion to look for the doctoral theses of the two collaborators, assuming that they tract been graduate students. To his surprise no theses were catalogued under these two names, and on further inquiry he discovered that they were both undergracluates. This was very much in the tradition of Professor A. A. Noyes, who shower! constant concern for undergraduate education, and under whom Badger himself carrier! out the research leading to his cloc torate many years before. THE WRITER of this biographical memoir sincerely acknowledges his great indebtedness to Professor William H. Eberhardt, Dr. Ed- ward W. Hughes, Professor tohn D. Roberts, Professor and Mrs. Verner Schomaker, and to the editor of the journal Engineering and Science of the California Institute of Technology for permission to use material from that journal. He feels strongly his gratitude for all of this help.
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RICHARD MCLEAN BADGER SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1923 15 With R. C. Tolman. The entropy of diatomic gases and rotational specific heat. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 45:2277. 1924 The ammonia, carbon, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen equilibrium and the free energy of hydrogen cyanide. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 46:2166-72. 1926 With R. C. Tolman. A new kind of test of the correspondence prin- ciple based on the prediction of absolute intensities of spectral lines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 12: 173-74; Phys. Rev., 27:383-96. 1927 Absolute intensities in the hydrogen-chloride rotation spectrum. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 13 :408-13. Two devices facilitating spectrometry in the far infra red. i. Opt. Soc. Am., 15:370-72. 1929 Fluorescence in flames. Z. Phys., 55:56-64. With C. H. Cartwright. The pure rotation spectrum of ammonia. Phys. Rev., 33:692-700. With R. Mecke. The absorption spectra of ammonia in the near infra-red. Trans. Faraday Soc., 25:936-38. 1930 Absorption bands of ammonia gas in the visible. Phys. Rev., 35: 1038-46. Absorption of acetylene and ethylene in the infra-red. Phys. Rev., 35:1433. The possibility of separating two forms of the ammonia molecule. Nature, 126:310. With I. W. Urmston. The separation of the two types of iodine molecule and the photochemical reaction of gaseous iodine with hexene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 16:808-11.
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6 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1931 With i. L. Binder. Absorption bands of hydrogen cyanide gas in the near infra-red. Phys. Rev., 37:800-808. With D. M. Yost. An infrared band system of iodine bromide. Phys. Rev., 37: 1548. With S.-C. Woo. The absorption spectra, structure, and dissocia- tion energies of the gaseous halogen cyanides. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 54:2572-78. With i. L. Binder. Absorption band in ethylene gas in the near infrared. Phys. Rev., 38:1442-47. 1932 With S.-C. Woo. Absorption spectrum of cyanogen gas in the ul- traviolet. Phys. Rev., 39:932-38. With S.-C. Woo. The entropies of some simple polyatomic gases calculated from spectral data. }. Am. Chem. Soc., 54:3523-29. 1933 With L. G. Bonner. The infrared spectrum and the molecular structure of ozone and sulfur dioxide. Phys. Rev., 43:305-6. With i. McMorris. The heat of combustion, entropy, and free en- ergy of cyanogen gas. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 55: 1952-57. 1934 With }. W. Urmston. The photochemical reaction between bromine vapor and platinum. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 56:343-47. A relation between internuclear distances and bond force con- stants. i. Chem. Phys., 2:128-31. With R. C. Barton. The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of carbon suboxide gas. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 20:166-69. The moments of inertia and the shape of the ethylene molecule. Phys. Rev., 45:648. Remarks on the band spectrum of sulfur and the statistics of the sulfur nucleus. Phys. Rev., 46: 1025 -26. 1935 With Charles M. Blair. Note on the band spectrum of silicon fluo- ride. Phys. Rev., 47:881. The relation between the internuclear distances and force con- stants of molecules. Phys. Rev., 48:284-85.
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RICHARD MCLEAN BADGER 17 With L. G. Bonner and P. C. Cross. An absorption tube for the investigation of gases in the photographic infrared. }. Opt. Soc. Am., 25:355-56. The relation between the internuclear distances and force con- stants of molecules and its application to polyatomic molecules. i. Chem. Phys., 3:710-15. 1936 Researches in the photographic infrared. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 76:776-79. With S. H. Bauer. The absorption spectrum of methyl alcohol va- por in the photographic infrared. J. Chem. Phys., 4:469-73. With S. H. Bauer. Absorption spectra of the vapors of twelve al- cohols and of nitric acid in the region of the O-H harmonic band at 9500. l. Chem. Phys., 4:711-15. 1937 With S. H. Bauer. Remarks on the spectra of methyl cyanide and methyl isocyanide. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 59:303-5. Note on the spectra of the disubstituted acetylenes and of the mus- tard oils. }. Chem. Phys., 5: 178-80. With S. H. Bauer. The spectrum characteristic of hydrogen bonds. J. Chem. Phys., 5:369. With S. H. Bauer. The infrared spectrum and internuclear dis- tances of methyl acetylene. i. Chem. Phys., 5:599. With S. H. Bauer. Spectroscopic studies of the hydrogen bonds. I. A photometric investigation of the association equilibrium in the vapor of acetic acid. J. Chem. Phys., 5:605-8. With S. H. Bauer. The O-H band in the vapors of some organic acids and of tertiary amyl alcohol in the region 9700. I. Chem. Phys., 5:852-55. With S. H. Bauer. Spectroscopic studies of the hydrogen bond. II. The shift of the O-H vibrational frequency in the formation of the hydrogen bond. J. Chem. Phys., 5:839-51. 1938 With L. R. Zumwalt. The band envelopes of unsymmetrical rotator molecules. I. Calculation of the theoretical envelopes. l. Chem. Phys.,6:711-17.
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18 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1939 With L. R. Zumwalt. Structure of the O-H bands in the vapors of halogen-substituted alcohols. I. Chem. Phys., 7:87. With L. R. Zumwalt. An absorption band of formaldoxime at 9572. J. Chem. Phys., 7:235-37. With L. R. Zumwalt. The N-H harmonic bands of pyrrole at 9900, and the structure of the pyrrole molecule. I. Chem. Phys., 7 :629-30. 1940 With L. R. Zumwalt. An investigation of the complex structure of the WH harmonic bands of substituted alcohols, and of the effect of temperature on the relative intensities of the multiplet components. I Am. Chem. Soc., 62:305-11. The relation between the energy of a hydrogen bond and the fre- quencies of the O-H bands. I. Chem. Phys., 8:288-89. 1941 With D. P. Stevenson, E. E. Gullekson, and A. O. Beckman. Factors which may influence corrosion of metal surfaces protected by bituminous coatings. Ind. Eng. Chem., 33:984-90. 1946 Infrared and Raman spectra of polyatomic molecules (book re- view). Science, 103:239 - 40. With V. Schomaker and l. Waser. Light scattering of high polymer solutions. }. Chem. Phys., 1 4:43 - 45 . 1947 With G. }. Doyle, G. Harbottle, and R. M. Noyes. Molecular prop- erties of nitrocellulose. I. Studies of viscosity. }. Phys. Colloid Chem., 51:569-74. With R H. Blaker and R. M. Noyes. Molecular properties of f nitro cellulose. II. Studies of molecular heterogeneity. I. Phys. Col loid Chem., 51: 574-79. With G. L. Humphrey. The absorption spectrum of ozone in the visible. I. Examination for fine structure. II. The effect of tem- perature. l. Chem. Phys., 15: 794-98.
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RICHARD MCLEAN BADGER 1948 19 With G. I. Doyle. The visco-elastic behavior of a highly plasticized nitrocellulose in compression under constant load. }. Appl. Phys., 19:373-77. With M. K. Wilson. A reinvestigation of the vibration spectrum of ozone. i. Chem. Phys., 16:741-42. With M. C. Brooks. A semi-micro diffusion method for the char- acterization of high polymer fractions. T. Phys. Colloid Chem., 52: 1390-403. With P. A. Giguere. The elimination of water vapor in infrared spectrometers. }. Opt. Soc. Am., 38:987-88. With R. M. Zumwalt and P. A. Giguere. A vacuum spectrograph for infrared. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 19:861-65. 1949 With T. S. Gilman and R. H. Blaker. The investigation of the prop- erties of nitrocellulose molecules in solution by light scattering methods. I. Experimental procedures. l. Phys. Colloid Chem., 53: 794-803. With R. H. Blaker. The investigation of the properties of nitrocel- lulose molecules in solution. II. Experimental results and inter- pretation. l. Phys. Colloid Chem., 53:1056-69. With M. K. Wilson. The infrared spectrum and molecular config- uration of hydrogen persulfide. i. Chem. Phys., 17: 1232-36. 1950 With M. C. Brooks. Partition systems for the fractionation of nitro- cellulose with respect to molecular weight. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 72: 1705-9. With R. D. Waldron. The planarity of the urea molecule. i. Chem. Phys., 18:566. With R. H. Blaker. A study of the interaction of nitrocellulose with some solvents and non-solvents by light-scattering methods. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 72:3129-32. With M. K. Wilson. A reply to H. S. Gutowsky and E. M. Peterson regarding the ozone spectrum. I. Chem. Phys., 18:998. With M. C. Brooks. An adsorption system for the fractionation of nitrocellulose with respect to molecular weight. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 72:4384-88.
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20 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With S. C. Burket. The vibrational spectra of tetrahydropyran and p-dioxane. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 72:4397-405. With L. H. Jones. The infrared spectrum and molecular structure of HNCS. }. Chem. Phys., 18: 1511-12. 1957 With R. D. Waldron. The spectra of urea and thiourea in the 3 region. J. Chem. Phys., 26:255-56. With W. R. Thorson. On the pressure broadening in the gamma bands of nitric oxide. i. Chem. Phys., 27:609-11. 1958 With N. Albert. Infrared absorption associated with strong hydro- gen bonds. I. Chem. Phys., 29:1193-94. 1961 With R. C. Greenough. The association of phenol in water- saturated carbon tetrachloride solutions. T Chem. Phys., 65:2088-90. 1965 With A. C. Wright and R. F. Whitlock. Absolute intensities of the discrete absorption bands of oxygen gas at 1.26 and 1.065 and the radiative lifetime of the i/\g state of oxygen. i. Chem. Phys., 43:4345-50.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: