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CARL LEAVITT HUBBS October ~ 8, ~ 894-June 30, ~ 979 BY ELIZABETH N. SHOR, RICHARD H. ROSENBLATT, AND JOHN D. ISAACS CA R ~ ~ E A V ~ T T H u B B S. electect to the National Acad- emy of Sciences in 1952, cried on June 30, 1979, at the age of eighty-four. In 1975 he said: "I have been praised, or criticized, as the case may be, for being one of the last of the dying tribe of general naturalists, a clisciple of natural phi- losophy."~ Such he was, for while his expertise was fishes, he also contributes! significantly to our knowlecige of marine mammals, archeology and climatology, biography and his- tory of science, evolution and ecology, and conservation. His earliest known paternal ancestor was Samuel Hubbs, who emigrated from Scotland with two brothers prior to the American Revolution and farmed in the Mohawk Valley, New York State. His son Alexander Hubbs lived out his life in the same area. Alexancler's son Daniel moved to Peterson County, New York, then to Wisconsin in IS50, and to Min- nesota in ~ 856. Daniel's son Charles Leavitt Hubbs, father of Car] Leavitt Hubbs, was born on June 6, IS43, in Pamelia-Four-Corners, Jefferson County, New York, and moved with his father to Wisconsin. When he was fourteen, Charles began three years '"Biological Oceanography, Geochronology, and Archeology Along the Pacific Coast of Middle America and California," talk given at University of Nevada, Las Vegas, April 17, 1975. 215

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216 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS of employment with a book ant! stationery firm in New York City; in ~ X59 he joined a brother near Vicksburg, Mississippi, and in X60 returned to his father's home in Minnesota. There he married ant! fathered six children before the mar- riage was dissolvent. Following Civil War service with the First Minnesota Infantry regiment, he moved often and tries! his hand at various tracles: In IS66 he farmed in Missouri, in 1867 he was in the mercantile business in Minnesota, and in 1870 he triecI the lumber business in that state. In 1873 he settled for a time in Ec~warcts County, Kansas, as a farmer, dealer in real estate, county surveyor, and proprietor of a newspaper.2 Car} later noted that cluring the years in Kansas his father shot from the cleclining herds at least one buffalo and one pronghc~rn antelope, and that "as one saving grace he preserved in alcohol the pronghorn's unborn fetus, which he Emuch later] gave me to be preserver] in the Museum of Zoology at the University of Michigan as probably the only extant specimen of that species from Kansas."3 In 1894, with his second wife and their son Leonard Goss Hubbs, Carl's father moved west to work placer claims in Arizona. Car! later recalled: Soon afterward, as the placer operation petered out, Dad took off for the Santa Fe Railroad at Williams LArizona1, leaving my mother and my brother, and me, still unborn, to follow by horse and wagon. Less skilled than Dad in the ways of the very scantily populated West, she got lost, and after wandering for three days and nights without food or water finally saw the headlight of the Santa Fe and managed to wave down the engineer before fainting. Soon after she reached Williams, I was ushered into the world on October 18, 1894 by some midwife, two months prematurely.... I was soon brought to California and got my first taste of the Mohave Desert. At Daggett Dad ran the water pump for the thirsty Santa Fe en 2The United States Biographical Dictionary (Chicago: C. S. Lewis & Co., 1879), pp. 342-43. 3"Preservation of Species and Habitats," talk given to Scholia (a San Diego club), October 9, 1973.

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origin."4 CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 217 gines. I must have been a real desert rat, for I walked freely at eight months and ran away from home at ten months (though I didn't talk until three years old and was diagnosed later as mentally defective). After a short spell in the town of Los Angeles, I was carried in 1896 to San Diego, when the population was about 17,000, with a high percentage of Mexican Carl's father located an iron-ore property in the desert, which he later sold profitably, and in San Diego he served as an assayer and cleveloped housing property. In the open country of San Diego's mesas, valleys, anct shoreline, Car! and his brother wanderect freely: watching with boyhood interest the burrowing owls . . . catching horntoads for pets, and otherwise communing with nature.... For diversion we, or I alone, often paddled our tiny sneak-boat over San Diego Bay, then still in near primeval condition. I recall once chasing a Western Grebe . . . until at last it was exhausted and rose so close that I grabbed it by the neck fend was bitten].... Once near the harbor entrance I saw close by a bull ele- phant seal, which in my childish fancy I thought to be a walrus.5 In later years Hubbs liked to recall that on one childhood trip to the beach of La JolIa (at the north enct of San Diego), he hac! "envisioned a long building sweeping along the slope twhere Scripps Institution of Oceanography is now locatecl], containing case after case of magnificent sea shells, by which I, in a bright blue uniform, kept explaining the exhibit to the assembled publicly Hubbs's parents were among a group that objected to a new ruling by the San Diego schools that children must be vaccinated against smallpox. Several families persuacled Katherine Tingley to open a private school (without required vaccination), which she was glad to do as an expansion of the 4 ibid. 5 ibid. 6"Some Highlights from My 61-year Career in Marine Biology," talk given at Scripps Institution, May 2, 1974.

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218 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS organization that she headecI: the Universal Brotherhood and Theosophical Society. The Society incorporated Egyp- tian lore, reincarnation, Greek architecture, music anct drama, pacifism, anct vegetarianism. Young Car! had not been doing well in the public school. The new one, the pri- mary school of the Raja Yoga Acaclemy, appealed to him at first, and he became a keen student; but after three years he rebelled against its militant discipline ant! was cTismissecl.7 Carl's mother was Elizabeth Goss Johnson Hubbs (she had been married briefly to a man named Johnson before this marriage), the daughter of Leonard Goss, a prominent law- yer of Cincinnati, Ohio. Car! recallecl that his mother hacI ~ ~ . ~ .1 .1 . . ~ ~ , 1 , _ 1- _. ~1_ 1- ~ ~ T told elm in nls youth tnat tne ruse narurallsr r~llll~ Gosse was related to them. Elizabeth Goss had taught art and other subjects. Following her divorce from Charles Hubbs in 1907, she and the two boys returned to the Midwest for a year anc! stayed with various relatives. Of that time, Hubbs said much later: I saw much of nature that I had largely missed before. For the first time in my memory I saw lightning close enough to cause thunder, wit- nessed the colors of fall, enjoyed a chance to skate on ice, suffered lasting frostbite on breaking through the ice, experienced the reawakening of nature in the spring, dug in the rich Paleozoic fossil beds in Cincinnati, spent the summer on a farm in northern Ohio . . . often wandering away from field work to see new kinds of animals and plants; caught bullfrogs in the new state of Oklahoma, watched tornados come frighteningly close, and successfully disarmed and duly punished a nasty Indian boy who rushed at me swinging a big knife. Great fun being young and observant, preparing for the life of a naturalist.8 In the fall of 190X Hubbs's mother returned to California. She settled in Redondo Beach, and with an associate ran a 7"Raja Yoga Glass Domes Astride Point Loma," talk given to Scholia, May 12, 1970. 8"Preservation of Species and Habitats."

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CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 219 private school that enrollect her two sons. Earlier in San Diego young Car} had become much interested in seashells through the guidance of his maternal grandmother, Jane Goble Goss, one of the first women physicians. She macle him a "proud partner in her moderately large private shell col- lection," which was, he said, "one of the greatest thrills of my boyhood. ~ continues! the collection after her death, ant! at late high-school age spent long hours in the Los Angeles Pub- lic Library reading books on conchology to produce an illus- tratecl phylogeny of molluscs happily lost."9 At Redonclo Beach, said Hubbs, his school training was good and intensive, leaving time for me to add to my shell collection; to fish off the old Redondo wharf when yellowtail were very plentiful and sardines seemed almost to fill the waters; to observe marine life in the tide pools at Rocky Point (I recall most vividly seeing the brilliant red and turquoise-blue young of the garibaldi); to wander over the then- uninhabited Palos Verdes, where I found my first perfect arrowhead and observed Pleistocene fossils and Indian middens.~ Carl's mother marriect Frank Newton, who soon bought a twenty-acre ranch in the San toaquin Valley, near TurIock, California. There Car! spent most of his high-school years and "plunged into nature StUClY with a vengeance." He be 1 OCR for page 214
220 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Bliss Culver, a onetime field assistant to David Starr Jordan. Culver surreptitiously transferred Hubbs's interest from birds to fishes, encouraged him to collect the poorly known fishes of the streams of the Los Angeles plain, and persuaded him to attend Stanforc! University, which hac! become the center of American ichthyology uncler the leadership of Jordan. Charles Henry Gilbert, a close associate of Jordan's and the chairman of the Zoology Department, became Hubbs's true mentor. He assignee] his student, as an unclergraduate job, the curatorship of the large Stanford fish collection. Hubbs also spent considerable time in the field during his co11~e vears. "over the mountains, alone the bay, and along - J - - 7 , '' 1 1 ~ _ _ ~ .1_ ~ _ ~ a: :~ 1 ~ 1 ~ : the coast, ne salcl. On one of Close Alps lo ~o ~ a loll ocean area off southern Monterey County he thrilled at the glimpse of one sea otter, then assumed extinct in the area. Later he found that Joseph Grinnell knew that a small num- ber survived there, but he had kept the knowledge to himself so that the remnant would not be clestroyed. In the summer of 1915 Hubbs accompanied John Otterbein Snyder of Stan- ford in a survey of the fishes of the Bonneville Basin in Utah, and thus commenced a lifelong study of relict desert fishes. Hubbs received an A.B. from Stanforc] in 1916 and began a semester of graduate work. Gilbert spoke highly of him: "My assistant Hubbs is going to be all that one couIcI wish for. He has the proper attitude towards the work and is encIlessly keen." ~ ~ The peripatetic president of Stanford, David Starr Jor- cian, hac] returnee! to the campus after a long absence, and during that semester Hubbs collaborated with him. A few years later Jordan clescribed Hubbs as "the ablest student I have had for the last thirty years. . . " Letter from Gilbert to John Babcock, October 10, 1916. There is no one now

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CARL LEAVITT HUBBS . 221 doing systematic work on fishes that has as keen an insight, or as accurate a minct, as Hubbs, ancT he is tremendously industrious." ~2 Hubbs retainer! a lifelong awe of the monumental man who long dominated American ichthyology, and in the late years of his own productive life sometimes voiced his regret that he would never be able to equal the written output of the prolific Jordan. Early in 1917 Hubbs accepted the position of assistant curator in charge of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles at the FielcI Museum of Natural History in Chicago. He was awarded an M.A. from Stanford that June, in absentia. The following year he married Laura Clark, a fellow student who hack received her B.A. in 1915 and M.A. in 1916 at Stanford, where she was teaching freshman mathematics. Of his Chicago years Hubbs saicl: "After three busy years of service there, 1917-1920, involving also research and a bit of graduate work at the University of Chicago, I was abruptly fired for blatant insubordination. My indiscretion I must act- mit resulted in part from having been lined up for an ap- pointment at the University of Michigan." i3 That appointment, from 1920 to 1944, became a highly productive one for Hubbs. He was curator of the fish division in the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, he ad- vancect from instructor to assistant, associate, and full pro- fessor, he was awarded a Ph.D., he instituted research proj- ects, anct he published prodigiously. In a program of upgrading the caliber of its faculty, the Zoology Department of the University of Michigan suggested to Hubbs that he should obtain a Ph.D. Accorcling to his later recounting, he pointed to his shelves of publications and sug ~" Letter from Jordan to Roy Chapman Andrews, February 19, 1924, when Hubbs was working with Jordan on a collection of fishes from Japan. ''Preservation of Species and Habitats."

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222 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS gestec! that any of several of them would constitute an ap- propriate dissertation. Thus, his paper of 1926 was selected: "The Structural Consequences of Modifications of the De- velopmental Rate in Fishes Considered in Reference to Cer- tain Problems of Evolution." He was awarclec! the Ph.D. in 1927, at a ceremony that he was too busy to attend. Hubbs increased the fish collection of the Museum of Zo- ology through his own Fled work, from collections macle by stab and students of the university, and by simple begging. With his family he collected in the intermontane basins of the American West during eight summers from 1922 to 1943. From a long excursion in the Orient in 1929, following his participation in the Fourth Pacific Science Congress in lava, Hubbs shipped back to the museum five tons of specimens. During 1935 he collected in remote areas of Guatemala, as one of a series of expeditions sponsored jointly by the Car- negie Institution of Washington and the University of Mich- igan. Hubbs reaclily agreed to identify collections sent to him by other institutions, and as a result the museum was given many specimens. Collectors routinely sent him additional material; for example, his wife's sister Frances N. Clark, who served many years with the California State Fisheries Labo- ratory, proviclect him with many West Coast fishes. Robert Rush Miller has estimated that during Hubbs's tenure at the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, the collection of fishes was increased from about five thousand to nearly two million specimens.~4 The emphasis was on freshwater fishes, especially those of North anct Central America. Laura Hubbs, in aciclition to raising three children, also worked in the Museum of Zoology as a cataloger. Together the Hubbses undertook a study of hybridization in various ~4 "A Tribute to Carl L. Hubbs," presented at annual meeting of American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists,July 30, 1979.

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CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 223 fishes in nature ant! in the laboratory. In the course of this work they cliscoverec! the matroclinous, gynogenetic repro- cluction of the all-female fish species Poecilia (formerly Mol- lienisiaJ Formosa, the "Amazon molly." In earlier researches they had also clevelope(1 through carefully annotated ge- netic crosses hybrid specimens of sunfishes (Centrarchiciae) that were similar to so-called species in nature, and thus Hubbs was able to untangle taxonomic confusion in that fam- ily. Detailect analysis of natural hybrids lee! him to conclucle that interspecific hybridization was especially frequent in freshwater regions that hac! been disturbed by Holocene cli- matic changes. In 1930 the Institute for Fisheries Research was estab- lished to formalize the cooperation between the University of Michigan ant! the Michigan Department of Conservation. Hubbs was instrumental in setting up the Institute and servect as its director for the first five years. Its programs inclucled making biological inventories of lakes anti streams, mapping lakes, investigating fish mortalities anc! water pol- lution, studying the age and growth of fishes ancT preciation on them, and developing methods of improving lake and stream habitats. This lee! Hubbs into testing some techniques that he later questioned, such as introducing mosquitofish (Gambusia) for mosquito control and using poisons broadly to eliminate "trash fish." In tune of 1939 Hubbs was asker] to serve as a field rep- resentative of the Department of the Interior to look into the administration of fish and wildlife in Alaska. After a brief interview with the irascible Secretary Harold Ickes in Wash- ington, Hubbs spent the summer traveling throughout the territory, interviewing fishermen anti game managers. He uncovered irregular conduct by some officials, illegal fishing operations, controversies over regulations, Japanese monop- oly of the king-crab fishery, pollution from canneries, and

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224 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS peculiarities in the bounty on Dolly Varden as predators on trout. As a result of his report, several officials were fired, the bounty on bald eagles was ctiscontinucct, and an American fishery for king crabs was subsidize. Hubbs's publications while at the University of Michi- gan in excess of 300 were almost entirely on fishes from throughout the world. In his 1922 paper, "Variation in the Number of Vertebrae and Other Meristic Characters of Fishes Correlatect with the Temperature of Water During De- velopment," he proposed an explanation for the effect of temperature that has been moclified but not yet supersedecl. He clevoted time in 1923 to helping Davict Starr Jordan ana- Ivze the largest collection of fishes from Japan ever made (according to Jordan), and their memoir was published in 1925. With Karl F. Lagler, Hubbs compiled a "Guide to the Fishes of the Great Lakes and Tributary Waters," first pub- lished in 1941 and revised several times. While many of his papers were taxonomic, others sum- marized his studies of variation and its causes. Primary pub- lications concerned groups that continued to interest him later, such as the lampreys, the catastomict fishes, and the subfamily Oligocottinae. A major series of papers was on the systematics, distribution, and habits of fishes of the order Cyprinodontes. Long-term studies on the fishes of isolated Great Basin waters culminated in the 1948 publication, "Cor- relation between Fish Distribution and Hyctrographic His- tory in the Desert Basins of Western United States," co- authorec! with Robert Rush Miller. H-ubbs's interest in this subject never waned, and in 1974 with colleagues he pub- lished the monograph, "Hydrographic History and Relict i5"Investigations in Alaska in 1939 as Field Representative, Department of the Interior: An Historical Review of Natural Resource Problems In Alaska," talk given by Hubbs at University of Alaska, April 8, 1976.

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CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 239 although he really wanted it to be a much more annotates! publication. It was difficult for him to let a project go; there were always unfinished loose encis that wouIc! make it better. But he clip publish, very extensively, even when he knew that the last wore! on the subject could not yet be written. His collectect works totaled 712 titles. To Scripps Institution of Oceanography Hubbs willecI his library and his personal papers. The library of 80,000 re- prints once books and i25 linear feet of personal papers to- gether constitute Hubbs Collection, houses! in the Archives of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, where they con- tinue to be available to researchers. NOTE: John D. Isaacs participated in the preparation of this account before his death in 1980. All manuscript material and correspondence cited here are from: Carl Leavitt Hubbs, 1894-1979: Papers, 1915-1979, 81-8. In the Archives of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093.

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240 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS S E LE C T E D B I B L I O G RA P H Y The following list includes Hubbs's major papers and illustrates his breadth of interests. A complete list is in The Scientific Publications of Carl Lec~vitt Hubbs: Bibliography and Index, 1915-1981," by Frances Hubbs Miller (Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute, Special Publication no. 1, 1981~. A selected list through 1974 is in "Selected Bibliography of Carl Leavitt Hubbs from 1915 to 1974," by Elizabeth N. Shor (Copeia, 3; 19741:594-6091. 1915 Flounders and soles from Japan collected by~the United States Bu- reau of Fisheries steamer "Albatross" in 1906. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 48:449-96. 1916 With C. H. Gilbert. Report on the Japanese macrouroid fishes col- lected by the United States Fisheries steamer "Albatross" in 1906, with a synopsis of the genera. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 51: 135-214. 1918 The fishes of the genus Atherinops, their variation, distribution, re- lationships and history. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 38:409-40. 1919 With D. S. Jordan. Studies in ichthyology. A monographic review of the family of Atherinidae or silversides. Stanford Univ. Publ. Univ. Ser.: 1 - 87. 1920 A comparative study of the bones forming the opercular series of fishes. I. Morphol., 33:61-71. With C. H. Gilbert. The macrouroid fishes of the Philippine Is- lands and the East Indies. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 100:369-588. 1921 The latitudinal variation in the number of vertical fin-rays in Lep- tocottus armatus. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 94: 1-7. The ecology and life-history of Amphigonopterus aurora and of other viviparous perches of California. Biol. Bull., 40:181-209.

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CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 241 An ecological study of the life-history of the fresh-water atherine fish, Labidesthes sicculus. Ecology, 2: 262-76. 1922 A list of the lancelets of the world with diagnoses of five new species of Branchiostoma. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 105:1-16. With C. W. Creaser. A revision of the Holarctic lampreys. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 120:1-14. Variations in the number of vertebrae and other meristic characters of fishes correlated with the temperature of water during de- velopment. Am. Nat., 56:360-72. 1924 Seasonal variation in the number of vertebrae of fishes. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 2:207-14. Studies of the fishes of the order Cyprinodontes. I. A classification of the fishes of the order. II. An analysis of the genera of the Poeciliidae. III. The species of Profundulus, a new genus from Central America. IV. The subspecies of Pseudoxiphophorus bi- maculatus and of Priapichthys annectens. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ.Mich.,13:1-31. 1925 Racial and seasonal variation in the Pacific herring, California sar- dine and California anchovy. Calif. Fish Game Fish Bull., 8:1- 23. With D. S. Jordan. Record of fishes obtained by David Starr Jordan in Japan, 1922. Mem. Carn. Mus., 10:93-346. 1926 The structural consequences of modifications of the developmen- tal rate in fishes, considered in reference to certain problems of evolution. Am. Nat., 60:57-81. A revision of the fishes of the subfamily Oligocottinae. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 171:1-18. A check-list of the fishes of the Great Lakes and tributary waters, with nomenclatorial notes and analytical keys. Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool. Misc. Publ., 15: 1-77. Studies of the fishes of the order Cyprinodontes. VI. Material for

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242 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS a revision of the American genera and species. Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool. Misc. Publ., 16:1-86. 1927 Notes on the blennioid fishes of western North America. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 7:351-94. 1929 With A. I. Ortenburger. Further notes on the fishes of Oklahoma with descriptions of new species of Cyprinidae. Univ. Okla. Bull., 434:15-43. Fishes collected in Oklahoma and Arkansas in 1927. Univ. Okla. Bull., 434:45 -112. The hydrographic and faunal independence of certain isolated deepwater seas in eastern Asia. 4th Pac. Sci. Congr. Proc., 3:1- 6. With D. E. S. Brown. Materials for a distributional study of Ontario fishes. Trans. R. Can. Inst., 17:1-56. 1930 Materials for a revision of the catostomid fishes of eastern North America. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 20:1-47. The high toxicity of nascent oxygen. Physiol. Zool., 3:441-60. 1932 With L. C. Hubbs. Experimental verification of natural hybridiza- tion between distinct genera of sunfishes. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 1 ~ :427-37. With J. R. Greeley and C. M. Tarzwell. Methods for the improve- ment of Michigan trout streams. Bull. Inst. Fish. Res., 1: 1-54. With L. C. Hubbs. Apparent parthenogenesis in nature, in a form of fish of hybrid origin. Science, 76:628-30. 1933 Observations on the flight of fishes, with a statistical study of the flight of Cypselurinae and remarks on the evolution of the flight of fishes. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 17:575-611. With L. C. Hubbs. The increased growth, predominant maleness,

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CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 243 and apparent infertility of hybrid sunfishes. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 17:613-41. With L. P. Schultz. Descriptions of two new American species re- ferable to the rockfish genus Sebastodes, with notes on related species. Univ. Wash. Publ. Biol., 2:15-44. 1934 Racial and individual variation in animals, especially fishes. Am. Nat., 68: 115 -28. 1935 With G. P. Cooper. Age and growth of the long-eared and the green sunfishes in Michigan. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 20:669-96. Fresh-water fishes collected in British Honduras and Guatemala. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 28:1-22. With M. D. Cannon. The darters of the genera Hololepis and Villora. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 30: 1-93. 1936 Fishes of the Yucatan Peninsula. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ., 457: 157-287. With G. P. Cooper. Minnows of Michigan. Bull. Cranbrook Inst. Sci., 8:1-95. 1937 With E. R. Kuhne. A new fish of the genus Apocope from a Wyo- ming warm spring. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 343: 1- 21. With M. B. Trautman. A revision of the lamprey genus Ichthyomy- zon. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 35:1-109. 1938 With R. M. Bailey. The small-mouthed bass. Bull. Cranbrook Inst. Sci.,10:1-89. With R. W. Eschmeyer. The improvement of lakes for fishing: A method of fish management. Bull. Inst. Fish. Res., 2: 1-233. The scientific names of the American "smooth dogfish," Mustelus

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244 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS cants (Mitchill), and of the related European species. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 374: 1-19. Fishes from the caves of Yucatan. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ., 491:261-95. 1939 With L. P. Schultz. A revision of the toadfishes referred to Porichthys and related genera. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 86:473-96. With C. L. Turner. Studies of the fishes of the order Cyprino- dontes. XVI. A revision of the Goodeidae. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 42: 1-80. 1940 Speciation of fishes. Arn. Nat., 74: 198-211. With I. D. Black. Percid fishes related to Poecilichthys variatus, with descriptions of three new forms. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 416:1-30. With R. M. Bailey. A revision of the black basses (Micropterus and Huro), with descriptions of four new forms. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 48:1-51. 1941 With l. D. Black. The subspecies of the American percid fish, Poe- cilichthys whipplii. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 429: 1-27. With K. F. Lagler. Guide to the fishes of the Great Lakes and trib- utary waters. Bull. Cranbrook Inst. Sci., 18:1-100. The relation of hydrological conditions to speciation in fishes. In: A Symposium on Hydrobiology, pp. 182-195. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 1942 With K. Kuronuma. Hybridization in nature between two genera of flounders in Japan. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 27:267- 306. With A. Perlmutter. Biometric comparison of several samples, with particular reference to racial investigations. Am. Nat., 76:582- 92.

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CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 1943 245 With R. R. Miller. Mass hybridization between two genera of cy- prinid fishes in the Mohave Desert, California. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 28:343-78. With C. M. Bogert, W. F. Blair, E. R. Dunn, E. R. Hall, E. Mayr, and G. G. Simpson. Criteria for subspecies, species and genera, as determined by researches on fishes. In: Criteria for Vertebrate Subspecies, vol. 44, pp. 109-21. New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. With L. C. Hubbs and R. E. Johnson. Hybridization in nature be- tween species of catostomid fishes. Contrib. Lab. Vertebr. Biol. Univ. Mich., 22: 1-76. With B. W. Walker and R. E. Johnson. Hybridization in nature be- tween species of American cyprinodont fishes. Contrib. Lab. Vertebr. Biol. Univ. Mich., 23:1-21. 1944 Concepts of homology and analogy. Am. Nat., 78:289-307. With E. C. Raney. Systematic notes on North American siluroid fishes of the genus Schilbeodes. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 487:1-36. Species of the circumtropical fish genus Brotula. Copeia, 1944: 162- 78. 1945 Phylogenetic position of the Citharidae, a family of Catfishes. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 63:1-38. With L. C. Hubbs. Bilateral asymmetry and bilateral variation in fishes. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 30:229-310. 1946 With E. C. Raney. Endemic fish fauna of Lake Waccamaw, North Carolina. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 65: 1-30. First records of two beaked whales, Mesoplodon bowdoini and Ziphius cavirostris, from the Pacific coast of the United States. I. Mam- mal., 27: 242-55. With E. M. Kampa. The early stages (egg, prolarva and juvenile)

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246 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS and the classificat 1946: 188-218. ion of the California flying fish. Copeia, 1947 With I. D. Black. Revision of Ceratichthys, a genus of American cy- prinid fishes. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 66: 1-56. With L. C. Hubbs. Natural hybrids between two species of catos- tomid fishes. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 31:147-67. 1948 With R. R. Miller. The zoological evidence: Correlation between fish distribution and hydrographic history in the desert basins of western United States. In: The Great Basin, with Emphasis on Glacial and Postglacial Times, vol. 38, pp. 17-166. Salt Lake City: Bulletin of the University of Utah. 1949 With R. M. Bailey. The black basses (Micropterus) of Florida, with description of a new species. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 516:1-40. Changes in the fish fauna of western North America correlated with changes in ocean temperature. I. Mar. Res., 7:459-82. 1951 With E. C. Raney. Status, subspecies, and variations of Notropis cum- min~gsue, a cyprinid fish of the southeastern United States. Oc- cas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 535:1-25. . 1952 With G. A. Bartholomew, in Winter population of pinnipeds about Guadalupe, San Benito, and Cedros islands, Baja California. }. Mammal., 33: 160-71. 1953 With G. W. Mead and N. I. Wilimovsky. The widespread, probably antitropical distribution and the relationship of the bathype- lagic iniomous fish Anotopterus pharao. Bull. Scripps Inst. Ocean- ogr.,6:173-98. With C. Hubbs. An improved graphical analysis and comparison of series of samples. Syst. Zool., 2:49-56.

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CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 1954 247 With L. C. Hubbs. Data on the life history, variation, ecology, and relationships of the kelp perch, Brachyistius frenatus, an embi- otocid fish of the Californias. Calif. Fish Game, 40: 183-98. 1955 Hybridization between fish species in nature. Syst. Zool., 4: 1-20. Recent climat ic history 1958 in California and adjacent areas. In: Pro- ceedin~;slConference on Recent Research in Climatology (Scripps In- stitution of Oceanography, La Jolly, California, March 25-26, 1957), ed. Harmon Craig, pp. 10-22. University of California: Committee on Research in Water Resources. 1959 Initial discoveries of fish faunas on seamounts and offshore banks in the eastern Pacific. Pac. Sci., 13:311-16. 1960 With G. S. Bien and H. E. Suess. La Jolla natural radiocarbon mea- surements. Am. i. Sci. Radiocarbon Suppl., 2:197-223. With R. R. Miller. The spiny-rayed cyprinid fishes (Plagopterini) of the Colorado River system. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 115:1-39. Quaternary paleoclimatology of the Pacific coast of North America. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep., 7:105-12. 1961 The marine vertebrates of the outer coast. In: Symposium: The Biogeography of Baja California and Adjacent Seas. Pt. 2. Ma- rine Biters. Syst. Zool., 9:134-47. Isolating mechanisms in the speciation of fishes. In: Vertebrate Spe- ciation: A Symposium, ed. W. F. Blair, pp.5-23. Austin: University of Texas Press. With G. Shumway and I. R. Moriarty. Scripps Estates site, San Diego, California: A La Jolly site dated 5460 to 7370 years be- fore the present. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 93:37-131.

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248 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1963 Chaetodon aya and related deep-living butterflyfishes: Their varia- tion, distribution and synonymy. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf Caribb., 13: 133-92. 1964 History of ichthyology in the United States after 1850. Copeia, 1964:42-60. 1965 With G. I. Roden. Oceanography and marine life along the Pacific coast of Middle America. In: Handbook of Middle American Indi- ans, ed. R. Wauchope and R. C. West, pp. 143-86. Austin: Uni- versity of Texas Press. With R. R. Miller. Studies of cyprinodont fishes. XXII. Variation in Lucania parva, its establishment in western United States, and description of a new species from an interior basin in Coahuila, Mexico. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 127:1-104. 1966 With L. C. Hubbs. Gray whale censuses by airplane in Mexico. In: . 1966 Conference on Biological Sonar and Diving Mammals, pp. 84- 92. Stanford: Stanford Research Institute. 1967 With T. Iwai and K. Matsubara. External and internal characters, horizontal and vertical distribution, luminescence, and food of the dwarf pelagic shark, Euprotomicrus bispinatus. Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., 10:1-81. 1968 With W. I. North as compiler and editor. Utilization of Kelp-bed Re- sources in Southern California. Calif. Dep. Fish Game Fish Bull., 139: 1-264. 1971 Lampetra (Entosphenus) lethophaga, new species, the nonparasitic de- rivative of the Pacific lamprey. Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., 16: 125-63.

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CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 249 With C. A. Repenning and R. S. Peterson. Contribution to the sys- tematics of the southern fur seals, with particular reference to the Juan Fernandez and Guadalupe species. Am. Geophys Union Antarctic Res. Ser., 18: 1-34. With K. S. Norris. Original teeming abundance, supposed extinc- tion, and survival of the Juan Fernandez fur seal. Am. Geophys. Union Antarctic Res. Ser., 18:35-52. With I. C. Potter. Distribution, phylogeny and taxonomy. In: Biol- ogy of Lampreys, vol. 1, ed. M. W. Hardisty and I. C. Potter, pp. 1-65. New York: Academic Press. 1974 With R. R. Miller and L. C. Hubbs. Hydrographic history and relict fishes of the north-central Great Basin. Mem. Calif. Acad. Sci., 7: 1-259. 1977 With T. Iwamoto. A new genus (Mesobius), and three new bathy- pelagic species of Macrouridae (Pisces, Gadiformes) from the Pacific Ocean. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 41:233-51. With R. R. Miller. Six distinctive cyprinid fish species referred to Dionda inhabiting segments of the Tampico Embayment drain- age of Mexico. Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., 18:265-335. 1979 With W. I. Follett and L. l. Dempster. List of the fishes of Califor- nia. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 133:1-51. 1980 With R. L. Wisner. Revision of the sauries (Pisces, Scomberesoci- dae) with descriptions of two new genera and one new species. US Fish Wildl. Serv. Fish. Bull., 77:521-66.