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ELI KENNERLY MARSHALL, JR. May 2, 1889-January 10, 1966 BY THOMAS H. MAREN TH E ~ D E A S A N D ~ D E A ~ S of the nineteenth century are embodied in many men anc! women born in late Victo- rian times, anc! so live on to the present. In this tradition was Eli Kennerly Marshall, ir., who servect the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine for thirty-five years, first as professor of physiology, then of pharmacology and experi- mental therapeutics. Now near the end of our own century, it is fitting to review and celebrate the life of a scientist who macle giant strides towarc! the twenty-first. Marshall was born in Charleston, South Carolina, on May 2, TSS9. His father's family came from England in the early part of the century. His paternal grandmother, Susan, was the daughter of Eli Kennerly, a Virginian who migrated to South Carolina. His mother's family was more varied. One si(le of her family was English-his merchant grandfather (Brown) was a clescendant of the Rev. Samuel Andrew, a founder of Yale, ant] George Treat, one-time governor of Connecticut. His maternal grandmother (Beckmann) ap peared more exotic; Marshall's notes say her family included members of German, French, and Russian descent. He once mentioned that he was part Russian-a rather incongruous note and there was no whiff of the East in his character. He retained throughout his life the accent and many of the at 313

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314 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS titudes common in Charleston, which in the days of his up- bringing was a somewhat unique cultural enclave. On both sickles his family was "in trade" in Charleston. His father ran the successful shoe business built up by his moth- er's father, and they all lived in the maternal granclparents' pleasant home, surrounded by aunts and (mostly) female children. Life moved in stately and routine fashion; there were large, early breakfasts; dinners at 3:00; and late, coIc! suppers. An isolated and shy boy, he went to private schools and graduated first in his class from Charleston High School. No effort seems to have been made to widen his horizons; he was sent to the small but excellent College of Charleston. He graduated at the age of nineteen in 190S, the only chemist in a class of eight men. As he describes those days: "I was cIevotec! to books, took no interest in athletics, ant! really led a rather narrow life of the mind. College, except in an intel- lectual way, was for me a failure. No lasting friendships were made, and as ~ see it now, my college was a high school and my post-gracluate years in chemistry, a poor makeshift for college." He embarkoct on these graduate years at Johns Hopkins in 190X; there had been some Hopkins teachers and ac- quaintances in the city of Charleston and at college. He lived in a boarding house near the old University on Little Rose Street; again he was quite isolated. It would be most agree- able to say, from the vantage of seventy-five years, that this unspoilect innocent found, at the golden dawn of Johns Hop- kins, the inspiration he craved and deservecI. Alas, this first year was "a shattering of illusions." bra Remsen, who hack been director of the Chemistry Department, was now presi- dent of the University ant] kept partial control of the de- partment, with no strong successors. Marshall was assigned to a thesis acivisor ant! a topic that he deemecl "unthinkable,"

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ELI KENNERLY MARSHALL, JR. 315 and he returned to Charleston the next summer in the fierce indignation that was to become so characteristic. He ar- ranged to complete his graduate work at the University of Chicago, but his old college professor, Francis Parker, in- terceded at Hopkins and arranged for Marshall to choose his own thesis advisor, Associate Professor of Organic Chemistry S. F. Acree. He returned to Baltimore, but his notes about the time, written thirty-five years later, were full of excIama- tion points and attacks on those "old men" who ciared threaten his freedom. The next two years, finally, "were extremely happy and pleasant," despite the ebb of the department. Acree gave him plenty of independence and he read widely in the excellent library, including the works of Emil Fischer, Nef, and Gom- berg. He had planned to go into industry, but unaccountably he became interested in physiological chemistry. In 191~ he took an assistantship in that subject in the Medical School with Walter Jones, beginning the association in three de- partments that was to last forty-five years. He received the Ph.D. in chemistry and sailed to Europe in the summer of ~ 9 ~ 2, with a letter of introduction (but with no advance notice and no place to stay) to AbderhaIden at the Physiology Institute at Halle. He was accepted, but again seemed isolated: little English was spoken, his German was weak, and he did not care for the system in which Herr Pro- fessor gave directions each morning to the staff for the day's work. But the loner was to triumph: "I spent time reading in the small department library.... ~ wanted to study enzyme action . . . ran across literature on urease and decided to work with it when ~ returned to Baltimore in the fall." But if only Marshall could have visited Paul Ehrlich at Frankfort-am ~ "Walter Jones," in Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 20 (Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1943), pp. 79-139.

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316 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Main! Did he even know then of Ehrlich, whose name was to be coupled with his a quarter of a century later? Back in Baltimore that winter, Marshall did just as he planned and attacked the urease problem with great force. It turned from a purely chemical exercise into a methodo- logical triumph for physiology and chemistry (Section I be- low). Marshall wrote, "It was quite worthwhile to be on the mountaintop for a short time." Marshall thought Jones unimaginative and not interested in his work. Had he stayed with Jones, would he have slid off that mountain? Jones thought there wasn't much left to do in physiological chemistry, and he couldn't do much for Mar- shall anyway. But there was a dens ex machine, or more ac- curately, a godlike figure on the floor below John Jacob ~ ~ , Abel,2 professor of pharmacology, already a world figure. Abe! was a gentle farmboy and school principal from Ohio who had gone to Europe for seven years "to prepare myself for the JOth century." There he studied medicine, chemistry, physiology, and pathology before becoming one of the founding chairmen at Johns Hopkins in 1893. He had iso- lated epinephrine from the adrenal, begun work on the ar- tificial kidney, studied chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis with antimony compounds, crystallized insulin, pioneered work on the posterior pituitary, and founded both the American Society of Biological Chemists and the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Most signif- icantly, he believed that "the investigator is the 1 r r ', inner llle IS tree. man whose Marshall had caught Abel's eye; indeed, the two depart- ments lunched together, an important tradition that was to last many years. Abe! arranged for Marshall to transfer to pharmacology, but with the most significant and serious pro 2 ''John Jacob Abel," in Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 24 (Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1947), pp. 231-57.

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ELI KENNERLY MARSHALL, JR. 317 viso: that Marshall would study medicine. Rather compli- catecT arrangements tract to be macle, because at that time faculty were not permitted to study for a clegree. Marshall ended up (loin" the basic sciences (except biochemistry, phys- iology, and pharmacology, which he never took!) at Wisconsin and Chicago cluring the summers, but somehow the rule was relaxed so that he did his clinical work at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Marshall's medical training had profound implica- tions for him, as well as for generations of his students; he never ceases! to bless Abe! for this advice. He received the Hopkins M.D. in ~ 9 ~ 7. During those years he lived most contentecIly at the oIc! Johns Hopkins Club at the corner of Monument and Howard streets. Intellectually and socially, it was a rich period. There was a host of young scholars from the medical school and the university, who tradecl shoptalk, gossip, and beer on Saturday nights. Much later he recalled Barnett (statistics), Mustard (Latin), and Lovejoy (philosophy). An appealing scene is that of Ecigerton, a Sanskrit man and later professor at Yale, react ing Hindu stories to Marshall at midnight, over crackers and cheese. This episode in Marshall's life encled with three events: his graduation from medical school, service in World War I, and marriage to a Hopkins classmate, Berry Carroll, of Co- Jumbus, Ohio. She later macle a career as psychiatrist to the Children's Court in Baltimore, while raising three children. Marshall was assigned, with the rank of captain, to the Chem- ical Warfare Service in Washington, where he worked until the enct of the war. In this unlikely setting, Marshall macle a motion indenen ~ ~ - ~ --- -- -A dent discovery Homer W. Smith,3 who was clestinect to be 3 "Homer W. Smith," in Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 39 (New York: Columbia University Press for the National Academy of Sciences, 1967), pp. 445-70.

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318 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS come the world leader in renal physiology. But in 1918, Smith was an enlisted man from Cripple Creek, Colorado, where he had sold vacuum cleaners. Marshall noticed that a light always burned late in the back laboratory; investigation one night revealed a tall skinny young man (not unlike the cap- tain himself) who stuttered and had a passion for chemistry, literature, and music. If the captain was burdened with two doctorates, the sergeant had none at all, and Marshall re- solved to repair this. Meanwhile, they published three excel- lent papers on mustard gas, prepared in the quantitative and chemical spirit that was to characterize the work of both in the years ahead. There was some effort to get Smith into medical school after the war, but he ended with the D.Sc. from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, where he worked on the pharmacology of arsenic. Seven years later, when both were involved in the study of renal physiology, they met again in Maine, where they collab- orated briefly in a pioneering study of vertebrate evolution in light of the development of the glomerulus. They were neighbors, friends, antagonists, colleagues, and rivals at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory for thirty-five years. To ask for more would be unrealistic, in view of their very different characters. Back at Hopkins in early 1919, Marshall and his new fam- ily happily faced a gas-lit apartment on West Baltimore Street, a low budget, and some interesting decisions. He thought of going with a drug company as research director, but there were no offers and Abel was unsympathetic to this. He was offered a professorship in the Peking Union Medical School, with responsibility for the combined departments of physiological chemistry, physiology, and pharmacology (the curriculum of the twenty-first century?), but turned it down with little thought. Only at the close of his life did he speak

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ELI KENNERLY MARSHALL, JR. 319 sadly of this quite out of character for him as a great missecI opportunity. He took the more conventional way and accepted the chair of pharmacology at Washington Univer- sity in St. Louis. But in less than two years, too little time for lasting impressions on Marshall or Washington, the offer came from Hopkins, through Abel, to succeed Howell in the chair of physiology. His single, short journey outside Hop- kins was over. His only reservation in returning was that somehow he had never taken a course in physiology, but he reasoned that he had never taken physiological chemistry or pharmacology either and had aIrea(ly taught both. There must have been a very special quality in Marshall that brought him to this ctistinguished chair at age thirty-two and led Hopkins to pass over the more orthodox cancliclates. His papers up to that time were surely of good quality, but there were no outstanding contributions to physiology. Of course, his training was remarkable; it may be notect that he was not an M.D.-Ph.D. in the modern sense of a combined degree. He tract two separate anti significant tracks to a career in pharmacology: chemistry and medicine. His scholarship, vigor, singleness of purpose, and forthright honesty couIcI not have failer! to impress. His bibliography from 1910 to 1920 charts his gradual transition from pure chemistry to physiology and pharma- cology. The urea method! hack opened the cloor to these later studies, notably on the effects of adrenalectomy on the kid- ney (Section I). It was not long before this promise and these gifts came to fruition. In October 1922 he react to the Johns Hopkins Medical Society the "Proof of Secretion by the Con- voluted Tubules": he had discovered active transport! Some details of this fincting and the ensuing controversy are given below (Section Il). In the published paper (1923) he seems to have leapt fifty years over the heads of his contemporaries

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320 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS to bring an entire new field into focus. It was to be another twenty-five years before it gathered the great impetus that it has now. In January 1923, just as his great paper with Vickers on the proof of secretion was published, Marshall sailecI to Eu rope "carefree and happy" with his family. In this mem- orable year he met most of the scientists who had been only names to him. "E. H. Starling of University College was par- ticularly nice to me . . . we sat in his little office in front of a small fire . . . we discussed Physiology . . . my going into it without orthodox training. Starling said 'we need men bring- ing gifts, a new point of view.' I then felt that maybe I could do something." The next few months were spent in Cambridge. "Here, I worked with Joseph Barcroft (with whom I tract had much correspondence, cluring the war, on gas warfare). This was a clelightful time. We took a furnished hole se had a 'general' and excellent nurse for the children. 1 enjoyed dining in Col- lece at the high table. My wife says that if I had not been ~ ~ . ~ T ~ 1 ~ ~ 1 1 _1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ A married, 1 snoulcl nave pulled eVeI y sr~-~g, ~v~ an t~J~V111~ a Fellow of one of the Cambridge Colleges anti live the (le- lightfu! life there." He went to Edinburgh to confront Arthur R. Cushny, whose book, The Secretion of Urine, and "modern theory" were wi(lely accepted. The theory embraced filtration and reab- sorption only, even though Bowman and Heidenhain had spoken of secretion much earlier. Cushny was unmoved by . Marshall's visit, or his papers, and still rejectee! secretion in the 1926 edition of his book. It is clear that Cushny could not accept the idea that cells reabsorbed and secretes] or that clif- ferent substances could be handled in different ways. Marshall spent "several delightful weeks" in the reacting physiology laboratory of Europe August Krogh's in Copen- hagen. "This was his old laboratory, an old house machine

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ELI KENNERLY MARSHALL, JR. 321 shop and 'diener's' quarters on the ground floor, laboratory on the second floor, and Krogh's living arrangements on the top floor. There were no cupboards in the laboratory and one could roam around and see all the apparatus Krogh had made and used on high shelves. Krogh used to say that if one could theorize and reason correctly for five or ten minutes in physiology without doing an experiment, one was very lucky." He returned to Baltimore greatly invigorated and no longer worried about his lack of training. The secretion prob- lem occupied and stimulated him. The Physiology Depart- ment at Hopkins under Marshall was small and appears to have taken social as well as midday nourishment from Abel's pharmacology group. Like Abel, Marshall gave relatively little time or energy to medical school teaching. Their idea of curricular reform was probably to move toward the small- est number of class hours possible; at one time Abel was run- ning about eighty hours for the entire course. Both anon made their influence felt by force of character and example in subtle ways. In those far-out and very active days, Marshall appeared intense and somewhat remote to his colleagues; he is said to have changed little between 1925 and 1955. He enjoyed reading, and in younger days, walking, but had no hobbies. He liked good company in small doses and looked forward to lunches and dinners at the Hamilton Street Club in downtown Baltimore with a small and select group of law- yers, writers, businessmen, and Hopkins professors. He was something of an ascetic; the life of an English don would have been eminently suitable for him. His physical presence matched his cast of mind. Tall, thin, handsome, well-groomed, and formal, with a strident voice bearing the accent of Charleston, he was uninhibited in giv- ing opinions or criticism of scientific peers. He was famous for his (well-placed) profanity, but this too was selective and

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322 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS emphatic. Three old-fashioned staples were user! with such skill (clamp, hell, anti bastard) that he never needec! or even hinted at the sexual expletives. He had the social graces of his "caste," but no social ambitions or "snobbery." He was a very private person and wouIcl not share personal or family . . . adversities. As he grew older, his photophobia and intermittent cIau- dication worsened, so he die! not enjoy the outdoors. As we shall see, his scientific world expandecl, but his private intel- lectual world continued to be less than that of the usual aca- demic. In the 1920s and after he seemed to revert to the isolates! ways of his boyhood. He hac! little interest in litera- ture, art, religion, music, sports, or philosophy; thus he re- mainect at a distance from most of us. The key was science, and to realize that despite his austere and (to some) fright- ening presence, he was fundamentally kind, supportive, and optimistic about himself and his close colleagues. In 1932 Abe! retired and Marshall was appointee! to his chair, which was renamed Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. There were several reasons for this rather un- usual academic shift; dominant were the desire "to be the oIct man's successor," and the feeling, strong in Marshall at age forty-three, that his destiny lay closer to chemistry than to physiology. There followed an unusual time, for at the peak of his intellectual power and prestige Marshall idled, waiting for chance or observation to point to the future. He was finisher! with the kidney; secretion was proved and accepted by all, and it interested him no longer. In this time of waiting, he die! make an important observation in a different area from all his other major work: that in respiratory depression an- oxia provides a major ventilatory drive mediated through the sino-aortic mechanism (Section III). This tract the mark of

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ELI KENNERLY MARSHALL, JR. 343 With A. C. Kolls. The effect of nicotin on the two kidneys after unilateral section of the splanchnic nerve. I. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 9:347. 1918 With Vernon Lynch and H. W. Smith. On dichlorethylsulphide (mustard gas). I. The systemic effects and mechanism of action. I. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 12:265-90. With Vernon Lynch and Homer W. Smith. On dichlorethylsulphide (mustard gas). II. Variations in susceptibility of the skin to di- chlorethylsulphide. I. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 12:291-301. 1919 With A. C. Kolls. An apparatus for the administration of gases and vapors to animals. i. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 12: 385-91. With Homer W. Smith and George H. A. Clowes. On dichloro- ethylsulfide (mustard gas). IV. The mechanism of absorption by the skin. }. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 13: 1-30. An Institute for Cooperative Research as an aid to the American drug industry. I. Ind. Eng. Chem., 11 :64. With A. C. Kolls. Studies on the nervous control of the kidney in relation to diuresis and urinary secretion. I to V, inclusive. Am. J. Physiol., 49:302-43. Mustard gas. }. Am. Med. Assoc., 73:684-86. 1920 The influence of diuresis on the elimination of urea, creatinine and chlorides. }. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 16: 141-54. With John W. Williams. The toxicity and skin irritant effect of cer- tain derivatives of dichloroethyl sulfide. }. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 16:259-72. 1921 With Marian M. Crane. A separation of substances eliminated by the kidney into groups on the basis of the effects of changes in blood flow and temporary anemia. Am. }. Physiol., 55:278-79. 1922 The effect of loss of carbon dioxide on the hydrogen ion concen- tration of urine. I. Biol. Chem., 51:3-10.

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344 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With B. S. Neuhausen. An electrochemical study of the condition of several electrolytes in the blood. }. Biol. Chem., 53:365-72. With Marian M. Crane. Studies on the nervous control of the kid- ney in relation to diuresis and urinary secretion. VI. The effect of unilateral section of the splanchnic nerve on the elimination of certain substances by the kidney. Am. J. Physiol., 62:330-40. 1923 With I. L. Vickers. The mechanism of the elimination of phenol- sulphonephthalein by the kidney. A proof of secretion by the convoluted tubules. The Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull., 34: 1-7. With Marian M. Crane. The influence of temporary closure of the renal artery on the amount and composition of urine. Am. I. Physiol., 64:387-403. With Joseph Barcroft. The effect of external temperatures on the minute volume in man. Q. J. Exp. Physiol., Suppl.: 180-81. With Joseph Barcroft. Note on the effect of external temperature on the circulation in man. l. Physiol., 58:145-56. 1924 With Marian M. Crane. The secretory function of the renal tu- bules. Am. I. Physiol., 70:465-88. With i. G. Edwards. Microscopic observations of the living kidney after the injection of phenolsulphonephthalein. Am. I. Physiol., 70:489-95. With }. Leonard Vickers. Permeability of the urinary bladder to urea and sodium chloride. Am. i. Physiol., 70:607-12. 1925 Cardiac output. Am. I. Physiol., 72:192. 1926 Studies on the cardiac output of the dog. Am. I. Physiol., 76:178- 79. Studies on the cardiac output of the dog. I. The cardiac output of the normal unanesthetized dog. Am. J. Physiol., 77:459-73. The secretion of urine. Physiol. Rev., 6:440-84. American contemporaries. John Jacob Abel. Ind. Eng. Chem., 18:984.

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ELI KENNERLY MARSHALL, JR. 345 Studies on the cardiac output of the dog. II. The influence of atro- pine and carbon dioxide on the circulation of the unanesthe- tized dog. I. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 29:167-75. 1928 With Geo. A. Harrop, Jr., and Arthur Grollman. The use of nitro- gen for determining the circulatory minute volume. Am. }. Physiol., 86:99-109. With Arthur Grollman. The time necessary for rebreathing in a lung-bag system to attain homogeneous mixture. Am. I. Phys- iol., 86:110-16. With Arthur Grollman. A method for the determination of the circulatory minute volume in man. Am. I. Physiol., 86:117-37. With Allan L. Grafflin. Structure and function of kidney in Lophius piscatorius. Am. I. Physiol., 85:391. With Allan L. Grafflin. The structure and function of the kidney of Lophius p~scatorius. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 43:205 -35. 1929 The secretion of urine by the aglomerular kidney. Am. }. Physiol., 90:446-47. The aglomerular kidney of the toadfish (Opsanus taut. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 45:95 - 101. 1930 The cardiac output of man. Medicine, 9:175-94. A comparison of the function of the glomerular and aglomerular kidney. Am. J. Physiol., 94:1-10. With Homer W. Smith. The glomerular development of the ver- tebrate kidney in relation to habitat. Biol. Bull., 59:135-53. 1931 Physiology of today. In: Biology in Human Affairs, ed. Edward M. East, pp. 272-91. New York: Whittlesey House-McGraw-Hill. The secretion of phenol red by the mammalian kidney. Am. I. Physiol., 99:77-86. 1932 With Allan Lyle Grafflin. The function of the proximal convoluted segment of the renal tubule. I. Cell. Comp. Physiol., 1: 161-76.

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346 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Kidney secretion in reptiles. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 29:971- 73. The secretion of urea in the frog. }. Cell. Comp. Physiol., 2:349- 53. 1933 With Allan L. Grafflin. Excretion of inorganic phosphate by the aglomerular kidney. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 31:44-46. With W. hi. Burgess and A. M. Harvey. The site of the antidiuretic action of pituitary extract. }. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 49:237- 49. 1934 The comparative physiology of the kidney in relation to theories of renal secretion. Physiol. Rev., 14: 133-59. With Morris Rosenfeld. Control of cyanide action: Cyanohydrin equilibria in vivo and in vitro. i. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 51: 134. With Morris Rosenfeld. Control of cyanide action: Cyanohydrin equilibria in viva and in vitro. }. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 52:445-61. 1935 With Morris Rosenfeld. Depression of respiration by oxygen. ,. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 54:155. 1936 With Morris Rosenfeld. Depression of respiration by oxygen. }. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 57:437-57. 1937 With Morris Rosenfeld. Pyruvic acid cyanohydrin as a respiratory stimulant. A study of cyanide action. i. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 59:222-40. With W. C. Cutting and Kendall Emerson, fir. Acetylation of para- aminobenzenesulfonamide in the animal organism. Science, 85: 202~3. With Kendall Emerson, fir., and W. C. Cutting. Para-amino- benzenesulfonamide. Absorption and excretion: Method of de- termination in urine and blood. }. Am. Med. Assoc., 103:953- 57.

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ELI KENNERLY MARSHALL, JR. 347 Determination of sulfanilamide in blood and urine. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 36:422-24. With Edward M. Walzl and D. H. LeMessurier. Picrotoxin as a res- piratory stimulant. I. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 60:472-86. With E. M. Walzl. On the cyanosis from sulfanilamide. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 61:140 - 44. With Kendall Emerson, Jr., and W. C. Cutting. The renal excretion of sulfanilamide. }. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 61: 191-95. With Kendall Emerson, tr., and W. C. Cutting. The distribution of sulfanilamide in the organism. }. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 61:196-204. Determination of sulfanilamide in blood and urine. I. Biol. Chem.. 122:263-73. 1938 Certain phases of the pharmacologic properties of sulfanilamide. Med. Ann. D.C., 7:5-7. With W. C. Cutting and Kendall Emerson, Jr. The toxicity of sul- fanilamide. I. Am. Med. Assoc., 110:252-57. John Jacob Abel. Science, 87:566-69. With I. T. Litchfield, Jr. The determination of sulfanilamide. Sci- ence, 88:85-86. With W. C. Cutting and W. L. Cover. The absorption and excretion of certain sulfanilamide derivatives. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 63:318-27. With W. C. Cutting. Absorption and excretion of sulfanilamide in the mouse and rat. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 63:328-36. With A. C. Bratton and I T. Litchfield, Jr. The toxicity and ab- sorption of 2-sulfanilamidopyridine and its soluble sodium salt. Science, 88: 597-99. 1939 Pharmacology of sulfanilamide. I. Urol., 4 1: 8-1 3. An unfortunate situation in the field of bacterial chemotherapy. l. Am. Med. Assoc., 112: 352-53. Bacterial chemotherapy. The pharmacology of sulfanilamide. Physiol. Rev., 19:240-69. With Perrin H. Long. The intravenous use of sodium sulfapyri- dine. }. Am. Med. Assoc., 112: 1671-75. With A. C. Bratton. A new coupling component for sulfanilamide determination. l. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 66:4.

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348 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With l. T. Litchfield, fir., and H. }. White. The effect of sulfanil- amide on streptococcus infection in mice. Ther., 66:23. i. Pharmacol. Exp. With A. Calvin Bratton. A new coupling component for sulfanil- amide determination. T Biol. Chem., 128: 537-50. John Jacob Abel (1857-19381. Trans. Assoc. Am. Phys., 54:7-8. With I. T. Litchfield, Jr., and H. I. White. The experimental basis for a method for the quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against streptococcus infection in mice. I. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 67:437-53. With l. T. Litchfield, Jr. Some aspects of the pharmacology of sul- fapyridine. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 67:454-75. With A. Calvin Bratton and H. I. White. Comparison of certain pharmacological and antibacterial properties of p-hydrox- aminobenzenesulfonamide and sulfanilamide. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 42: 847-48. With J. T. Litchfield, Jr. Some aspects of the pharmacology of sul- fapyridine. Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians, 54:154-56. The present status and problems of bacterial chemotherapy. I. Bac- teriol., 39:25(A). 1940 Dr. John I. Abel. Washington Coll. Bull., 18: 17-19. Medical research: The story of sulfanilamide. N.C. Med. }.,1: 1-14. The present status and problems of bacterial chemotherapy. Sci- ence, 91:345-50. With J. T. Litchfield, Tr., and H. l. White. The comparative thera- peutic activity of sulfanilamide, sulfapyridine, and diaminosul- fone in streptococcus infections in mice. I. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 69:89-102. With I. T. Litchfield, Jr., and H. I. White. The comparative thera- peutic activity of sulfanilamide, sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole and diaminosulfone in type I pneumococcus infections in mice. }. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 69:166-70. Experimental basis of chemotherapy in the treatment of bacterial infections. Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med., 16:723-31. With A. Calvin Bratton, H. J. White, and J. T. Litchfield, Jr. Sul- fanilylguanidine: A chemotherapeutic agent for intestinal in- fections. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 67:163-88. Sulfanilamide. Encyclopedia Americana, 25:817-18.

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ELI KENNERLY MARSHALL, JR. 1941 349 With A. Calvin Bratton, Lydia B. Edwards, and Ethel Walker. Sul- fanilylguanidine in the treatment of acute bacillary dysentery in children. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 68:94-111. Bacterial chemotherapy. Annul Rev. Physiol., 3:643-70. The pharmacology of sulfanilamide and its derivatives. In: Chemo- therapy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. With H. I. White, A. Calvin Bratton, and }. T. Litchfield, Jr. The relationship between the in vitro and the in vivo activity of sul- fonamide compounds. }. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 72: 112-22. With I. T. Litchfield, tr., and H. l. White. The mode of action of neoprontosil in streptococcus infections in mice. }. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 72:291-97. With H. I. White, and I. T. Litchfield, Jr. Quantitative comparisons of the activity of sulfanilamide, sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole and sulfadiazine against Escherichia cold in viva and in vitro. }. Phar- macol. Exp. Ther., 73: 104-18. 1942 Chemotherapy of avian malaria. Physiol. Rev., 22: 190-204. With }. T. Litchfield, Jr., and H. I. White. Sulfonamide therapy of malaria in ducks. I. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 75:89-104. Sulfaguanidine as a chemotherapeutic agent in intestinal infec- tions. Miss. Doctor, June:4-9. With I. T. Litchfield, Jr., H. i. White, A. C. Bratton, and R. G. Shepherd. The comparative therapeutic activity of sulfonam- ides against bacterial infections in mice. }. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 76:226-34. 1944 With Chester Keefer, Rene Dubos, and John S. Lockwood. Sym- posium on War Medicine. Chemotherapy. I. Pharmacology and Toxicology. Clinics, 2:1077-93. 1945 With W. Horsley Gantt. Toxicity of sulfanilamide on higher ner- vous activity. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 77: 104-15. With Earl H. Dearborn. The degradation of quinine in the duck, chicken, and dog. I. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 85:202-5.

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350 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1946 With }. T. Litchfield, Jr., and H. J. White. The antimalarial action in ducks of certain sulfanilamide derivatives. }. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 86:273 - 79. Chemotherapy of malaria, 1941-45. Fed. Proc., 5: 298-304. With Earl H. Dearborn. The relation of the plasma concentration of quinacrine to its antimalarial activity. }. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 88:142-53. With Earl H. Dearborn. A comparison of drug-diet therapy with single daily oral dosage in avian malaria. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 88: 187-89. With Earl H. Dearborn. Curative action of drugs in lophurae ma- laria of the duck. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 63:46-48. Pharmacological investigations of potential antimalarial drugs. In: Survey of Antimalarial Drugs, 1941 - 45, ed. F. Y. Wiselogle, vol. 1, pp. 59-71. Ann Arbor: J. E. Edwards. 1947 With Earl H. Dearborn. The susceptibility of different species of avian malarial parasites to drugs. Am. }. Hyg., 45:25-28. Scientific principles, methods and results of chemotherapy, 1946. Medicine, 26:155-66. With K. C. Blanchard, and Emmett L. Buhle. Colorimetric meth- ods for determination of streptomycin. }. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 90:367-74. 1948 The absorption, distribution and excretion of streptomycin. I. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 92:43-48. The dosage schedule of penicillin in bacterial infections. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 82:403-7. Determination of para-aminosalicylic acid in blood. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 68:471-72. 1949 Distribution of 3,4-dimethyl-5-sulfanilamidoisoxazole in the body. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 68:472 - 73. With K. C. Blanchard. The antidiuretic effect of 3-hydroxy- cinchoninic acid derivatives. }. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 95:185- 90.

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ELI KENNERLY MARSHALL, JR. 351 The significance of drug concentration in the blood as applied to chemotherapy. In: Evaluation of Chemotherapeutic Agents, ed. Colin M. MacLeod, pp. 3-24. New York: Columbia University Press. Reid Hunt, 1870 - 1948. In: Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.26, pp.25-44. Washington, D.C.: Na- tional Academy of Sciences. With Margaret Merrell. Clinical therapeutic trial of a new drug. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 85:221 - 30. 1950 With Kenneth C. Blanchard, Earl H. Dearborn, and Thomas H. Maren. Stimulation of the anterior pituitary by certain cinchon- inic acid derivatives. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 86:83-88. With Kenneth C. Blanchard and Earl H. Dearborn. Further obser- vations on the antidiuretic effect of cinchoninic acid derivatives. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 86: 89-101. The new science: The use of chemicals in the war on disease. In: Centennial Addresses of the City College of New York, ed. Samuel M. Middlebrook, pp. 33-41. New York: The City College Press. Abel the prophet. Johns Hopkins Mag., 1: 1 1-14. With Earl H. Dearborn. Certain aspects of the pharmacology of 3- hydroxy-2-phenylcinchoninic acid. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 87:36-49. With K. C. Blanchard, A. M. Harvey, J. E. Howard, A. Kattus, E. V. Newman, and C. G. Zubrod. The effect of 3-hydroxy-2- phenylcinchoninic acid upon rheumatic fever. Bull. Johns Hop- kins Hosp., 87:50-60 With C. Gordon Zubrod and Earl H. Dearborn. Effect of 3- hydroxy-2-phenylcinchoninic acid on renal secretion of phenol red and penicillin. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 74:671-74. With A. M. Harvey, and I. E. Howard, and (by invitation) K. E. Blanchard, C. Gordon Zubrod, Albert Kattus, and E. V. New- man. The effect of 3-hydroxy-2-phenylcinchoninic acid upon rheumatic fever. Trans. Assoc. Am. Phys., 63:108-11. 1951 With Kenneth C. Blanchard and Earl H. Dearborn. Certain aspects of the pharmacology of 3-hydroxycinchoninic acid. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 88:181-87.

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352 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1952 The dosage schedule of chemotherapeutic agents. Pharmacol. Rev., 4:85-105. With Earl H. Dearborn and Louis Lasagna. On the mechanism of the antidiuretic action of cinchoninic acid derivatives. I. Phar- macol. Exp. Ther., 106: 103-21. 1953 With William F. Fritz. The metabolism of ethyl alcohol. T. Phar- macol. Exp. Ther., 109:431-43. 1954 With Albert H. Owens, in Absorption, excretion and metabolic fate of chloral hydrate and trichloroethanol. Bull. Johns Hop- kins Hosp., 95:1-8. Acetylation of sulfonamides in the dog. i. Biol. Chem., 211:499- 503. 1955 With Albert H. Owens, Jr. A comparative evaluation of the hyp- notic potency of chloral hydrate and trichloroethanol. l. Studies at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. II. and III. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 96:71-83. With Albert H. Owens, Jr. Inhibition of the oxidation of trichlo- roethanol to tricholoracetic acid both in viva and in vitro by antabuse. I. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 113:42. The revolution in drug therapy. Johns Hopkins Mag., 6:2. With Albert H. Owens, Jr. Rate of metabolism of ethyl alcohol in the mouse. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 89:573-76. With Albert H. Owens, Jr. Further studies on the metabolic fate of chloral hydrate and trichloroethanol. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 97:320-26. With Albert H. Owens, Tr. The metabolism of ethyl alcohol in the rat. I. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 115:360-70. With Albert H. Owens, in A comparison of the metabolism of ethanol and trichloroethanol. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 97:359-404.

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