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Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Biographical Nemoirs VOLUME 56 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1987

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Con- gress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its cor- porate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-03693-3 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2 101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W., WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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CONTENTS PREFACE RICHARD McLEAN BADGER BY OLIVER R. WULF ARTHUR M. BUECHE BY ROLAND SCHMITT ANGUS CAMPBELL BY CLYDE H. COOMBS WILLIAM GEMMELL COCHRAN BY MORRIS HANSEN AND FREDERICK MOSTELLER JAMES BROWN FISK BY WILLIAM H. DOHERTY JAMES GILLULY BY THOMAS B. NOLAN KURT GODEL BY STEPHEN C. KLEENE STERLING BROWN HENDRICKS BY WARREN L. BUTLER AND CECIL H. WADLEIGH v . . V11 3 23 43 61 91 119 135 181

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V1 CONTENTS CARL LEAVITT HUBBS BY ELIZABETH N. SHOR, RICHARD H. ROSENBLATT, AND JOHN D. ISAACS PAUL F. LAZARSFELD BY DAVID L. SILLS ESMOND R. LONG BY PETER C. NOWELL AND LOUIS B. DELPINO ELI KENNERLY MARSHALL, jR. BY THOMAS H. MAREN STANFORD MOORE BY EMIL L. SMITH AND C. H. W. HIRS PER FREDRIK THORKELSSON SCHOLANDER BY KNUT SCHMIDT-NIELSEN WILLIAM H. STEIN BY STANFORD MOORE CURT STERN BY]AMES V. NEEL MERTON FRANKLIN UTTER BY HARLAND G. WOOD AND RICHARD W. HANSON JOHN HASBROUCK VAN VLECK BY P. W. ANDERSON VINCENT DU VIGNEAUD BY KLAUS HOFMANN ALEXANDER WETMORE BY S. DILLON RIPLEY AND JAMES A. STEED 215 251 285 313 355 387 415 443 475 501 543 597

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PREFACE The Biographical Memoirs is a series of volumes, beginning in IS77, containing the biographies of (lecease(1 members of the National Academy of Sciences and bibliographies of their published scientific contributions. The goal of the Academy is to have these memoirs serve as a contribution toward the history of American science. Each biographical essay is writ- ten by an individual familiar with the discipline and the scien- tific career of the cleceased. These volumes, therefore, pro- vide a record of the lives and works of some of the most clistinguishect leaders of American science as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. Though the pri- mary concern is the members' professional lives and contri- butions, these memoirs also inclucle those aspects of their lives in their home, school, college, or later life that lecl them . . . ,` to t nelr sclentlhc career. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, honorary organization of scientists and engineers elected on the basis of outstanding contributions to knowledge. EstablishecT by a Congressional Act of Incorporation on March 3, 1863, the Academy works to further science and its use for the general welfare by bringing together the most qualified individuals to clear with scientific and technological problems of broad . ,~ slgnlncance. BRYCE CRAWFORD, JR. Home Secretary CAROLINE K. McEUEN Associate Editor vii

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