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A Relationship Restored Irends in U. S.-China Eclucational Exchanges, 1978-1981 David M. Lampton with Joyce A. Madancy and Kristen M. Williams for The Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1986 t

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National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Ave., NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was sponsored by the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China. Those responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors. This study was made possible by funds provided by the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the United States Information Agency under the authority of the Fulbright-Hays Act of 1961 and by the Ford Foundation. The Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China (CSCPRC) is jointly sponsored by the American Council of Learned Societies, the Social Science Research Council, and the National Academy of Sciences. The Academy provides an administrative base for the CSCPRC. Since the normalization of diplomatic relations between the United States ant] China in 1979, the CSCPRC has developed programs with the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), and the State Education Commission, in addition to those with the China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), with whom CSCPRC began exchanges in 1972. Current activities include a program for Ameri- can graduate students and postdoctoral scholars to carry out long-term study or research in affiliation with Chinese universities and research institutes; a short-term reciprocal exchange of senior-level Chinese and American scholars; a bilateral conference program; and an exchange of joint working groups in selected fields. CSCPRC programs are funded by the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Informa- tion Agency, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the U.S. Department of Edu- cation, the Ford Foundation, the Henry Luce Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Starr Foundation, and select corporations. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 86-61028 ISBN 0-309-03678-X Printed in the United States of America

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Steering Committee Chairman GEORGE BECKMANN, Provost, University of Washington Members C~AnENcE ALLEN, Professor of Geology and Geophysics, California Institute of Technology PETER D. BELL, President, Edna McConnell Clark Foundation ROBERT BOCK, Dean of Graduate Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison JEFFREY B. GAYNER, Counselor for International Affairs, The Heritage Foundation DAv~D N. KEIGHTLEY, Professor of History, University of California, Berkeley YUAN LEE, Professor of Chemistry, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley ROBERT MARSHAK, University Distinguished Professor, Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University DouG~As P. MURRAY, Executive Director, Trustees of Lingnan University; Executive Secretary, Committee on International Relations Studies with the PRC SUSAN NAQu~N, Professor of History, University of Pennsylvania WALTER A. RosENs~TH, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Sciences ROBERT ScA~AP~No, Director, Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley ~

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Research Team Project Director DAVID M. LAMPTON Research and Editorial Consultants PEGGY BLUMENTHAL JOYCE A. MADANCY SUSAN WALTON TYRENE WHITE KRISTEN M. WILLIAMS Senior CSCPRC Staff Perso Patricia Tsuchitani CSCPRC Staff Researchers Evie Lotze Pamela Peirce Kyna Rubin Danny Sebright 1V

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Foreword One result of the resumption of relations between the United States and the People's Republic of China has been the development of exten- sive academic exchange programs. Thousands of Chinese students and scholars are studying and pursuing research at American colleges and universities, and many of them are returning to their homeland to play important roles in China's modernization programs. American students and scholars have been going to China in increasing numbers for study and research. Their efforts are expanding our knowledge of Chinese culture and society, and contributing to the social and natural sciences more generally. This report embraces five major aims: (1) to describe these academic exchange relationships, (2) to analyze the nature of the exchanges, (3) to assess their impact, (4) to focus attention on issues and problems, and (5) to make policy recommendations. The Steering Committee determined the initial outline and broad directions of the report and worked closely with Dr. David M. Lampton and his capable staff, who have prepared successive drafts of the report for our review. The Steering Committee therefore assumes responsibil- ity for the report. The Steering Committee believes that this report will be of broad interest to Americans and Chinese and that it will enhance efforts to improve and further develop academic ties between our two countries. George Beckmann Chairman, Steering Committee

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Acknowledgments This study was made possible by funds provided by the United States Information Agency (USIA) and the Ford Foundation. Scholars, college and university administrators, foundation officials, and policymakers in both the United States and China need basic infor- mation about the magnitude, character, and impact of Sino-American academic exchanges between 1978 and 1984. Equally important, the academic relationship between China and the United States is changing so rapidly that it is time to step back and address some of the basic policy issues that have arisen. Therefore, in late 1983, the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China (CSCPRC) constituted a Study Steering Committee chaired by Univer- silty of Washington Provost George Beckmann, with the membership listed on page iii of this volume. A team was assembled to undertake the research and writing. The following report is the fruit of that labor. The research and writing team is greatly indebted to George Beckmann and the other members of the Steering Committee for providing essential guidance. We are indebted to the many individuals and organizations that cooperated in the preparation of this study even though it is not possible to thank each one individually here. We must, however, express our gratitude to everyone at the universities, colleges, foundations, and professional associations who responded to our questionnaires. We par- ticularly wish to acknowledge the assistance of those universities where Kyna Rubin of the CSCPRC conducted interviews: Appalachian State vii

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V111 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS University, Hofstra University, Oberlin College, Stanford University, the University of California at Berkeley, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Pittsburgh. Halsey L. Beemer, Jr., executive direc- tor of the International Advisory Panel of the Chinese University Devel- opment Project, was of great assistance in providing information concerning World Bank activities in China. Linda Reed at the National Association for Foreign Student Affairs in Washington, D.C., provided essential lists of names and guidance as we developed our survey ques- tionnaires. In addition, Mary Ernst at the Council for International Exchange of Scholars compiled much of the information on Fulbright participants. Our analysis of the impacts of academic exchanges on specific fields of study would have been impossible without the commissioned papers prepared by Joseph Birman of the City College of New York, Bruce A. Bolt of the University of California at Berkeley, Ronald Glaser of Ohio State University, Terry Sicular of Stanford University, and Sylvan Witt- wer of Michigan State University. We would also like to thank Mary B. Bullock, staff director of the CSCPRG, and Michel C. Oksenberg of the University of Michigan for making available to us the draft chapters in their forthcoming volume on Sino-American exchanges. We appreciate the cooperation of contributors to that volume as well. Cooperation in this undertaking was not limited to the private sector. Many U.S. government agencies and the dedicated individuals who work for them provided essential assistance. In particular, we thank Louise Crane, James Huskey, Joseph Simpson, and Gordon Tubbs of the USIA for their efforts on our behalf. Gene B. Marshall, Lynn Noah, Leon Slawecki, and Karl Olsson of the U.S. Embassy in Beijing each greatly facilitated our work, as did Peter Chase and James Keith of the U. S. Department of State in Washington, D. C. Finally, Ann I. Schneider of the Department of Education provided invaluable statisti- cal information on Title VI and National Defense Foreign Language fellowships. In the course of this study, some questions arose that only Chinese authorities could answer. We wish to thank China's Ministry of Educa- tion (which became the State Education Commission in 1985) and Chi- na's representatives in Washington, D.C., for their assistance in providing specific statistical and policy information. To the staff of the CSCPRC and the National Academy of Sciences' Office of International Affairs, who endured nearly two years of dislo- cation on our behalf, we express our particular appreciation. Special thanks are due Mary B. Bullock and Victor Rabinowitch for their patience, guidance, and encouragement. Patricia Tsuchitani played an

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS especially important role in this study, and we acknowledge her help with gratitude. Peggy Blumenthal and Tyrene White both played criti- cal roles in the early stages of the study, particularly in questionnaire design and preliminary analysis. Chuck Rexroad at the National Acad- emy of Sciences' Office of Automation Services helped design and implement our data analysis system and our archive of statistical infor- mation on the exchanges. We wish to express particular appreciation to Susan Walton, who edited the entire manuscript superbly and with good cheer. Finally, to Dale R. Corson, President Emeritus of Cornell University, we express our thanks for his advice and wise counsel. David M. Lampton Project Director 1: .x

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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Principal Findings, 2 Issues and Directions for the Future, 5 1. THE SINO-AMERICAN ACADEMIC RELATIONSHIP. IMAGES AND INTERESTS . 2. THE CONTEXT FOR ACADEMIC EXCHANGE ~ Pre-1950 Sino-American Academic Relations, 16 Sino-Soviet Exchanges, 1950-1960, 20 Global Setting of Current Sino-American Exchanges, 23 Policies, Perceptions, and the Dynamics of Academic Exchange in the 1970s and 1980s, 26 Notes, 27 CHARACTERISTICS OF EXCHANGE PARTICIPANTS . PRC Students and Scholars in America, 31 Numbers of PRO Students and Visiting Scholars, 1979-1984. 31 X1 9 . 15 . 30

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~ X11 Fields of Study, 37 Personal Attributes: Geographic Variation, 40 Personal Attributes: Socioeconomic Status, 42 Personal Attributes: Age, Sex, and Marital Status, 45 Financing of PRC Students and Scholars in the United States, 46 Overview of American Students and Scholars in China, 1979-1984, 53 Numbers of American Students and Scholars, 53 Fields of Study, 55 Principal Finclings and Conclusions, 55 Notes, 58 4. EXCHANGE PROGRAMS AND SPONSORS Federal Programs, 64 Bilateral Agreements, 64 The Fulbright Program, 66 National Science Foundation, 68 CSCPRC Programs, 69 Chinese University Development Project and Other Activities of the World Bank, 75 China-Related Activities of American Private Philanthropic Organizations: An Overview, 77 Education, 78 Health and Medical Sciences, 86 Culture and the Arts, 88 Professional Associations, 90 Other Educational Exchange Organizations, 93 Institute of International Education, 93 National Committee on United States-China Relations, Inc., 94 Yale-China Association, 95 Conclusions and Observations, 96 Notes, 98 EXCHANGE ON CAMPUS CONTENTS . 62 ~ . 102 PRC Students and Scholars on the American Campus, 103 Regional and Institutional Distribution, 103 Funding PRC Students and Scholars on the American Campus, 105 The Issue of Financial Remissions to China, 107

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CONTENTS PRC Students and Scholars: American Funding and Perceptions of Quality, 108 Interinstitutional Arrangements, 110 Principal Conclusions and Recommendations, 116 Notes, 117 6. LANGUAGE TRAINING IN CHINESE AND ENGLISH . Assessment of Language Preparation of American Students and Scholars Who Go to China, 120 Where to Study Chinese Language, 124 Assessment of English Language Preparation of PRC Students and Scholars Who Come to the United States, 127 Principal Findings and Recommendations, 129 Notes, 130 7. THE CONSEQUENCES OF EXCHANGE FOR SELECTED DISCIPLINES Selectee] Fields of Chinese Studies, 133 Study of the Chinese Past, 133 Sociology and Anthropology, 138 Political Science, 141 Aspects of Chinese Literature (Modern and Traditional) and the Arts, 143 Economics, 145 American Studies, 148 Aspects of Natural Sciences, 150 Physics, 151 Cancer (Epidemiology) Research, 154 Seismology, 156 Agriculture, 161 Conclusions and Recommendations, Notes, 167 165 8. FUTURE ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES Institutional Changes, 171 Returned PRC Students and Scholars: "Reabsorption," 172 ~ x~ . 119 . 132 . 171

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Technology Transfer: Issues for the Future, 175 Future Opportunities for Cumulative and Cooperative Research, 177 Involvement in Scientific, Economic, and Technical Change in China, 177 Notes, 179 APPENDIXES A. Tables A-1 Through A-33 B. C. Institutions Responding to Asian Studies Questionnaire D. National Key Institutions E. ~ Institutions Responding to University Questionnaire ~ Multivariate Analysis of the Determinants of Financial Aid Given to J-1 Visa Holders by the Chinese Government and American Universities F. Responding American Philanthropic Organizations, Professional Associations, and Other Exchange Organizations G. Protocols and Memoranda of Understanding Under the U.S.-PRC Agreement on Cooperation in Science and Technology H. CSCPRC Programs, 1972-1985 I. World Bank Group Education Projects in China I. Chinese Language Study Programs in the PRC . K. L. ~ ~ , ~ Authors of Commissioned Papers . Restricted Classes and Conferences GLOSSARY INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS 181 216 223 225 227 231 233 239 242 244 247 248 251 255

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List of Tables Chapter 3 3-1 J-1 and F-1 Visas Issued in the PRC, 1979 Through 1983; 32 3-2 New and Continuing PRC Students and Scholars with J-1 Visas, 1979 Through 1983; 32 3-3 Percentage Distribution of PRC ]-1 Students and Scholars by Category, 1979 Through 1983; 34 3-4 Percentage Distribution of PRC J- 1 Students and Scholars Entering New Programs, by Category, 1979 Through 1983; 34 3-5 Planned Length of Stay in United States of PRC F-1 ant] J-1 Visa Holders; 35 3-6 PRC Students and Scholars in the United States, Projected from Possible Increase, 1979 Through 1992; 36 3-7 Percentage Distribution of PRC F-1 Visa Holders by Intended Field of Study in United States, 1983; 38 3-8 Percentage Distribution of PRC J-1 Students and Scholars by Field of Study, 1979 Through 1984; 39 3-9 Percentage Distribution of PRC F-1 and ]-1 Visa Holders by Birthplace and Residence, Compared to 1982 PRC Population Distribution, 1983; 41 3-10 Percentage Distribution of PRC J-1 and F-1 Visa Holders by Occupation in China, 1983; 43 3-11 Percentage Distribution of PRC ]-1 Students and Scholars Beginning New Programs in the United States by Occupation in China, 1979 Through 1983; 44 xv

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XVI LIST OF TABLES 3-12 Percentage Distribution of PRC ]-1 and F-1 Visa Holders by Employer in China, 1983; 44 3-13 Percentage Distribution of PRC ]-1 and F-1 Visa Holders by Age, 1983; 45 3-14 Percentage Distribution of J-1 and F-1 Visa Holders by Stated Source of Financial Support, 1983; 47 3-15 Financial Support for PRC ]-1 Students and Scholars by Source, 1979 Through 1983 (in thousands of dollars); 48 3-16 Percentage Distribution of Sources of Financial Support for PRC ]-1 Students and Scholars, 1979 Through 1983; 49 3-17 Percentage Distribution of Sources of Funding for New and Con- tinuing PRC ]-1 Students and Scholars, 1979 Through 1983; 49 3-18 Percentage Distribution of Funds Spent on J-1 Students and Scholars, Excluding Those from the PRC, by Source of Funds, 1979 Through 1983; 50 3-19 Percentage Distribution of Funds Spent on PRC ]-1 Students, by Source of Funds, 1979 Through 1983; 51 3-20 Percentage Distribution of Funds Spent on PRC ]-1 Research Scholars, by Source of Funds, 1979 Through 1983; 51 3-21 American Students and Scholars Traveling to the PRC, by Category, 1979 Through 1983; 54 3-22 Percentage Distribution of American Graduate Students and Faculty in All Fields Who Conducted or Planned to Conduct One Month or More of Research in the PRC, by Field, 1978-1979 Through 1983-1984; 56 3-23 Percentage Distribution of American Chinese Studies Graduate Students and Faculty Conducting or Planning One Month or More of Research in the PRC, by Field, 1978-1979 Through 1984-1985; 56 Chapter 4 4-1 CSCPRC National Program Grantees, by Program Category and Program Year, 1978-1979 Through 1984-1985; 71 Percentage Distribution of CSCPRC National Program Grantees by Field Designation, for Program Years 1978-1979 Through 1984-1985; 72 4-3 Percentage Distribution of American and Chinese DSEP Grantees by Field Designation, 1979-1980 Through 1984-1985; 73

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LIST OF TABLES Appendix A XV11 ~ Native Provinces of Chinese Students in the United States, for Selected Years, 1903 Through 1945 (percent); 181 Fields of Chinese Students in America, for Selected Years, 1905 Through 1952-1953 (percent); 182 A-3 Number of Faculty Members Trained Abroad and to Be Sent Abroad Under China University Development Project, Between September 1982 and April 1984; 184 A-4 PRC-Government-Sponsored Students Sent to Japan; 186 A-5 Percentage Distribution of J-1 and F-1 Visa Holders by Sex and Marital Status, 1983; 186 A-6 Percentage Distribution of PRC J-1 Students and Scholars by Field of Study and Category, 1979 Through 1984; 187 A-7 Percentage Distribution of Female PRC ]-1 Students and Scholars by Field, 1979 Through 1984; 188 A-8 Percentage Distribution of PRC F-1 Visa Holders by Sex and Educational Background, 1983; 188 A-9 Percentage Distribution of J-1 Students and Scholars Beginning New Programs in the United States, by Age, 1979 Through 1983; 189 A-10 Estimated Financial Support for All PRC Students and Scholars, by Visa Category, 1979 Through 1983; 190 A-ll CIES American Fulbright Lecturers to the PRC, 1980 Through 1984; 191 A-12 Field Distribution of CIES American Fulbright Lecturers in the PRC, 1980 Through 1984; 191 A-13 Percentage Distribution of CIES American Fulbright Lecturers in the PRC, by City, 1980 Through 1984; 192 A-14 Fielc] Distribution of CIES Chinese Fulbright Lecturers in the United States, 1980 Through 1984; 192 A-15 Field Distribution of CIES Chinese Fulbright Researchers in the United States, 1980 Through 1984; 193 A-16 CIES Chinese Fulbright Lecturers and Researchers in the United States, by Year, 1980 Through 1984; 193 A-17 CSCPRC National Program Grantees in Anthropology, Economics, Political Science, and Sociology, by Program Year, 1978-1979 Through 1984-1985; 194 A-18 The 12 U. S. Universities with the Most CSCPRC National Program Grantees, 1978-1979 Through 1984-1985; 194 A-l9 Geographic Distribution of Principal Hosts of CSCPRC National Program Grantees by Province/Municipality in China, 1978-1979 Through 1984-1985; 195

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XV111 LIST OF TABLES A-20 Chinese DSEP Grantees by Sex, 1979-1980 Through 1984-1985; 196 A-21 American DSEP Grantees by Sex, 1979-1980 Through 1984- 1985; 196 A-22 Chinese and American DSEP Grantees by Program Year 1979-1980 Through 1984-1985; 196 A-23 (Part I) Number of Faculty Members Trained Abroad and to Be Sent Abroad for Degrees from 10 Project Universities in Beijing and Shanghai, as of June 30, 1985; 197 A-23 (Part 11) Number of Students Abroad Under the World Bank China University Development Project (from beginning of project to March 31, 1985~; 198 A-24 Percentage Distribution of PRC ]-1 and F-1 Visa Holders by Intended Region of Residence in the United States, 1983; 199 A-25 Percentage Distribution of PRC ]-1 and F-1 Visa Holders in California and New York, 1983; 199 A-26 U.S. Colleges and Universities with the Largest Numbers of PRC ]-1 and F-1 Visa Holders Issued Visas in 1983; 200 A-27 Ten U.S. Universities/Colleges and States with Largest PRC Student Populations, Academic Year 1984-1985; 201 A-28 Percentage Distribution of PRC ]-1 and F-1 Visa Holders by Type of American University Affiliation, in 1983; 201 A-29 University-to-University Exchanges, by Agreement Type and Number of Students and Scholars Exchanged Through 1983-1984; 202 A-30 Additional Interinstitutional Agreements Between U.S. and PRC Institutions; 211 A-31 PRC Institutions Known to Have One or More Exchanges with a U.S. University; 212 A-32 Number of American Scholars Supported by University Funds for Travel to the PRC, 1983 Through 1985; 215 A-33 Title VI Fellowship Expenditures and Grants Awarded Fiscal Years 1980 Through 1984; 215 , by Year,

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