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Glossary F-1 VISA. The type of visa issued to foreign citizens who want to study in the United States at any level of school from precollege to graduate study. To qualify, a person must receive an I-20 form from an American institution that shows that they intend to pursue a full course of study in a field for which they qualify. Students with F-l visas have usually developed their plan to study on their own or with the help of overseas relatives. In China, most persons who are sponsored by the PRC government receive 1-1 visas, which denote a higher level of scholarship than the F-1 visas. The U.S. Depart- ment of State defines an F-l visa as one issued to an alien having a residence in a foreign country which he has no intention of abandoning, who is a bona fide student qualified to pursue a full course of study and who seeks to enter the United States temporarily and solely for the purpose of pursuing such a course of study at an established institution of learning or other recognized place of study in the United States, particu- larly designated by him and approved by the Attorney General after con- sultation with the Office of Education of the United States, which institution or place of study shall have agreed to report to the Attorney General the termination of attendance of each nonimmigrant student, and if any such institution of learning or place of study fails to make reports promptly the approval shall be withdrawn.... F-2 VISA. The type of visa issued to family members of a person holding an F-1 visa. 251

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252 GLOSSARY I-20. A form issued to applicants for F-1 visas, which documents that they have been accepted into a program offering a full course of study. This form is issued by the school administering the program anti must be presented when applying for an F-1 visa. IAP-66. A form issued to applicants for ]-1 visas, which documents that they qualify under one of the programs designated by the United States Information Agency (USIA). This form is issued by the school or other institution, such as a hospital, and must be pre- sented when applying for a ]-1 visa. T-1 VISA. The type of visa issued to persons who qualify under a program designated by USIA. Unlike the F-1 visas, the ]-1 visas are not issued only to students, but also to several other categories of visi- tors, including research scholars, teachers, trainees, and interna- tional visitors. To receive a ]-1 visa, an applicant must possess a valid IAP-66 form. Persons issued a ]-1 visa are considered to pos- sess a higher level of scholarship than those issued an F-1 visa, and they generally are subject to the "two-year rule" (q.v.~. The U.S. Department of State defines a ]-1 visa as one issued to an alien having a residence in a foreign country which he has no intention of abandoning who is a bona fide student, scholar, trainee, teacher, profes- sor, research assistant, specialist, or leader in a field of specialized knowl- edge or skill, or other person of similar description, who is coming temporarily to the United States as a participant in a program designated by the Secretary of State, for the purpose of teaching, instructing or lectur- ing, studying, observing, conducting research, consulting, demonstrating special skills, or receiving training and who, if he is coming to the United States to participate in a program under which he will receive graduate medical education or training, also meets the requirements of section 212(i) tthe two-year rule].... ]-2 VISA. The type of visa issued to family members of a person holding a ]-1 visa. NATIONAL KEY INSTITUTION. A designation used in China identifying the institutions of higher learning considered most vital to the modern- ization of China. Key institutions receive more money and prefer- ence in acquiring personnel and high-quality students. OFFICIALLY SPONSORED. Refers to those PRC students and scholars who have been chosen to come to the United States by the Chinese government and/or subordinate organizations. Most ]-1 visa hold- ers are officially sponsored, but some are not. And while most F-1 visa holders are not officially sponsored, there are also a few excep- tions. Official sponsorship does not necessarily mean that the Chi- nese government is paying the expenses of the student or scholar; many of them have fellowships and scholarships from American sources.

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GLOSSARY 253 RESEARCH OR VISITING SCHOLAR. A category of ]-1 visa holder who comes to the United States to study and do research but who does not enroll in a degree program. Research or visiting scholars may go to research institutions rather than to universities. They tend to be biller than "students." SELF-SUPPORTING. Students and scholars who come to the United States from China without being chosen by the Chinese government. They are most commonly F-1 visa holders, although some ]-1 stu- dents and scholars have also made their own arrangements. The money for their support usually comes from overseas relatives, although they also may qualify for scholarships and fellowships from American institutions. TwO YEAR RULE. An American legal regulation that applies to some per- sons issued ]-1 visas, which requires that the person reside outside of the United States for two years following the time in which they held a ]-1 visa in the United States before they are eligible to apply for an immigrant visa or certain categories of nonimmigrant visas. The consular officer who issues the ]-1 visa makes a determination at the time of visa issuance as to whether the person has receiver] aid from the United States government or the Chinese government. If they have received such aid, they are subject to the two-year rule.

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