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Index A Academic exchange between U.S. and Third World countries, 57 Chinese national organizations engaged in, 63 global imbalances in, 55 motivations of Chinese national organizations engaged in, 63 motivations of U.S. national-level organizations engaged in, 62-63 pre-1950 Sino-American, 16-20 Sino-Soviet (1950-1960), 20-23 see also Sino-American academic exchange Agreement on Cooperation in Science and Technology, 62 Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Management of Industrial Science and Technology, 64-66, 237 Agreements, see Bilateral agreements and specific agreements Agricultural extension in PRC, 163 Agriculture funding for studies in, 52, 90, 109 PRC student interest in, 2, 19, 30, 37-40, 73 Sino-American exchanges in, 4, 161-165 U.S. student interest in, 55-56, 72-73 255 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 90-91 American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS), 69, 84 American literature, PRC university programs on, 149 American Physical Society (APS) academic exchange activities, 91, 93, 152 American Political Science Association (APSA) academic exchange activities, 91, 142 American Society for Metals (ASM) academic exchange activities, 91, 92, 232 American studies funding for, 52, 149 PRC student interest in, 38-40 scope of academic exchange on, 148-150 U.S. student interest in, 56 Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, 74, 84, 231 Anhui, proportion of students from, 41-42 Anthropology Chinese scholars active in, 139 CSCPRC National Program grantees in, 194 effect of Sino-American academic exchange on studies in, 138-141

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256 Archaeology, Sino-American cooperation on projects in, 134-136 Architecture funding for studies in, 52 PRC student interest in, 38-39 U.S. student interest in, 56 Arthur M. Sackler Foundation, 87-88, 232 Arts Asian-American cultural exchange in, 88-90, 94 philanthropic activities in, 88-90 PRC student interest in, 21 scope of academic exchanges on, 145 U.S. funding of, 89 Asia Foundation, educational programs of, 78-79, 84, 231 Asia Society, see China Council of the Asia Society Asian Cultural Council, 89, 231 Asian studies, institutions responding to questionnaire on, 223-224 Association for Asian Studies, 84 Association of Teaching Chinese Language to Foreigners, 125 Atlantic Richfield Foundation, 89, 231 B Beijing Basic Research Program in Atomic, Molecular, and Condensed Matter Physics, 152 arts education conference in, 89 Fulbright lecturers in, 192 host units in, 71 institutions with international relations programs, 81 proportion of exchange students from, 3, 40-42 Beijing Institute of Foreign Trade, 79 Beijing University American studies at, 148 Chinese language programs at, 244-245 Fulbright lecturers at, 67 institutional ties of, 202-214 key institutions, 225 Bilateral agreements between U.S. and China, 64-66, 96, 233-238 see also specific agreements Binational Dialogue of National INDEX Committee on U.S.-China Relations, 95 Biology, reproductive, funding for studies in, 86-87 Books for Asia Program, 79 Business management funding for, 82 PRC student interest in, 2, 21, 37-39, 66, 73 U.S. student interest in, 56, 72-73 see also Dalian National Center for Industrial Science and Technology Management Development C Cancer collaborative Sino-American research on, 4, 154-156, 166 geographic patterns of in China, 155 Capital Medical College, 87 Carter, Jimmy, 62 Center for Analysis and Prediction for Earthquakes, 160 Center for Chinese and American Studies Johns Hopkins-Nanjing University), 143, 148-149 Center for United States-China Arts Exchange, 88-89, 94, 231 Chan, Shu-Park, 84 Chang Chih-tung, see Zhang Zhidong Chekiang, see Zhejiang Chen Shubo, 84 China, see People's Republic of China China Association for Science and Technology (CAST) academic exchange activities, 91 China Council of the Asia Society, 85, 94 China Experimental University, 84 China Experimental University Foundation, 84 China Guangdong Consultative Center of Talent Development, 93 China Medical Board, 77, 86, 87, 90, 231 China University Development Project faculty trained abroad and to be sent abroad under, 184-185 students sent abroad under, 198 see also Chinese University Development Program Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 80

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INDEX Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, philanthropic support for, 86 Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Memorandum of Understanding with National Cancer Institute, 154 Chinese Academy of Sciences involvement with National Science Foundation, 68-69, 74 philanthropic support for, 86 Chinese Academy of Social Sciences economics programs, 79-80 Institute of Sociology, 139 involvement with National Science Foundation, 68-69 Chinese Americans, role of in academic exchange, 112, 154, 155-156 Chinese Cancer Institute, mapping of geographic patterns of cancer by, 155 Chinese language studies availability of, 124-127 funding for, 7, 123 programs in PRC, 124-127, 244-246 training, 119-127, 129 U.S. student interest in, 54, 121-123 Chinese literature effect of academic exchanges on, 143-145 subjects of conferences on, 144 Chinese People's Institute of Foreign Affairs, 95 Chinese [Language] Proficiency Test, 120, 129 Chinese Review Commission, 76 Chinese Society of Metals, 92 Chinese studies education-related philanthropic activities in, 78-79, 84-85 effect of Sino-American academic exchange on, 4, 133-147, 165 faculty, role in academic exchanges, 112 funding for, 63 Chinese University Development Project, 75-77 Chinese University of Hong Kong, 82, 96 Chinese-U.S. Physics Examination and Application (CUSPEA), 153-154 Committee on International Relations Studies with the People's Republic of China (CIRSPRC), 80-81 Committee on Scholarly Communication 257 with the People's Republic of China (CSCPRC) Distinguished Scholar Exchange Program (DSEP), 72-73, 80, 99, 196 funding of, 68 National Program for Advanced Research and Study in China, 63, 70-72, 120, 194-195 programs, 239-241 Computer science funding for studies in, 52 PRC student interest in, 2, 37-40, 60, 73 U.S. student interest in, 56, 72, 73 Computer Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) academic exchange activities of, 91, 92-93, 232 Computers and computer facilities in PRC, 159 Carson, Dale R., 76 Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 67, 191-193 Cultural Revolution, 43, 46, 69, 78, 89, 102, 138, 151, 152, 157, 161 D Dalian National Center for Industrial Science and Technology Management Development, 64-66, 178 Deng Xiaoping, 62 E Earthquake prediction in PRC, 157-159 Economic relations between U.S. and PRC, 79 Economics Chinese, U.S. studies of, 145-147 CSCPRC National Program grantees in, 194 PRC student interest in, 19 programs on, 80 U.S. funding for studies in, 78, 79-80 U.S., Chinese studies of, 147 Education philanthropic activities in, 78-85 PRC student interest in, 38-40, 73 U.S. student interest in, 56, 72-73 Engineering funding for studies in, 52

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258 PRC student interest in, 2, 19, 21, 31, 37-40, 73 U.S. student interest in, 55-56, 72-73 English As a Second Language (ESL) funding for studies in, 82 PRC student interest in, 38-40, 128 English language proficiency of PRC students and scholars, 127-130 English language studies in PRC, 119, 127-130 Exxon Educational Foundation, 152, 231 F Fields of study distribution of American and Chinese DSEP grantees by, 73 distribution of CSCPRC National Program grantees by, 72 effects on funding of students, 52 matching between U.S. and PRC, 113-114 of Chinese Fulbright lecturers in U. S. 191 of Chinese Fulbright researchers in U. S., 193 of foreign students in U. S., 24 of U.S. Chinese studies scholars, 56 of U.S. Fulbright lecturers in PRC, 191 PRC priorities in, 2-3, 19, 21, 24, 30, 31, 37-40, 72-73, 182-183, 187 U.S. funding priorities by, 19, 52, 63, 90, 109, 149 U.S. student priorities in, 30, 54-56, 72-73 Financial support, see Funding First International Symposium on Teaching Chinese As a Foreign Language, 125 Food conservation technologies, PRC interest in, 163 Ford Foundation, 74, 79-80, 88, 90, 94, 143, 231 Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) fellowships, 123, 215 Fosdick, Raymond B., 86 Foundations, see specificloundations Fudan University, American studies at, 148 institutional agreements of, 202-214 key institution, 226 INDEX Fujian, proportion of students from, 19, 41, 181 Fukien, see Fujian Fulbright Lecturer Program, 67-68, 191-193 Fulbright Program in China, 66-68, 71, 150 in China before 1950, 20 scholars traveling to PRC, 54 Funding by National Science Foundation, 70, 135 by PRC for returning students and scholars, 174 by professional associations, 232 by U.S. private philanthropic organizations, 6, 77-90, 231-232 by World Bank, 75, 242-243 distinctions between PRC students and scholars in, 50 effects of field of study on funding of students, 52 for American studies, 149 for arts studies, 88-90 for business management studies, 82 for Chinese language training, 7, 123 for Chinese studies in U.S., 63 for computer science studies, 52 for CSCPRC programs, 68, 70-72, 74 for economics studies, 78-80 for engineering studies, 52 for English language studies, 82 for health science studies, 52, 86-89 for history studies, 71 for international studies, 78-81 for library and archival science studies, 52 for life science studies, 52 for mathematics studies, 52 for natural science studies, 52 for physical science studies, 52 for physics studies, 109, 153 for plant genetics projects, 86 for population projects, 86 for Sino-American agricultural exchanges, 164 for Sino-American seismological research, 159 for social science studies, 52, 70-71, 78, 89 for studies in law, 52, 78-80, 109

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INDEX for U.S. students and scholars, 7, 113, 215 from USED, 70, 94 multivariate analysis of determinants of, 227-230 of bilateral agreements, 64 of PRC students in U.S., 3, 31, 46-53, 57, 105-110 of Sino-American agricultural exchanges, 162 PRC student preoccupation with, 109 sources, 46-52, 70 through Fulbright Program, 66-68 U.S. field-of-study priorities, 19, 52, 63, 90, 109, 149 G Gansu, proportion of students from, 41 Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation China Initiative, 85, 123, 231 Graduate programs, U.S., Chinese impact on, 11 Graduate Record Examination (GRE), 103, 153 Grants see Funding Guangdong, proportion of students from 3, 19, 40-41, 181 Guangxi host units in, 71 proportion of students from, 41-42 Guangzhou, Fulbright lecturers in, 192 Guizhou, proportion of students from, 41-42 H He Dongchang, 54 Health insurance for Chinese students in U.S., 106, 116 for foreign students in U.S., 53 Health sciences foreign students studying in U.S., 24, 38-39 philanthropic activities in, 86-88 PRC student interest in, 2, 31, 37-40, 73 U.S. funding for studies in, 52, 86-88, 89 U.S. student interest in, 56, 72-73 see also Mental health Hebei, proportion of students from, 19, 41, 181 259 Heilongjiang host units in, 71 proportion of students from, 41, 181 Henan host units in, 71 proportion of students from, 3, 41-42 Henry Luce Foundation, 74, 82-83, 84, 88,90,94,231 History American, PRC university programs on, 149 PRC student interest in, 21 U.S. funding for studies in, 71 U.S. student interest in, 55 Hofstra University, motivation of, for academic exchange, 112 Hong Kong Chinese language studies in, 125 political science studies in, 143, 165 Hong Yuandong, 65 Hopeh, see Hebei Huazhong Normal University, 96 Hubei, proportion of students from, 40-41 Humanities education-related philanthropic activities in, 78 performance of PRC visiting scholars in, 110 PRC funding for studies in, 52 PRC student interest in, 3, 7, 19, 21, 37-40, 73 U.S. funding for, 71, 78, 89 U.S. student interest in, 4, 30, 55-57, 72-73 Hunan Medical College, 96 Hunan, proportion of students from, 41 I Immigration concerns of U.S., 46, 57 Inner Mongolia, animal resources in, 163 Institute of Development Biology, 87 Institute of International Education (IIE), 80, 93-94, 231 Insurance, see Health insurance Inter-University Program (IUP), 126 Interinstitutional agreements, 202-214 International Advisory Panel, 76 International issues conferences on, 80 U.S. funding for, 78-79 U.S. student interest in, 55

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260 James, Edmund J., 16 Japan, PRC students and scholars in, 18, 19 Jiangsu, proportion of students from, 19, 40-41, 181 .. . Jlangx1 host units in, 71 proportion of students from, 41 Jilin, proportion of students from, 41 Jinan, Fulbright lecturers in, 192 John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 74 Johns Hopkins University-Nanjing University Center for Chinese and American Studies, 143, 148-149 Journalism, educational programs in, 79 K Kettering Foundation, 94, 231 Kiangsu, see Jiangsu Kwangtung? see Guangdong L Languages PRC exchange student interest in, 21 see also Chinese language studies; English As a Second Language; English language studies Law funding for studies in, 52, 78-80, 109 PRC student interest in, 38-39, 73 programs in, 80 U.S. student interest in, 56, 72-73 Li Tao, 54 Li Xiannian, 62 Liaoning, proportion of students from 181 Library and archival sciences PRC funding for studies in, 52 PRC student interest in, 38-40, 73 U.S. student interest in, 56, 72-73 Life sciences foreign students studying in U. S., 24, 38-39 PRC student interest in, 2, 31, 37-39 U.S. funding for studies in, 52 U.S. student interest in, 56, 72-73 INDEX Lingnan University development of, 81 see also Trustees of Lingnan University Literature PRC student interest in, 21 U.S. student interest in, 55 see also American literature; Chinese literature Luce Fund for Asian Studies, 83-84 Luce Fund for Chinese Scholars, 83 Luce, Henry R., 82 M ,41, Management, see Business management Mao Zedong, 42, 102, 151, 157, 161 Mathematics PRC student interest in, 2, 37-40, 73 U.S. funding for studies in, 52 U.S. student interest in, 56, 72-73 Medicine academic exchange activities in, 91 philanthropic activities in, 86-88 Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 156 Mental health, Chinese-American collaborative exchange on, 141, 168 Michigan Test for English Language Proficiency (MTELP), 128 N Nanjing University American studies at, 148-149 Nanjing, Fulbright lecturers in, 192 Nankai University, American studies at, 149 National Academy of Engineering (NAE), exchange programs sponsored by, 74 National Academy of Sciences (NAS), exchange programs sponsored by, 69, 74 National Committee on United States-China Relations, Inc., academic exchange activities of, 85, 94-95 National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), funding from, 70, 94 National Program for Advanced Study and Research in China, 66-67, 98 National Science Foundation (NSF)

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INDEX funding for exchange programs, 70, 135 Sino-American scientific cooperation program, 68-69 Natural sciences flow of Sino-American exchanges in, 150-154 funding for studies in, 63 performance of PRC visiting scholars in, 110 PRC student interest in, 19 Nei Monggol, proportion of students from, 41-42 Nezbu materials, 137, 141 New China News Agency participation in educational programs, 79 Nieman Fellowship Program, 79 Ningxia host units in, 71 proportion of students from, 41-42 Nixon, Richard M., 70 o Oberlin College ties with PRC, 112 p Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), 86, 87 People's Republic of China (PRC) "open" policy, 42, 46, 63, 79, 124 academic exchange program design, 10 access to archives and libraries in, 136-137, 166 agricultural competition between U.S. and, 9, 164 agricultural field studies in, 164 agricultural interests, 163 agricultural strategy, 161 agricultural strengths, 162 Americans teaching in, 20 animal resources, 162-163 applied science interests, 74 attitudes toward scholarship in social sciences, 138 channels for scholarly access to, 116 Chinese language studies in, 124-127, 244-246 computers and computer facilities in, 159-160 development strategy, 42, 57-58 developmental status, 26 261 domestic and foreign policies, 26 Draft Regulations on Self-Supported Study Abroad, 25, 37 earthquake hazard mitigation in, 160 earthquake prediction in, 157-159 Eastern European students in, 22 economic and administrative centers, 40 education of Americans about, 85 education reforms (1985), 26~27 English language studies in, 119, 127-128 exit visa issuance, 33 expenditures on education exchange, 52 field-of-study patterns, 24, 37-40 financial remissions to by students, 53, 107-108 financial support of students abroad, 19, 46-53, 227-228, 230 grading systems, 103 high-energy accelerator plans, 151 host units for U.S. students/scholars, 71 imbalances in flow of students/scholars between U.S. and, 5-6, 57, 112-113 importance of academic exchange to, 10-11 institutional models for, 171-172 key institutions, 225-226 military strength, 10 ministries issuing exit visas, 33 Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 79 Ministry of Public Health, 87 modernization effort, 2, 52-53, 66 national organizations engaged in academic exchange, 63 nationalities of foreign students during 1950s and 1960s in, 22 North Korean students in, 22 objectives in academic exchange, 13-14, 17, 21 percent of foreigners that are American, 54 Ping-Pong team, 94 plant and crop genetic resources, 162 policy on funding research scholars, 108-109 public education about, 94 research access in, 4, 5-6, 12, 28, 114, 129, 133, 136-137, 165-166 research capabilities, 76-77 response to U.S. scholars' needs, 13

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262 restrictions on field research in, 165 science reforms, 175 seismological research in, 158 Soviet student access to information in, 28 Soviet students in, 22, 28 State Science and Technology Commission (SSTC), 74 treatment of foreign students in, 22 U.S. agency involvement in institutional development, 97 U.S. image of, 6, 9-14 U. S. interest in modernization of, 52-53, 66 U.S. involvement in scientific, S economic, and technical change in, 177-178 U.S. sociological field work in, 139-141, 168 U.S. understanding of politics in, 143 Vietnamese students in, 22 Physical sciences foreign students studying in U.S., 24, 38-39 PRC student interest in, 31, 37-40, 73 U.S. funding for studies in, 52 U.S. student interest in, 56, 72-73 Physics academic exchange activities in, 4, 91-92, 151-154 PRC funding for, 109, 153 Plant genetics projects, grants for, 86 Political science constraints on study in PRC, 141-143 CSCPRC National Program grantees in, 194 U.S. student interest in, 55 Population projects, grants for, 86 Project HOPE, 88 Project Zero, 100-101 Protocol for Scientific and Technical Cooperation in the Earth Sciences, 64, 235 Protocol in the Field of Marine and Fishery Science and Technology, 64, 234 Protocol on Cooperation in the Field of Atmospheric Science and Technology, 54, 234 Protocol on Cooperation in the Field of Management of Industrial Science and Technology, 65, 237 INDEX Q Qinghai, proportion of students from, 41 R Reagan, Ronald, 62 Research access in PRC, 4, 5-6, 12, 28, 114, 129, 133, 136-137, 165-166 future opportunities for cooperation in, 177 Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF), 81, 88, 89, 94, 232 Rockefeller Foundation, 77, 81, 86-87 Scholar Orientation Program, 95 Science, Technology, and Economic Development (STED) Program, 74 Security problems arising from academic exchange, 10, 175-176 Seismology, Sino-American academic exchanges in, 156-161 Shaanxi, proportion of students from, 41 Shaanxi Teachers University, 83 Shandong, proportion of students from, 3, 41-42 Shandong University, American studies at, 149 Shanghai arts education conference in, 89 Fulbright lecturers in, 192 host units in, 71 institutions with international relations programs, 81 proportion of students from, 3, 40-42 Shanghai Communique, 70 Shanghai Foreign Languages Institute Fulbright lecturers at, 67 Shanxi host units in, 71 proportion of students from, 41 Sichuan, proportion of students from, 3, 40-42 Sichuan University, 83 Sino-American academic exchange campus aspects of, 102-118 characterization of, 55-58 current, global setting, 23-25 economic implications, 9-10 educational organizations active in, 93-96

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INDEX effect of PRC education reforms on, 26-27 effect of Sino-Soviet exchanges on, 22-23 effects, 4-5, 11 effects of on selected disciplines, 132-170 factors shaping, 5-8, 112 financial implications, 47-49 historical context, 15-27 immigration implications, 46, 57 importance of to PRC, 10-11 institutional changes resulting from, 171-172 interinstitutional arrangements for, 6, 110-116, 202-214 international attitudes toward, 17 leadership needs, 8, 97-98 needs in, 8, 75, 97 new directions in, 74 numerical reciprocity in, 5, 9, 12, 13, 70 PRC objectives in, 13-14 PRC program design, 10 problems, 114-115 professional associations active in, 90-93 projection of future trends in, 35-37 role of Chinese Americans in, 112, 154, 155-156 role of Chinese studies faculty in, 112 security problems arising from, 10 study patterns in, 55 U.S. benefits from, 11-12 U.S. federal programs for, 64-69 U.S. objectives in, 9-12 U.S. policy on, 9, 26-27 university-to-university, 202-214 Social Science Research Council (SSRC), 69 Social sciences Chinese attitudes toward studies in, 138-139 education-related philanthropic activities in, 78-79 field research in PRC, 133 performance of PRC visiting scholars in, 110 PRC student interest in, 2, 7, 19, 21, 37-40, 73 U.S. funding for studies in, 52, 70-71, 78, 89 U.S. student interest in, 4, 30, 55-57 72-73 263 Sociology Chinese scholars active in, 139 CSCPRC National Program grantees in, 194 effect of Sino-American academic exchange on studies in, 138-141, 165 Soviet Union number of Chinese trained in, 21 students in PRC, 22 Students and scholars, PRC academic performance, 52, 57, 109-110, 153-154 affiliations, 43-45 age, 45-46, 189 categories of, 58 characteristics, 30-61 counseling and advisory services to, 93-94 dispersion through U.S., 104, 199 English language proficiency, 127-130 enrolled at American institutions, 33 female in U.S., 18, 40, 46, 188 fields of study, 2-3, 19, 21, 24, 30, 31, 37-40, 72-73, 182-183, 187 financial support of, 19, 31, 81, 103, 105-108, 190 geographic origins, 3, 19, 40-42, 103, 181 having degrees, 45 health insurance for, 53, 105-106, 116 immigration of, 57 importance of interinstitutional agreements to, 112-113 in Japan, 18, 186 in Soviet Union, 21 interests in political science, 142 length of stay in U.S., 35 medical costs of, 106 non-degree-seeking, 33 number in U.S., 2, 13, 23, 31-37 number of American schools attended by, 104 occupations distribution, 34 officially sponsored, 23-25, 58, 60, 104, 105, 107, 108, 109, 173, 186 on American campuses, 103-110, 200-201 Ph.D.s earned by, 18 preoccupation with funding, 109 principal site abroad for educating, 25 problems, 105-106

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264 range of programs involved in, 104 reabsorption of, 17-18, 21-22, 172-175 remissions by, 53, 107-108 selection for study abroad, 103, 106, 153 self-paying students, 23-24, 37, 46, 58, 60, 104, 105, 173 sent abroad under World Bank China University Development Project, 198 socioeconomic status, 42-45 stipends, 7-8, 53, 92 training in U.S. for, 81 types of U.S. schools attended by, 104 U.S. expenditures for, 47-48 U.S. restrictions on, 6, 176-177, 248-249 U.S. treatment of, 13, 16, 176 U.S. visas issued to, 24, 31-37 visa status, 24-25, 104-105 Westernization, 20 Students and scholars, U.S. categories, 54 Chinese language skills, 85, 119-123, 129 field-of-study priorities, 30, 54-56, 72-73 foreign language proficiency, 120-121 funding for, 7, 113, 215 importance of interinstitutional agreements to, 112-113 number enrolled in Chinese language classes, 4, 121-122 number in PRC, 4, 13, 53-56, 73 percent actually taking courses at PRC institutions, 53-54 PRC response to needs of, 13 sociological and anthropological interests, 140 studying Chinese language in PRC, 54, 119 T Taiwan Chinese language studies in, 125-127 political science studies in, 143, 165 students from in U.S., 15, 23, 37 Tangshan earthquake (1976), 157, 158 Technology transfer concerns, 9-10, 175-177 U.S. policy on, 27, 175 INDEX Test of English As a Foreign Language (TOEFL), 103, 127-128 Third World countries, academic relations between U.S. and, 57 Tianjin Fulbright lecturers in, 192 proportion of students from, 41 Tibet, see Xizang Trade international, educational programs in, 79 Sino-American, 121-122 Trustees of Lingnan University educational activities, 81-82, 94 U U.S.-China Relations Program (Stanford University), 143 U.S. Committee on Legal Education Exchanges with China (USCLEEC), 80-83 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), interactions with PRC, 64, 164 U.S. Department of Education (USED), funding from, 70, 94 U.S. Information Agency (USIA) administration of Fulbright Program, 67 data collection activities, 59 role in academic exchange, 70, 94 U.S. International Communication Agency (USICA), see U.S. Information Agency U.S.-Chirra Bilateral Metallurgical Conference, 92 U.S.-China joint Working Group on Cooperation in Basic Sciences, 68-69 U.S.-China Protocol on Cooperation in the Basic Sciences, 68, 235 Understanding on Agricultural Exchange (1979), 64 Understanding on Educational Exchanges, 70 United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia, 83, 94 United States academic exchange policy, 9 agricultural competition between PRC and, 164 Asian students in, 2, 23, 25 benefits from academic exchange, 11-12

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INDEX benefits from physics exchange with PRC, 154 Chinese language studies in, 125-126 contributors to Chinese studies, 20 doctorates earned by foreign citizens in, 170 educational costs in, 48 expenditures for PRC students and scholars, 47-48 field-of-study funding priorities, 19, 52, 63, 90, 109, 149 fields of study for foreign students in, 24 financial concerns of educational community, 53 foreign students remaining in, 35 growth rate of foreign student population in, 25 growth rate of PRC student population in, 31-37 image of PRC, 9-14, 27 imbalances in flow of students/scholars between PRC and, 57 Indian students in, 23 interdisciplinary study of in PRC, 148 interests in PRC's modernization, 52-53 Japanese students in, 23 Korean students in, 23 length of stay of PRC students in U.S., 35 Malaysian students in, 23 Middle Eastern students in, 23 national security concerns, 176 needs in Chinese studies, 85 objectives in academic exchange, 10-12 origins of foreign students in, 15 percent of female foreign students in, 61 philanthropic organization activities, 77-90 policies toward PRC, 27, 52-53, 58 PRC research in, 149-150 restricted classes and conferences in, 248-249 Spanish language courses nationwide, 121 students from Hong Kong in, 23 students from Taiwan in, 15, 23, 37 technology transfer policy, 6, 175-177 United States-China Arts Education Project, 89 Universities, PRC 265 agreements with U.S. institutions, 3-4, 111, 202-214 American studies programs in, 148-149 faculty members sent abroad by, 184-185, 197 Fulbright lecturers at, 67 having anthropology departments, 139 having sociology departments, 139 political science development in, 142 status after Cultural Revolution, 42 surveys of, 59 Universities, U.S. agreements with PRC institutions, 3-4, 111, 202-214 Chinese authors visiting, 144 enrollment restrictions, 176-177, 248-249 funding of foreign students by, 3, 31, 47-53, 57, 227-229 operations in China, 65 participation in graduate physics programs, 153 PRC student enrollments at, 33 responding to Asian studies questionnaire, 223-224 responding to questionnaire on handling of PRC students, 216-222 stipends from, 92 surveys of, 59 with largest PRC student populations, 201 with most CSCPRC National Program grantees; 194 with most J-1 and F-1 visa holders, 200 V Visas/visa holders, F-1 by fields of study, 38, 187 by type of U.S. university affiliation, 201 distribution by employer, 44 document to be completed for, 60, 201 educational background of, 188 immigration of, 57 occupational distribution of, 34, 39-40, 43-45 percent of foreign students having, 25 Visas/visa holders, F-1 and J-1 age, 45-46, 189 characteristics, 58

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266 costs for, 61 English language study plans of, 128 financial support patterns for, 3, 47-52, 190 geographic origins, 40-42 marital status, 46, 186 number issued to PRC students and scholars, 32, 34-35 range of U. S. institutions attended by, 104-105 region of residence in U.S., 103, 199 return rate of, 5, 35, 174 sex of, 46, 186, 188 Visas/visa holders, J-1 determinants of financial aid to, 227-230 double-counting of, 59-60 female, by fields of study, 188 fields of study, 2-3, 39, 187, 188 IAP-66 data for, 33, 59, 117, 252 number/percent of PRC students having, 25 Visas/visa holders, U.S. number issued to PRC citizens, 24 W Wang Institute of Graduate Studies, 85, 232 Wang Zhaoguo, 65 World Bank Chinese education projects, 75-77, 174, 198, 242-243 INDEX Wuhan University, American studies at 149 Wuhan, Fulbright lecturers in, 192 XXinjiang animal resources in, 163 host units in, 71 proportion of students from, 41-42 Xizang animal resources in, 163 host units in, 71 proportion of students from, 41-42 y Yale-China Association academic exchange activities, 95-96, 232 Yenching University, 82 Yunnan earthquake prediction in, 159 proportion of students from, 41 z Zhang Guangdou, 76 ZhangJingfu, 173 Zhang Zhidong, attitudes of toward academic exchange, 18, 41 Zhao Ziyang, 62 Zhejiang, proportion of students from, 19, 181 Zhongshan University, 81-82 Zhou Enlai, 70