Click for next page ( 324


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 323
Index Absorption of arsenic compounds by plants, 80-81, 218 dermal, 116 from gastrointestinal tract, 105-7 Acrocyanosis, from arsenic exposure, 181, 182 Adaptation to arsenic toxicity by laboratory animals, 136-37 by microorganisms, 118-19 Agriculture, use of arsenic in, 26 in desiccants, 37-38 in herbicides, 36-37 in pesticides, 3, 9, 33-34 suggested research on, 231 Air, arsenic in, 27, 218. See also Pollu- tion, from arsenic from cotton plant dust, 58 from pesticides, 76-77 from smelting of metals, 56-57, 224 removal of, 56 threshold limit for, 25-26 Air samples for arsenic concentration, 56-57 suggested research on analytic tech- niques for, 229 323 Alcohol, role in arsenic poisoning, 177, 179 Algae arsenic concentration in, 24, 217 arsenic metabolism in, 92-96 Alkylarsines, effect on biologic systems, 14 Alkylbis(organylthio) arsines,l5 Alkyldihaloarsines, 14, 15 Alkyldihydroxyarsines, 14, 15 Aluminum arsenate, 45 Analytic methods for arsenic atomic absorption, 224, 259-60 atomic emission spectroscopy, 260 coprecipitation, 258 electrochemical, 224, 261 gas chromatography, 261 liquid-liquid extraction, 258 molecular-absorption spectrophotom- etry, 259 neutron-activation analysis, 224, 260-61 volatilization, 258-59 Animals arsenic concentration in, 24-25, 243-53 arsenic derived from tissues of, 104-5

OCR for page 323
324 arsenic residues in, 53-54 arsenic toxicity in domestic, 144-45 diagnosis of, 147~8, 156-57 factors affecting, 151-53 from feed additives, 149-50 symptoms of, 146-47, 153-54 treatment of, 148-49 arsenic toxicity in laboratory adaptation to, 136-37 by inhalation, 137-39 factors influencing, 128-32 mechanism of, 133-36 disposal of arsenic wastes from, 61-62 distribution of arsenic in, 108, 111 excretion of arsenic by, 39~0, 105-7, 108, 110, 154-55 studies on carcinogenic effects of arsenic in, 202-6 Aquatic organisms. Sect Marine organisms Arsanilic acid as growth promoter, 132 effect on swine, ISS, 156, 158 infeed additives, 149, ISI safe dietary concentration of. 152 Arsenates concentration in urine, 106, 107 effect on plants, 120 reduction of, 11, 77 Arsenic. See also Arsenicals; Arsenic compounds as trace element, 69, 230 beneficial effects of, 142-44 by-product, 26 folklore related to, 2-3 high-purity, 42 man-made sources of, 26. 32-33, 217 methods for measuring, 223-24, 225-26, 259-61 production of, 26, 28 radioactive, 86 recycling of, 43, 97 supply-demand relationship of, 28-29 vaporization of, 33 Arsenic acids as desiccant, 37-38 compared with phosphoric acids, 9 disposal of, S9 effect on thiols, 13 esterif~ed, 12 formation of, 7-8 Index Arsenicals agricultural uses of organic, 34 aliphatic, 132 as chemotherapeutics, 2, 189 as toxicant to domestic animals, 144~9 criminal abuses of, 3 for resistance to infection, 139-141 imports of, by class, 3 1 interaction between nutrients and, 125- 26 phytotoxicity of organic, 120-125 toxicity of synthetic, 129, 132 transformation of, in soil, 78 volatile, 77 Arsenic chloride, burns caused by, 14-15 Arsenic-chlorine bond, I S Arsenic compounds. Sale also Pentavalent arsenic compounds; Trivalent arsenic compounds absorption by plants. 80-81 as pesticides, 34 biochemical response to, I 19-20 environmental importance of, 4 hydrolytic instability of, 9 imports of, 26, 31 inorganic, I I methods for determining, 261 methods for disposing of, 67-68 methylation of, I 1-12 mutagenic effects of, 193-95 organic, 10-1 1 plant translocation of, 81-88 suggested research for analyzing, 229 teratogenic effects of, 191-93 toxic and no-effect doses of, 128, 130- 31, 132-33 toxicity of adaptation to, 136-37 factors influencing, 128-32 mechanism of, 133-36 of trivalent versus pentavalent, 133-36 used as feed additives, 149-52 vaporization of, 33 war and riot-control uses for, 41 Arsenic cycle, 46, 218 for total environment, 68, 70 importance of change in, 79 in agronomic ecosystem, 68-69 in terrestrial ecosystem, 69 Arsenic halide, 15

OCR for page 323
Index Arsenic-oxygen-arsenic bond, 6-7, 217 Arsenic-oxygen-carbon bond, 9 Arsenic pentasulfide, 10 Arsenic pentoxide, 6, 33, 175 Arsenic poisoning. See also Symptoms of arsenic toxicity; Toxicity of arsenic acute, 176 arsenic residues causing, 53 chronic, 2 effect on hair, 113, 180, 183, 188, 189-90 effect oilskin, 114, 176, 178-79, 181-87, 188, 189-91 from contaminated food, 55 indicators of, 25 in domestic animals, 144, 146 in literature, 1 of Napoleon, 2 polyneuritis from, 25 sources of, 144 subacute, 176-84 suggested research on mechanism responsible for, 230 susceptibility to, 145 treatment of, 148-49 Arsenic sulfides, 10 Arsenic-sulfur bond, 217 Arsenic trioxide as primary arsenic compound, 5, 216 carcinogenicity of, 76, 205 causticity of, 174 dietary effects of, 112 disposal of, 62-63 effect on birds, 166 effects of dissolving, 6, 7 formation of, 6 from coal, 66 from smelters, 5, 81, 216 in home-use products, 36 medicinal use of, 174 modifications of. 5 solubility of, 6 toxicity of, 128-29, 138-39 U.S. imports of, 26, 27 Arsenic trisulfide 4, 10 Arsenism. See Exposure to arsenic Arsenites, 9 effect on plants, 120, 126 reduction of, 11, 77 Arsenous acids, 6-7 Arsonates, toxicity of, 127 325 Arsonic acids, 39-40 Arsphenamine, 2, 40 Atmosphere arsenic concentration in, 25-26, 27 arsenic emission into, 26 Atom, arsenic, 5, 10 Atomic absorption, to measure 224, 259-60 Atomic emission spectroscopy, 260 Bacteria arsenic metabolism in, 77, 88-89 reduction of arsenate to arsenite by, 8 Beer, toxic amounts of arsenic in, 179, 180 Bees, arsenic concentration in, 54 Biologic effects of arsenic in aquatic organisms, 157-60, 161-63, 220 in domestic animals, 144-57, 158, 220 in laboratory animals, 128-44, 221 in man, 173-215 passim, 222-23 in microorganisms, 117-18, 221 in plants, 119-27 in wildlife, 160, 164-72, 220 Birds arsenic metabolism in, 101, 103 arsenic toxicity to, 166-67, 169, 172 Blood, arsenic concentration, 113 Blood-mammary barrier to arsenic, 113 Bowen's disease, from arsenic exposure, 185-86 Bronchiectasis, from arsenic exposure, 181 Bronchopneumonia, from arsenic exposure, 180-81 Burns, from arsenic chloride, 14- 1 S Cacodylic acid absorption of, 116 as desiccant, 45 as herbicide, 36, 37, 58 disposal of, 58-59, 64 in algae, fish, and snails, 93, 94, 95 reactions of, 13-14 reduction of, 77 translocation of, 83, 87 Calcium arsenate as pesticide, 9, 34 disposal of, 59-60, 64-65 Caparsolate, 41 Carbarsone, 40, 152

OCR for page 323
326 Carcinogenic effects of arsenic, 3, 114 delayed, 186 experimental animal studies of, 202-6 experimentally induced, 214- 15 from occupational exposure, 187, 197- 201 leukemia, 203 liver cancer, 213-14, 223 lung cancer, 175, 185, 197, 199, 200, 208-13, 223 morphologic changes, 214- l S mortality rate from, 198-99, 209-11 population studies of, 202, 223 skin cancer, 182, 184, 185, 186 clinical reports of, 195-97 evaluation of, 206-8 Catarrhal symptoms of arsenic poisoning, 177 Chemotherapeutics, 2, 189. See also Medicinal uses of arsenic Children, symptoms of arsenic toxicity in, 180-81, 186-87 Chlorosis, from arsenic toxicity, 120-23, 127 Chromatographic tests, for arsenic translocation, 85 Chromosomal reaction. See Mutagenic effects of arsenic Claudetite, 5 Coal arsenic trioxide from, 66 emission of arsenic from burning, 73-74 Colorimetry, to measure arsenic, 224 Concentration of arsenic in animals, 24-25, 243-53 in atmosphere, 25-26, 27 in earth's crust, 16 in man, 24-25 in marine organisms, 25, 217 in minerals, 16 in plants, 24, 233-42 in rocks, 4, 17-18 in soils, 4, 18-19, 40, 217 in water, 4, 20-23, 217 systemic, 175, 176 Consumption of arsenic, 26, 217-18 as additive metal, 41-42 in desiccants, 37-38 in drugs, 40-41 in feed additives, 39~0 Index in glass manufacturing, 42-43 in herbicides, 36-37 in pesticides, 3, 33, 34 in semiconductor technology, 42 in wood preservatives, 38-39 Copper arsenic emission from smelting, 32 arsenic imported in, 26 Copper acetoarsenite as pesticide, 3, 34 disposal of, 60, 65-66 poisonous gas emitted by, l l Copper arsenate, 38-39 Coprecipitation arsenic from solution by, 20 in analysis of arsenic samples, 258 Corrosion, arsenic's resistance to, 42 Cotton arsenic acid as desiccant for, 37-38, 52, 59 arsenic residues from production of, 45, 52-53 effect of methanearsonates on, 50-51, 125 use of arsenical herbicides in produc tion of, 36-37 Crustaceans. See Mollusks and crustaceans Cupric arsenite, 9, 11 Deer, arsenic poisoning of, 167-68 Desiccants arsenic used in, 37-38, 52, 59 cacodylic acid as, 45 . _. . ~ . . . . ~lagllOSlS OI arSemC pOlSOIllIlg "index of suspicion" in, 222 in domestic animals, 147-48, 156-57 in man, 180, 222 Dialkylarsines, 14 Dialkylhaloarsines, 15 Dialkylhydroxyarsines, 15 Dichlorophenarsine, 41 Diet effect of arsenic trioxide in, 112 normal intake of arsenic in, 103-4 from animal tissue, 104-5 from plants, 104 from seafood, 111 Digestive system, symptoms of arsenic poisoning in, 177

OCR for page 323
Index See also Gastrointestinal tract Dimethylarsine, 13, 45 Dipotassium hydrogen arsenate, 9 Disodium methanearsonate as herbicide, 36, 45, 217 disposal of, 59, 64 effect on cotton, 125 translocation of, 83, 84-85, 87 Disposal of arsenic from feed additives. 61-62 from herbicides and pesticides 58-60 from industrial uses, 62-66 methods for, 67 Dissipation of arsenic, 75, 76 Distribution of arsenic in body, 108-16 in environment, 16-26, 217-18 Dodecyl(octyl)ammonium methanearsonate, 83, 84 Doses, of arsenic suggested research on, 228 therapeutic, 176-77 toxic and no-effect, 128, 130-31, 132-33, 222 toxic, in wildlife, 165 Drugs. See Medicinal use of arsenic Dust, arsenic in, 26, 27, 56, 174 Earth's crust, arsenic in, 116 Ecosystem, arsenic in, 68-69, 225 Electrochemical methods, for measuring arsenic, 224, 261 Electrostatic precipitation, for removing arsenic, 63 Emission of arsenic, 26 from coal burning, 73-74 from mining and processing of phosphate rock, 74 from pesticides, 76-77 from processing of nonferrous metals, 72 from smelters, 32, 71, 73, 224 industrial balance for, 74, 75 Environment arsenic contamination of, 224-26 arsenic cycle for, 68-79 distribution of arsenic in from residues, 43-58 from waste disposal, 58-68 man-made sources of, 26-43 natural sources of, 16-26 suggested research on, 231 327 effect of arsenic on, 3 Enzymes, interaction with thiol proteins, 13, 15 Epidemiologic effects of arsenic, 202, 223 suggested research on, 227-28 Erythromelalgia, from arsenic poisoning, 178, 182 Esters hydrolyzed, 12, 220 prepared from arsenous or arsenic acid, 9-10 Excretion of arsenic in urine, 105-7, 108, 110-11, 113, 132, 154 through skin, 114, 116, 189, 190-91 Exposure to arsenic chronic, 184-87 delayed effects of, 186-87 effects of, 180-84 from dust, 174 standards for, 25-26 systemic absorption from, 175, 176 Eyes, effect of arsenic on, 153, 154 Fallout, removal of arsenic in, 76, 77 Feed additives arsenic compounds used as, 149-53 arsenic used in, 39-40, 217 disposal of waste from, 61-62 toxicity of, 149-50, 151, 220 Fertilizer, effect of arsenic content on soils and crops, 44, 176, 217-18 Filter-bag house operations, for removing arsenic, 63 Fish arsenic concentration, 54 arsenic metabolism in, 100-101, 102, 219 arsenic residues in, 103 arsenic toxicity to, 159-60, 161-63 cacodylic acid accumulation in, 93, 94, 95 dietary intake of arsenic in, 111 Fluxing, for vaporization of arsenic, 33 Fly ash, arsenic in, 56, 73 Foods, arsenic in, 54. See also Diet human intake of, 55 institutional diet with, 55 monitoring of, 54 normal intake of, 103-5, 111 suggested research on, 229 Fungi, arsenic metabolism in, 77, 89-92

OCR for page 323
328 Gas chromatography, for measuring arsenic, 261 Gastrointestinal tract, arsenic absorption from, 105-7~ 132, 183 Glass industry, arsenic compounds used in, 5, 42, 43, 66 . . Glycobiarsol, 40 Growth promotion by arsanilic acid, 132 by pentavalent arsenic compounds, 230-31 Hair arsenic concentration, 24-25 arsenic distributionin, 114, 115 effect of arsenic poisoning on, 113, 180, 183, 188, 189-90 Hemiplegia, from arsenic exposure, 181 Herbicides arsenic residues from, 45 dimethylarsine, 13 effect on wildlife, 167~8 for cotton production, 36-37 inorganic arsenicals used as, 36, 217 methanearsonic acid, 12 translocation of, 82-88, 90-91 Herpes zoster, from arsenic, 179, 190 Humans. See Man Hydrogen chloride, toxicity of, 15 Hydrolytic instability, 7, 9 Hyperkeratosis, from arsenic exposure, 181, 183, 189 Hyperpigmentation. See Melanosis Igneous rocks, arsenic in, 17 Immune response, role of arsenic in, 190 Imports, arsenic, 26, 30, 31 Industry, use of arsenic in, 4 disposal of, 62-66 in glass manufacturing, 5, 42-43, 66 material balance for emission from, 74, 75 Infection, use of arsenicals in resistance to, 139-41 Ingestion of arsenic, 179, 180, 183 Inhalation of arsenic, 37-39, 228 Insecticides. See Pesticides Iron arsenate, 45 Iron ore, arsenic in, 74 Ischemia, from arsenic exposure, 181 Index Keratoderma, from arsenic exposure, 184 Keratoses from arsenic poisoning, 178-79, 182, 184, 185, 186, 188, 191 skin cancer related to, 196, 202, 206-8 Leaching, arsenic, 44-45 Lead arsenate as pesticide, 9, 33-34, 58, 217 carcinogenicity of, 205-6 disposal of, 59~0, 64~5 effect on humans, 58 effect on plants, 49 in medical drugs, 41 residues from, 43 Leukemia, 203-4 Leukoderma, from arsenic exposure, 184, 186, 187 Lewisite, 5, 14, 175 Liquid-liquid extraction, to analyze arsenic samples, 258 Liver, arsenic-caused cancer of, 213-14, 223 Lungs,arsenic-caused cancer of, 175, 185, 197, 199, 200, 208-10, 211-12, 213, 223 Magnesium arsenate, 34 Man arsenic concentration, 24-25 cacodylic acid absorption in, 116 distribution of arsenic in, 108 excretion of arsenic by in urine, 111, 113, 132 through skin, 114, 116, 189, 190-91 toxicity of arsenic to from contact, 174-76 from exposure, 184-87 Marine organisms. See also Fish; Shellfish arsenic concentration, 25 arsenic toxicity to, 157, 159-60, 161 -63 Mass spectrometry, for measuring arsenic, 169, 261 Measurement of arsenic, methods for, 223-24, 225-26, 259-61 Medicinal use of arsenic diseases treated by, 40-41, 174, 194, 217 needed reevaluation of, 190 safety of, 2 tolerated doses of, 176-77 toxic reactions to, 173, 189

OCR for page 323
Index Melanosis, from arsenic exposure, 182, 183, 186, 187, 196, 202, 206-8 Melarsonyl, 41 Merlarsoprol, 40 Metabolism of arsenic in birds, 101, 103 in fish, 100-101, 102, 219 in mammals, 103-15, 219 in microorganisms, 77, 88-89, 92, 96-97, 219 in mollusks and crustaceans, 98-100, 219 in plants, 80-88, 120, 218-19 of selenium, 141-42 Methanearsonates as herbicides, 36-37 effect on cotton, 50-51, 125 in plant foods, 104 translocation of, 83-88 Methanearsonic acid as herbicide, 12, 45 concentration in urine, 105-7 conversion of, 13 effect on cotton, 125 reduction of, 14, 77 translocation of, 86, 87 Methylarsines, 11 effect on biologic systems, 14 oxidation of, 77 Methylation of arsenic compounds, 11-12, 14, 215, 216-17 Microorganisms adaptation to arsenic, 118-19 arsenic metabolism in, 88-97 in algae, 92-96 in bacteria, 88-89, 219 in fungi and molds, 89, 92, 219 in plankton, 96-97 toxicity of arsenic to, 117-18 Military use of arsenic, 27, 32, 36, 41 Minerals, arsenic in, 16 Molds arsenic metabolism in, 89, 92-93 conversion of arsenic compounds to methylated arsines by, 11, 217 Mollusks and crustaceans arsenic metabolism in, 98-100 dietary intake of arsenic in, l l 1 Monosodium methanearsonate as herbicide, 36, 45, 217 329 disposal of, 59, 64 effect on cotton, 125 translocation of, 86, 87, 88 Mutagenic effects of arsenic, 193-95, 223 suggested research on, 228 Nails arsenic concentration, 25 effect of arsenic poisoning on, 179, 183, 189 Necrosis, from arsenic toxicity, 123, 124 Neoarsphenamine, 41 Neurologic symptoms of arsenic poisoning, 177, 178, 183 Neutron-activation analysis, to measure arsenic, 224, 260-61 Nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, 152, 153 Nuclear-magnetic resonance studies, 6 Nutrients, interaction between arsenicals and, 125-26 Occupational hazards of arsenic, 183-84, 222 for vintners, 186, 188, 197, 212 from chemical plants, 201, 208, 210, 212 from gold mining, 213 from sheep dip, 187, 197, 207, 210 from smelters, 175, 187, 209-10 Ores, arsenic from smelting of nonferrous, 26-27 Oxidation of arsenic, 16, 19, 216 of methylarsines, 77 Particulate matter, from metal smelters, 33 Pentavalent arsenic compounds, 10, 104 for wood preservatives, 39 in feed additives, 150 reaction with thiols, 13 suggested research on growth-promoting effect of, 230-31 toxicity of, 8, 133-135 Pesticides arsenic residues from, 43, 58 arsenic used in, 3, 9, 33-34, 35, 217 effect on wildlife, 160, 164, 166 hazards from arsenical, 35-36, 188 mobile arsenic from, 76-77 suggested assessment of effects of nonuse of, 229-30

OCR for page 323
330 Petroleum, arsenic content of, 74 Phenylarsonic acids in feed additives, 149-57, 217 toxicity of, 156-57 Phosphate rock . . . ~ . . _, arsenic emlSS1011 IrOm mllllllg, /4 arsenic in, 18, 19 Phosphorus, interaction between arsenic and, 9-10, 120, 125-26 Phosphorylation, 120, 127 Phytotoxicity, arsenic in plants, 48, 50, 120-25, 127, 221 in soils, 45 Plankton, arsenic in, 96 Plants absorption of arsenic by, 80-81 arsenic concentration, 24, 233-42 arsenic derived from, 104 arsenic metabolism in, 81-88, 120 arsenic residues in, 48-53 arsenic toxicity in, 44, 120-25 beneficial effects of arsenic on, 50 Pollution from arsenic 'control of, 216 from coal-burning power plants, 137 from smelters', 32-33, 218, 224 Polyneuritis, from arsenic poisoning, 25 Potassium arsenate, 9, 191 Potassium arsenite, 204-5 Poultry arsenic concentration, 53 arsenic toxicity in, 154, 157 safe concentration of arsenic for, 152 Production of arsenic, 26, 28 Psoriasis arsenic therapy for, 194 skin cancer realted to, 196 Radioactive isotopes, to study arsenic distribution, 108, 109 Rain, removal of arsenic from atmosphere by, 76 Raman spectral studies, 6 Raynaud's syndrome, from arsenic exposure, 181, 182 Recycling of arsenic, 43, 67, 218 Research suggestions for assessing environmental effects of arsenic, 227-231 Residues of arsenic, 218 in air, 56-58 Index in animals, 53-54 in fish, 103 in foods, 54-55, 225 in plants, 48-53 in soils, 43~6, 103 in water, 46-48, 103 suggested guidelines for disposal of, 230 Respiratory tract, arsenic-caused cancer of,l99-201,210,212 Riot control, arsenical compounds used for, 41 Rocks, arsenic in, 4, 17- 18 Samples, arsenic analysis of, 258-59 collection of, 255-56 dissolution of, 256-57 preparation of, 257-58 Scrubbers, for removing arsenic, 63 Seafood. See also Fish; Shellfish arsenic toxicity to, 132 natural concentration of arsenic in, 225 normal intake of arsenic in, 111 Seaweed, arsenic in. 95, 96, 97, 217 Sedimentary rocks, arsenic in. 17- 18 Sediments, arsenic concentration in, 20, 23 Selenium poisoning, 179 protective effect of arsenic against, 141~2, 143, 192, 221 Semiconductor technology, use of arsenic in, 42 Sewage sludge, arsenic waste from, 66 Shellfish, arsenic toxicity to, 132, 161-63 Skin absorption of arsenic through, 114, 116, 175 effect ofarsenic on, 14,41, 153, 175 abnormal pigmentation, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 189 cancer, 182, 184, 185, 186, 195-97, 206-8, 223 keratoses, 178-79, 182, 184, 185, 188, 191 Smelting arsenic-caused cancer from, 175, 187, 198-99, 200 arsenic emission from, 32, 33, 56-57 arsenic produced by, 26, 217 arsenic residues in soil from, 45-46, 48-49'

OCR for page 323
Index cost of removing arsenic during, 27 disposal of arsenic from, 63 Snails, cacodylic acid accumulation in, 93, 94, 95 Sodium arsanilate, 151, 152, 153 Sodium arsenate as pesticide, 34-35, 217 carcinogenicity of, 205-6 chromosomal reactions to, 193-94 effect on skin, 175 for home-use products, 36 teratogenic effects of, 192-93 Sodium arsenite, 36, 217 carcinogenicity of, 205 chromosomal reaction to, 195 disposal of, 60, 65-66 effect on birds, 167 effect on plants, 119 effect on skin, 175 teratogenic effects of, 193 translocation of, 82-83 Sodium cacodylate, 40 Soil arsenic concentration, 4, 18-19, 40 arsenic residues in, 43-46, 103, 218 effect on plants, 49-52 Solubility of arsenates, 9, 44-45 of arsenic sulfides, 10 of arsenic trioxide, 5-6 of arsenites, 9 Spectrometry. See Mass spectrometry Speiss, arsenic in, 72-73 Sulfides, arsenic in, 16, 18-19 Swine arsanilic acid in feed additives for, 151, 153 effect of arsenic on, 155, 156, 157-58 Symptoms of arsenic toxicity in domestic animals, 146-47, 153-54 in man, 173 cardiac, 178, 188 catarrhal, 177 digestive, 177, 183 in children, 180-81, 186-87 in skin, 14, 41, 153, 175, 178-79, 182-83, 184-87 necrologic, 177, 178, 183 vascular, 181, 188 in plants, 119, 120-25 331 Telangiectasia, from arsenic exposure, 184 Temperature, effect on arsenic toxicity in plants, 123, 124 Teratogenic effects of arsenic, 191-93, 222 suggested research on, 228 Tetraarsenic tetrasulfide, 4 Tetrapotassium diarsenate, 9 Therapeutic use of arsenic. See Medicinal use of arsenic Thiols effect on arsenic acids, 13 interaction with enzymes, 13, 15 Threshold limit for arsenic, 25-26 Tobacco, arsenic content of, 48 Tolerance to arsenic by microorganisms, 119 by plants, 49, 53 by wildlife, 164, 165 Toxicity of arsenic. See also Arsenic poisoning; Symptoms of arsenic toxicity to aquatic organisms, 159-60, 220 to domestic animals, 144-54, 220 to laboratory animals, 128-44 to man, 220, 222 from contact, 174-76 from exposure, 184-87 to microorganisms, 117-18, 221 to plants, 44, 120-25 to wildlife, 164-69, 172, 220 Translocation of arsenic in plants, 81, 218-19 by acid-arsenic method, 82 from foliage to tubers, 83-85 Trimethylarsine, 11, 13, 45, 77, 217 Triorganyl arsenite, 9 Trivalent arsenic compounds, 10 reaction with thiols, 13 toxicity of, 8, 133-36 Tryparsamide, 41 Uptake, arsenic by algae, 92 by plankton, 97 by plants, 19, 49, 81 Urban areas, arsenic concentration in air, 5~57 Urinary arsenic, 25 excretion, 105-7, 108, 110-11, 113, 132, 180

OCR for page 323
332 from occupational exposure, 175, 183-84, 188, 198 Valence, of arsenic, 113, 114 Vapor pressure, of cubic arsenic trioxide, 6 Vegetables, arsenic content of, 48~9, 52 Venereal disease, arsphenamine to treat, 2 Volatilization of arsenic, during smelting, 27 to analyze arsenic samples, 258-59 Volcanic rock, arsenic-rich water from, 23 Warts, from arsenic exposure, 183, 187, 188 Wastes, arsenic. See Residues of arsenic Wastewater, arsenic content of, 66 Water arsenic-caused cancer from, 202, 208 Index arsenic concentration, 4, 46 in fresh water, 21-22 in groundwater, 20, 23 in seawater, 20 in sediments of, 20, 23 arsenic poisoning from, 180, 183 arsenic residues in, 47~8, 103 emission of arsenic into, 76, 77 Weathering, arsenic, 69 Wet-vacuum pumps, for removing arsenic, 63 Wildlife effect of arsenic on, 164, 166, 167-68 tissue arsenic concentration in, 169-71 Wood preservatives, arsenic used in, 38-39, 157 Zinc, interaction of arsenicals with, 126 Zinc arsenate, as pesticide, 34