Mineral Resources and Society

A Review of the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resource Surveys Program Plan

Panel to Review the Mineral Resource Surveys Program Plan of the U.S. Geological Survey

Committee on Earth Resources

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1996



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Mineral Resources and Society: A Review of the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resource Surveys Program Plan Mineral Resources and Society A Review of the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resource Surveys Program Plan Panel to Review the Mineral Resource Surveys Program Plan of the U.S. Geological Survey Committee on Earth Resources Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996

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Mineral Resources and Society: A Review of the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resource Surveys Program Plan NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Support for this study by the Panel to Review the Mineral Resource Surveys Program Plan of the U.S. Geological Survey was provided by the U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Government. Research supported by the U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, under USGS Agreement No. 14-08-0001-A0900. Additional copies of this report are available from Board on Earth Sciences and Resources National Academy of Sciences 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 202-334-2744 Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Cover: A digital aeromagnetic map of a portion of the states of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia. The map was assembled by the USGS for a mineral resource assessment of the southeastern United States. Structural features include igneous dikes (N and NW trending) and Piedmont faults (NE-SW trending). The Gold Hill fault (central and west of shaded dome) is a locus for numerous small gold mines.

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Mineral Resources and Society: A Review of the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resource Surveys Program Plan PANEL TO REVIEW THE MINERAL RESOURCE SURVEYS PROGRAM PLAN OF THE U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY SAMUEL S. ADAMS, Chairman, Minerals Consultant, Lincoln, New Hampshire PHILIP A. ABELSON, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C. HUGO T. DUMMETT, BHP Minerals International, Inc., San Francisco, California RODERICK G. EGGERT, Colorado School of Mines, Golden D. CHRISTOPHER FINDLAY, Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa (ret.) ANN S. MAEST, Hagler Bailly, Boulder, Colorado DIANNE R. NIELSON, Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Salt Lake City JONATHAN G. PRICE, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Reno DONALD D. RUNNELLS, Shepherd Miller, Inc., Fort Collins, Colorado BRIAN J. SKINNER, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut DAVID A. STEPHENSON, South Pass Resources, Inc., Scottsdale, Arizona PETER G. VIKRE, ASARCO, Inc., Reno, Nevada U.S. Geological Survey Liaison RICHARD B. CARTEN Staff CRAIG M. SCHIFFRIES, Study Director LALLY ANNE ANDERSON, Staff Associate JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Administrative Assistant

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Mineral Resources and Society: A Review of the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resource Surveys Program Plan COMMITTEE ON EARTH RESOURCES CAREL OTTE, JR., Chairman, Independent Geologist, LaCañada, California PHILIP H. ABELSON, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C. SAMUEL S. ADAMS, Minerals Consultant, Lincoln, New Hampshire JOEL DARMSTADTER, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. RODERICK G. EGGERT, Colorado School of Mines, Golden MARCO EINAUDI, Stanford University, California NORMAN H. FOSTER, Independent Petroleum Geologist, Denver, Colorado CHARLES G. GROAT, University of Texas, El Paso PERRY R. HAGENSTEIN, Resources Issues, Inc., Wayland Massachusetts DONALD C. HANEY, Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington PHILIP E. LAMOREAUX, P. E. LaMoreaux and Associates, Tuscaloosa, Alabama SUSAN M. LANDON, Thomasson Partner Associates, Denver, Colorado JILL D. PASTERIS, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri JONATHAN G. PRICE, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Reno NOEL TYLER, Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas at Austin W. FRANK WEST, PACO Minerals, Inc., Dallas, Texas Staff CRAIG M. SCHIFFRIES, Director JUDITH L. ESTEP, Administrative Assistant

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Mineral Resources and Society: A Review of the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resource Surveys Program Plan BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES J. FREEMAN GILBERT, Chairman, University of California, San Diego THURE CERLING, University of Utah, Salt Lake City MARK P. CLOOS, University of Texas at Austin JOEL DARMSTADTER, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. KENNETH I. DAUGHERTY, E-Systems, Fairfax, Virginia WILLIAM R. DICKINSON, University of Arizona, Tucson, emeritus MARCO T. EINAUDI, Stanford University, California NORMAN H. FOSTER, Independent Petroleum Geologist, Denver, Colorado CHARLES G. GROAT, University of Texas, El Paso DONALD C. HANEY, Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington SUSAN M. KIDWELL, University of Chicago, Illinois SUSAN KIEFFER, Kieffer & Woo, Inc., Palgrave, Ontario PHILIP E. LAMOREAUX, P. E. LaMoreaux and Associates, Tuscaloosa, Alabama SUSAN M. LANDON, Thomasson Partner Associates, Denver, Colorado J. BERNARD MINSTER, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California ALEXANDRA NAVROTSKY, Princeton University, New Jersey JILL D. PASTERIS, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri EDWARD C. ROY, JR., Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas Staff CRAIG M. SCHIFFRIES, Director THOMAS M. USSELMAN, Associate Director INA B. ALTERMAN, Senior Program Officer WILLIAM E. BENSON, Senior Program Officer KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Senior Program Officer ANNE M. LINN, Senior Program Officer CHARLES MEADE, Senior Program Officer LALLY ANNE ANDERSON, Staff Associate VERNA J. BOWEN, Administrative Assistant JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Administrative Assistant JUDITH L. ESTEP, Administrative Assistant

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Mineral Resources and Society: A Review of the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resource Surveys Program Plan COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES M. GORDON WOLMAN, Chairman, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania JAMES P. BRUCE, Canadian Climate Program Board, Ottawa, Ontario WILLIAM L. FISHER, University of Texas at Austin JERRY F. FRANKLIN, University of Washington, Seattle GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, University of Virginia, Charlottesville DEBRA S. KNOPMAN, Progressive Foundation, Washington, D.C. PERRY L. MCCARTY, Stanford University, California JUDITH E. MCDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts S. GEORGE PHILANDER, Princeton University, New Jersey RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park ELLEN K. SILBERGELD, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore STEVEN M. STANLEY, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida Staff STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director MORGAN GOPNIK, Assistant Executive Director GREGORY SYMMES, Reports Officer JAMES MALLORY, Administrative Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate SUSAN SHERWIN, Project Assistant

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Mineral Resources and Society: A Review of the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resource Surveys Program Plan The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Mineral Resources and Society: A Review of the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resource Surveys Program Plan This page in the original is blank.

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Mineral Resources and Society: A Review of the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resource Surveys Program Plan Preface The U.S. Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop a program plan for its mineral-resource activities. In 1995, the USGS completed the Mineral Resource Surveys Program (MRSP) plan requested by Congress (Appendix A). To obtain an independent review of the five-year MRSP plan, the U.S. Geological Survey, in a letter from Dr. Willis H. White, the Chief of the USGS Office of Mineral Resources, requested in July, 1995, that the National Research Council (NRC) evaluate the MRSP plan and recommend improvements. The Panel to Review the Mineral Resource Surveys Program Plan was established by the NRC in November, 1995. The panel consists of 12 geoscientists and resource experts from the mining and mineral industry, the environmental consulting industry, academia, state agencies, and the Geological Survey of Canada. The panel members have expertise in mitigation of environmental impacts related to extraction and use of mineral resources, as well as in genesis, assessment, exploration, and development of mineral resources. In spite of this diversity of professional focus and experience, the panel reached consensus on all significant issues, thus obviating the need for minority reports. Brief biographies of panel members are provided in Appendix F. The panel operates under the Committee on Earth Resources, which is under the aegis of the Board on Earth Science and Resources within the NRC's Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources. The USGS requested the panel's report by April, 1996, in order to provide timely advice for the fiscal year 1997 planning process. The panel operated on a fast-track schedule, with three meetings in three months. The panel met once in Washington, D.C., and twice near Denver, Colorado. Briefings and discussions were conducted with approximately 50 representatives of federal and state agencies, policy

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Mineral Resources and Society: A Review of the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resource Surveys Program Plan groups, industry groups, and other mineral resource experts who work with the MRSP or use its products. Presenters had the opportunity to discuss their mineral resource planning needs and provide observations and recommendations regarding the MRSP. The presenters are identified in Appendix B. In light of these briefings and discussions, as well as information provided by the MRSP staff, published literature, technical reports, and the expertise of its members, the panel evaluated and made recommendations for the MRSP plan. Without the intensive effort of the NRC staff, particularly Dr. Craig M. Schiffries, Study Director, this report could not have been developed within the assigned time frame. Samuel S. Adams Chairman