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Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water Subcommittee on Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water Committee on Toxicology Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON D.C. 1995
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Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W.Washington, D.C.20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The project was supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under contract No. DAMD17-89-C-9086. Additional copies of this report are available from the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, 210l Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418 Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. Printed in the United States of America
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Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water SUBCOMMITTEE ON NITRATE AND NITRITE IN DRINKING WATER GERALD N. WOGAN (Chairman), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. WALDERICO GENEROSO, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn. LOREN D. KOLLER, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oreg. ROGER P. SMITH, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, N.H. STEVEN R. TANNENBAUM, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. Staff GAIL CHARNLEY, Project Director NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Editor LUCY V. FUSCO, Project Assistant CATHERINE M. KUBIK, Senior Project Assistant Sponsor: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
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Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water This page in the original is blank.
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Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY ROGENE F. HENDERSON (Chair), Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, N.M. DONALD E. GARDNER (Vice Chair), Raleigh, N.C. DEBORAH A. CORY-SLECHTA, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, N.Y. ELAINE FAUSTMAN, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. CHARLES E. FEIGLEY, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C. DAVID W. GAYLOR, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Ark. WALDERICO M. GENEROSO, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn. IAN A. GREAVES, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. SIDNEY GREEN, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Md. LOREN D. KOLLER, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oreg. MICHELE A. MEDINSKY, Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, N.C. JOHN L. O'DONOGHUE, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y. ROBERT SNYDER, Rutgers University, Piscataway, N.J. ANNETTA P. WATSON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn. HANSPETER R. WITSCHI, University of California, Davis, Calif. GERALD N. WOGAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. GAROLD S. YOST, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah
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Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water Staff KULBIR S. BAIKSHI, Program Directorfor the Committee on Toxicology MARVIN A. SCHNEIDERMAN, Senior Staff Scientist RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Editor CATHERINE M. KUBIK, Senior Program Assistant SHARON HOLZMANN, Administrative Associate LUCY V. FUSCO, Project Assistant
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Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY PAUL G. RISSER (Chair), Miami University, Oxford, Ohio MICHAEL J. BEAN, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, D.C. EULA BINGHAM, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio EDWIN H. CLARK II, Clean Sites, Inc., Alexandria, Va. ALLAN H. CONNEY, Rutgers University, Piscataway, N.J. ELLIS COWLING, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C. JOHN L. EMMERSON, Eli Lilly & Company, Greenfield, Ind. ROBERT C. FORNEY, Unionville, Pa. ROBERT A. FROSCH, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. KAI LEE, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. JANE LUBCHENCO, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore. GORDON ORIANS, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. FRANK L. PARKER, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn. GEOFFREY PLACE, Hilton Head, S.C. DAVID P. RALL, Washington, D.C. LESLIE A. REAL, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. KRISTIN SHRADER-FRECHETTE, University of South Florida, Tampa, Fla. BURTON H. SINGER, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. MARGARET STRAND, Bayh, Connaughton and Malone, Washington, D.C. GERALD VAN BELLE, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. BAILUS WALKER, JR., Howard University, Washington, D.C.
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Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water Staff JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Associate Director and Program Director for Natural Resources and Applied Ecology CAROL A. MACZKA, Program Director for Toxicology and Risk Assessment LEE R. PAULSON, Program Director for Information Systems and Statistics RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering
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Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES THOMAS D. POLLARD (Chair), Johns Hopkins Medical School, Baltimore, Md. BRUCE N. AMES, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. JOHN C. BAILAR III, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec MICHAEL BISHOP, Hooper Research Foundation, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco, Calif. JOHN E. BURRIS, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. MICHAEL T. CLEGG, University of California, Riverside, Calif. GLENN A. CROSBY, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash. MARIAN E. KOSHLAND, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. RICHARD E. LENSKI, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. EMIL A. PFITZER, Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Nutley, N.J. MALCOLM C. PIKE, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, Calif. HENRY C. PITOT III, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisc. JONATHAN M. SAMET, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md. HAROLD M. SCHMECK JR., Armonk, N.Y. CARLA J. SHATZ, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. SUSAN S. TAYLOR, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, Calif. P. ROYVAGELOS, Merck & Company, Whitehouse Station, N.J. JOHN L. VANDEBERG, Southwestern Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Tex. PAUL GILMAN, Executive Director
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Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water Other Recent Reports of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Ranking Hazardous Sites for Remedial Action (1994) Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: Forests and Estuaries (1994) Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: Surface Waters (1994) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Issues in Risk Assessment (1993) Setting Priorities for Land Conservation (1993) Protecting Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas (1993) Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology (1992) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Environmental Neurotoxicology (1992) Hazardous Materials on the Public Lands (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Animals as Sentinels of Environmental Health Hazards (1991) Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program, Volumes I-IV ( 1991-1993) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Monitoring Human Tissues for Toxic Substances (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Tracking Toxic Substances at Industrial Facilities (1990) Biologic Markers in Pulmonary Toxicology (1989) Biologic Markers in Reproductive Toxicology (1989) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press: (800) 624-6242; (202) 334-3313