ON THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS AND THEIR CLIENTS IN FEDERAL FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT

COMMITTEE ON ARCHITECT-ENGINEER RESPONSIBILITIES

Building Research Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
WASHINGTON, D.C.
1994



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ON THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS AND THEIR CLIENTS IN FEDERAL FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT ON THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS AND THEIR CLIENTS IN FEDERAL FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE ON ARCHITECT-ENGINEER RESPONSIBILITIES Building Research Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1994

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ON THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS AND THEIR CLIENTS IN FEDERAL FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Funding for the project, under the Federal Construction Council Technical program, was provided through the following agreements between the indicated federal agency and the National Academy of Sciences: Department of State Contract No. 1030-270106; National Science Foundation Grant No. MSS-9203138, under master agreement 8618641; and U.S. Postal Service grant, unnumbered. Inquiries regarding this report should be addressed to: Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, D.C. 20418 202-334-3376 Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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ON THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS AND THEIR CLIENTS IN FEDERAL FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE ON ARCHITECT-ENGINEER RESPONSIBILITIES HAROLD J. PARMELEE (Chair), President, Turner Construction Company, New York, New York RICHARD T. BAUM, (Retired) Partner, Jaros, Baum and Bolles, New York, New York LYNN S. BEEDLE, University Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering and Director, Institute for the Study of High-Rise Habitat, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania GERALD L. CARLISLE, Secretary-Treasurer, International Union of Bricklayers & Allied Craftsmen, Washington, D.C. NANCY RUTLEDGE CONNERY, Consultant, Woolwich, Maine C. CHRISTOPHER DEGENHARDT, President, EDAW, Inc., San Francisco, California ELISHA C. FREEDMAN, Principal, The Par-Group—Paul A. Reaume, Ltd., Hartford, Connecticut DONALD G. ISELIN, Rear Admiral U.S. Navy (Retired), Consultant, Santa Barbara, California GARY T. MOORE, Professor of Architecture and Director, Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium, University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee, Milwaukee WALTER P. MOORE, Jr. Chairman of the Board, Walter P. Moore and Associates, Inc., Houston, Texas J. W. MORRIS, Lieutenant General U.S. Army, Retired, Engineer Advisor, Zorc, Rissetto, Weaver & Rosen, Washington, D.C. BRIAN P. MURPHY, Senior Vice President, Prudential Property Company, Newark, New Jersey JEROME J. SINCOFF, FAIA, President, Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri JAMES E. WOODS, William E. Jamerson Professor of Building Construction, College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg APRIL L. YOUNG, CRA Coordinator, First American Metro Corporation, McLean, Virginia

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ON THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS AND THEIR CLIENTS IN FEDERAL FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT Agency Liaison Representatives WADE BELCHER, Contracting Officer, Public Buildings Service, General Services Administration, Washington, D.C. LOUIS CHILDERS, AIA, General Manager, Design Division, U.S. Postal Service, Washington, D.C. NESTER FOLTA, Facilities Engineer, Office of Project and Facilities Management, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. LARRY S. GAYNOR, P.E., Sanitation Facility Construction Branch, Indian Health Service, Rockville, Maryland KENNETH R. HARPER, P.E., Office of Engineering Services, Public Health Service, Seattle, Washington REX HELLMANN, Chief Architect, U.S. Department of State, Arlington, Virginia DANIEL HIGHTOWER, AIA, Planning and Review Branch, Public Health Service, Rockville, Maryland ALLAN HOCKETT, Office of the Civil Engineer, U.S. Air Force, Washington, D.C. CLAUDE HUDSON, General Engineer Headquarters, U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. LLOYD SIEGEL, Director, Office of Architecture and Engineering, Office of Facilities, Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, D.C. VINCE SPAULDING, Deputy Director, Contracts Quality Assurance Division, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Department of the Navy, Alexandria, Virginia RALPH S. SPILLINGER, Program Manager, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. DWAIN WARNE, Chief, Engineering Branch, Public Buildings Service, General Services Administration, Washington, D.C. Other Contributors CATHERINE BROWN, Director of Special Projects, Design Center for American Urban Landscape, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota BETSY CUTHBERTSON, Director, Government Affairs and Public Relations, American Society of Landscape Architects, Washington, D.C. AUGUSTINE A. DIGIACOMO, Partner, Jaros, Baum & Bolles, Consulting Engineers New York, New York KATHERINE FARLEY, Managing Director, International Tishman Speyer Properties, New York, New York DELON HAMPTON, Delon Hampton & Associates, Washington, D.C. HAROLD L. LLOYD, P.E., Turner, Collie & Braden, Inc., Houston, Texas

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ON THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS AND THEIR CLIENTS IN FEDERAL FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT Staff ANDREW C. LEMER, Director (1988–1993) MAHADEVAN MANI, Director (1993) DENNIS CHAMOT, Director (1994) HENRY A. BORGER, Executive Secretary, Federal Facilities Council LENA B. GRAYSON, Program Assistant MARY McCORMACK, Project Assistant

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ON THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS AND THEIR CLIENTS IN FEDERAL FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT This page in the original is blank.

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ON THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS AND THEIR CLIENTS IN FEDERAL FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT BUILDING RESEARCH BOARD (1991-1994) HAROLD J. PARMELEE (Chair), President, Turner Construction Company, New York, New York RICHARD T. BAUM**, (Retired) Partner, Jaros, Baum and Bolles, New York, New York LYNN S. BEEDLE, University Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering and Director, Institute for the Study of High-Rise Habitat, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania CATHERINE BROWN, Director of Special Projects, Design Center for American Urban Landscape, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis GERALD L. CARLISLE***, Secretary-Treasurer, International Union of Bricklayers & Allied Craftsmen, Washington, D.C. NANCY RUTLEDGE CONNERY, Consultant, Woolwich, Maine C. CHRISTOPHER DEGENHARDT**, President, EDAW, Inc., San Francisco, California AUGUSTINE A. DIGIACOMO, Partner, Jaros, Baum & Bolles, Consulting Engineers, New York, New York ELISHA C. FREEDMAN***, Regional Manager, The Par-Group-Paul A. Reaume, Ltd., and Executive-in-Residence, University of Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut DELON HAMPTON, Delon Hampton & Associates, Washington, D.C. DONALD G. ISELIN, Rear Admiral U.S. Navy, Retired, Consultant, Santa Barbara, California FREDERICK KRIMGOLD*, Associate Dean for Research and Extension, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Alexandria GARY T. MOORE, Professor of Architecture and Director, Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee WALTER P. MOORE, Jr. Chairman of the Board, Walter P. Moore and Associates, Inc., Houston, Texas * Term completed June 30, 1991 ** Term completed June 30, 1992 *** Term completed June 30, 1993

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ON THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS AND THEIR CLIENTS IN FEDERAL FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT J.W. MORRIS, Lieutenant General U.S. Army (Retired), Engineer Advisor, Zorc, Rissetto, Weaver & Rosen, Washington, D.C. BRIAN P. MURPHY, Senior Vice President, Prudential Property Company, Prudential Plaza, Newark, New Jersey LESLIE E. ROBERTSON*, Director, Design and Construction, Leslie E. Robertson Associates, New York, New York JEROME J. SINCOFF, AIA, President, Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri JAMES E. WOODS**, William E. Jamerson Professor of Building Construction, College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg APRIL L. YOUNG**, CRA Coordinator, First American Metro Corporation, McLean, Virginia Staff ANDREW C. LEMER, Director (1988–1993) MAHADEVAN MANI, Director (1993) DENNIS CHAMOT, Director (1994) HENRY A. BORGER, Executive Secretary, Federal Facilities Council LENA B. GRAYSON, Program Assistant MARY McCORMACK, Project Assistant * Term completed June 30, 1991 ** Term completed June 30, 1992

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ON THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS AND THEIR CLIENTS IN FEDERAL FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT PREFACE Responsibility is a complex term. The Babylonian Code of Hammurabi, written nearly four thousand years ago, held builders fully responsible if a building failure caused loss of life. Today society imposes penalties less severe than death for such serious consequences but nevertheless holds designers and constructors responsible for the safety of facility occupants and users and for a wide range of other functional and aesthetic requirements that a facility is expected to meet. Despite centuries of experience in design and construction, there are still disagreements and occasional disputes among facility owners, designers, and constructors regarding the distribution of responsibilities and whether these responsibilities have been met. Against the background of this long history, the growth of modern democratic government as a client for the services of architects, engineers, and constructors has eliminated some old problems, accentuated others, and raised new ones as well. Public building procedures in the United States have evolved since the nation's early colonial assembly buildings were constructed in the eighteenth century. The procedures used then were in turn based on earlier models transferred from imperial Europe. There is still much to learn. The members and staff of the Committee on Architect-Engineer Responsibilities recognize that their work may yield guideposts on the road to better facilities, rather than definitive and permanent answers to the questions we address. This is true with regard to the responsibilities of architects and

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ON THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS AND THEIR CLIENTS IN FEDERAL FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT engineers, as these responsibilities are determined, in the end, only by the mutual agreement of all parties to the design, construction, and long-term use of a facility. The committee hopes nevertheless, that this report will indeed be an effective guidepost. Resolving issues of the responsibilities of architects and engineers doing work for federal agencies—and for others—will enhance the quality of facilities, the efficiency in developing those facilities, and thereby productivity and the quality of life in the United States. These are worthy goals. Harold Parmelee, Chair