THE CHALLENGE OF PROVIDING FUTURE INFRASTRUCTURE IN AN ENVIRONMENT OF LIMITED RESOURCES, NEW TECHNOLOGIES, AND CHANGING SOCIAL PARADIGMS

PROCEEDINGS OF A COLLOQUIUM MARCH 24, 1995

BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT

COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
WASHINGTON, DC
1995



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THE CHALLENGE OF PROVIDING FUTURE INFRASTRUCTURE IN AN ENVIRONMENT OF LIMITED RESOURCES, NEW TECHNOLOGIES, AND CHANGING SOCIAL PARADIGMS: PROCEEDINGS OF A COLLOQUIUM MARCH 24, 1995 THE CHALLENGE OF PROVIDING FUTURE INFRASTRUCTURE IN AN ENVIRONMENT OF LIMITED RESOURCES, NEW TECHNOLOGIES, AND CHANGING SOCIAL PARADIGMS PROCEEDINGS OF A COLLOQUIUM MARCH 24, 1995 BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, DC 1995

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THE CHALLENGE OF PROVIDING FUTURE INFRASTRUCTURE IN AN ENVIRONMENT OF LIMITED RESOURCES, NEW TECHNOLOGIES, AND CHANGING SOCIAL PARADIGMS: PROCEEDINGS OF A COLLOQUIUM MARCH 24, 1995 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1995 NOTICE: The Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment (BICE) is a continuing activity of the National Research Council (NRC) and advises the executive and legislative branches of government and the private sector on questions of science, technology and public policy related to above ground and underground construction; public facilities; infrastructure systems and services; the relationship between the constructed and natural environments and their interaction with human activities; and related issues of planning, design, construction, management, and use of the built environment. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Funding for this activity was provided through an agreement between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation, Award number CMS-9505733, the U.S. Department of Commerce/Economic Development Administration, Award number 99-07-13779, and the U.S. Department of Commerce, Award number 43NANB510831. Inquiries regarding this report should be addressed to: Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, D.C. 20418 202-334-3376 Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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THE CHALLENGE OF PROVIDING FUTURE INFRASTRUCTURE IN AN ENVIRONMENT OF LIMITED RESOURCES, NEW TECHNOLOGIES, AND CHANGING SOCIAL PARADIGMS: PROCEEDINGS OF A COLLOQUIUM MARCH 24, 1995 BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT Chairman George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, New York Members Catherine Brown, Director of Special Projects, Design Center for American Urban Landscape, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Nancy Rutledge Connery, Consultant, Public Works Infrastructure, Woolwich, Maine Lloyd A. Duscha, Consulting Engineer, Reston, Virginia Albert A. Grant, Consulting Engineer, Potomac, Maryland Susan E. Hanson, School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts E. R. Heiberg III, Heiberg Associates, Inc., Mason Neck, Virginia Ronald W. Jensen, Public Works Director, City of Phoenix, Arizona James K. Mitchell, Charles E. Via, Jr. Professor of Civil Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg Gary T. Moore, Professor of Architecture, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee Harold J. Parmelee, President, Turner Construction Company, New York, New York Stanley W. Smith, Consultant, McLean, Virginia Raymond L. Sterling, CETF Professor of Civil Engineering, Director of Trenchless Technology Center, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, Louisiana BICE Liaison Representatives Samuel C. Florman, Vice President, Kreisler Borg Florman Construction Company, Scarsdale, New York Deborah A. Whitehurst, Director of Development, Arizona Community Foundation, Phoenix Robert V. Whitman, Lexington, Massachusetts Staff Richard G. Little, Director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Lynda Stanley, Director, Federal Facilities Council Susan K. Coppinger, Administrative Assistant Lena B. Grayson, Program Assistant

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THE CHALLENGE OF PROVIDING FUTURE INFRASTRUCTURE IN AN ENVIRONMENT OF LIMITED RESOURCES, NEW TECHNOLOGIES, AND CHANGING SOCIAL PARADIGMS: PROCEEDINGS OF A COLLOQUIUM MARCH 24, 1995 PREFACE The Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment of the National Research Council is vitally interested in the role that well-planned, -constructed, and -operated infrastructure must play in sustaining the economic and environmental health of our cities and communities. To assist the Board in its understanding of infrastructure issues, it periodically arranges colloquia, workshops, and other informational activities. This publication represents the Proceedings of such a Colloquium held on March 24, 1995, at the National Academy of Sciences to address the challenge of providing future infrastructure in the face of limited resources and the uncertain impact new technologies and social paradigms will have on where, and how, we will live and work. The views presented herein are solely those of the authors and do not represent the opinions or position of the Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment, the National Research Council, or the National Academy of Sciences. It is offered by the Board as one of a series of outreach activities providing a forum for the discussion of critical infrastructure issues. George Bugliarello, Chairman Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment