dent Jerry Wiesner following Al Hill's retirement. In my new role, I was the contact point within the MIT administration for Lincoln Laboratory, which was then directed by Gerry, who had been at Lincoln for more than 20 years. My new job exposed me for the first time to the arena of federal relations. Gerry was a marvelous colleague and teacher as I learned my way around the halls of government.

There was in place at that time a congressionally mandated salary ceiling at Lincoln and at all other federal contract research centers. The cap was becoming increasingly awkward and expensive for the institute, as each of those high-inflation years pushed a few more members of the Lincoln staff and leadership above the salary limit. The excess had to be paid out of MIT general funds. With Gerry's support, I undertook to get that constraint relaxed—a mission that included two remarkable audiences with Sen. Robert Byrd (D-W.Va.). Those efforts provided this inexperienced university administrator with his first lessons in congressional power.

Out of those 2 or 3 years during which Gerry and I had a close professional relationship, there developed a warm personal friendship between the Dinneens and the Grays. It has persisted through changes of locations and careers, and it will flourish in the years to come.

I turn now to the subject of intellectual relationships between the United States and Japan, emphasizing particularly the perspective of a science-based research university. I shall describe, very briefly, the origins of these relationships—from the point of view of a participant, not a historian—comment on the associated controversies and tensions that have become evident during the past decade, and conclude with some personal speculation about the shape of future relationships.

THE MIT INDUSTRIAL LIAISON PROGRAM

My observations date only the to the early 1970s. Of course, there have been focused small-scale relationships between educational institutions in the United States and Japan for many years, including some which began soon after the Meiji Restoration more than 125 years ago. However, relationships between U.S. universities and commercial enterprises in Japan are much more recent.

The industrial liaison program (ILP) was the vehicle for MIT's first involvement with Japanese industry. The ILP was started in 1948 by the institute's then-president James Rhyne Killian Jr. Businesses —initially only U.S. firms—became members of the program by paying an annual fee, which typically came out of their research budget. Member companies receive facilitated access to research in progress at MIT and to the results of this research. An ILP liaison officer learns about the interests and needs of the company and is proactive in encouraging communication between MIT and member firms. ILP also supplies to members a directory of current research, makes available preprints and reprints



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