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References Baer, V.E. 1991. The transition from the present radar dissemination system to the NEXRAD information dissemination service (NIDS). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 72: 29-33. Battan, L.~. 1973. Radar Observation ofthe Atmosphere. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bieringer, P., and P.S. Ray. In Press. A comparison of tornado warning lead times with and without NEXRAD Doppler radar. Weather and Forecasting. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Brown, R.A., L.R. Lemon, and D.W. Burgess. 197X. Tornado detection by pulsed Doppler radar. Monthly Weather Review 106: 29-38. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Brown, R.A., and V.T. Wood. 1987. A Guide for Interpreting Doppler Velocity Patterns. Report No. R400-DV-101. NEXRAD loins Systems Program Office. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Silver Spring, Maryland. Burgess, D.W., R.~. Donaldson, Ir., and P.R. Desrochers. 1993. Tornado detection and warning by radar. Pp. 203-221 in The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction and Hazards. Geophysical Monograph #79. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union. Burgess, D.W., and L.R. Lemon. 1990. Severe thunderstorm detection by radar. Pp. 619-647 in Radar in Meteorology, D. Atlas, ed. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Burpee, R.W. 1986. Mesoscale structure of hurricanes. Pp. 31 I-330 in Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting, P.S. Ray, ed. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Byers, H.R., and R.R. graham, Ir. 1949. The Thunderstorm. U.S. Department of Commerce. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. Carbone, R.E., M.~. Carpenter, and C.D. Burghart. 1985. Doppler radar sampling limitations in convection storms. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 2: 357-361. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Carbone, R.E., I.W. Conway, N.A. Crook, and M.W. Moncrieff. 1990. The generation and propagation of a nocturnal squall line Part I: Observations and implications for mesoscale predictability. Monthly Weather Review ~ I8: 26-49. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Crum, T.D., and R.~. Alberty. 1993. The WSR-~8D and WSR-~8D Operational Support Facility. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 74: 1669-1687. Crum, T.D., Rot. Alberty, and D.W. Burgess. 1993. Recording, archiving, and using WSR-~8D data. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 74: 645-653. Davies-Iones, R.P. 1985. Tornado dynamics. Pp 197-236 in Thunderstorm Morphology and Dynamics, E. Kessler, ed. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. Devore, D.R. 1983. The operational use of digital radar. Pp. 21-24 in 13th Conference on Severe Local Storms held October 17-20, 1983, in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Department of Commerce. 1985. Operations of the National Weather Service. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Silver Spring, Maryland. 54

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References 55 Doviak, R.~., and D.S. Zrnic. 1993. Doppler Radar and Weather Observations, Second Edition. San Diego, California: Academic Press. Fabry, F., Gab. Austin, and D. Tees. 1992. The accuracy of rainfall estimates by radar as a function of range. Quarterly journal of the Royal Meteorological Society ~ ~X: 435-453. Fabry, F., and T. Zawadzki. 1995. The melting layer of precipitation: Radar observations and their interpretation. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 52: 838-851. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Federal Register. March 2, 1994. Rules and Regulations. Vol. 59, No. 41. Pp. 9921-9925. Weather Service Modernization Criteria. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Federal Register. November 4, 1994. Notices. Vol. 59, No. 213. Pp. 55254-55255. National Weather Service Modernization and Restructuring. Department of Commerce. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Fujita, T.T. 19XI. Tornadoes and downbursts in the context of generalized planetary scales. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 38: 151 I-1534. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Fujita, T.T. 1985. The Downburst. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Heiss, W.H., D.L. McGrew, and D. Sirmans. 1990. NEXRAD: Next generation weather radar (WSR-~8D). Microwave Journal 33: 79-98. Hjelmfelt, M.R. 1988. Structure and life cycle of microburst outflows observed in Colorado. Journal of Climate and Applications in Meteorology 27: 900-927. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Joss, I., and A. Wal~vogel. 1990. Precipitation measurements and hydrology. Pp. 577-6 IX in Radar in Meteorology, D. Atlas, ed . Boston: American Meteorological Society. Kingsmill, D.E., and R.M. Wakimoto. 1991. Kinematic, dynamic, and thermodynamic analysis of a weakly sheared severe thunderstorm over northern Alabama. Monthly Weather Review 119: 262-297. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Klazura, G.E., and D.A. Imy. 1993. A description of the initial set of analysis products available from the NEXRAD WSR-~8D system. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 74: 1293-1311. Klingle, D.I,., D.R. Smith, and M.M. Wolfson. 1987. Gust front characteristics as detected by Doppler radar. Monthly Weather Review 115: 905-918. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Maddox, R.A., and D.E. Forsyth. 1994. Comments on National Weather Service warning performance based on the WSR-~8D. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 75(11): 2175. Mahoney, W.P., III. 1988. Gust front characteristics and the kinematics associated with interacting thunderstorm outflows. Monthly Weather Review 116: 1474-1491. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Marks, F.D. 1990. Radar observations of tropical weather systems. Pp. 401-425 in Radar in Meteorology, D. Atlas, ed. Boston: American Meteorological Society. McGrew, R.G. 1972. Project D/RADEX (Digitized Radar Experiments). Pp. 101-106 in 15th Conference on Radar Meteorology held October 10-12, 1992, in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Mueller, C.K., and R.E. Carbone. 1987. Dynamics of thunderstorm outflow. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 44: 1X79-1898. Boston: American Meteorological Society. NRC. 1991. Toward a New National Weather Service A First Report. National Weather Service Modernization Committee, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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56 Assessment of NEXRAD Coverage NRC. 1992. Toward a New National Weather Service Second Report. National Weather Service Modernization Committee, National Research Council. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press. NRC. 1993. Review of Modernization Criteria. National Weaker Service Modernization Committee, Naitonal Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1994a. National Weather Service Employee Feedback. National Weather Service Moderniza- tion Committee, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1994b. Weather for Those Who Fly. National Weather Service Modernization Committee, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Weather Service. 1993. A Summary of Natural Hazard Deaths for 1992 in the United States in Storm Data. Warning and Forecast Branch, Office of Meteorology, National Weather Service. Silver Spring, Maryland. National Weather Service. 1994. A Summary of Natural Hazard Deaths for 1993 in the United States in Storm Data. Warning and Forecast Branch, Office of Meteorology, National Weather Service. Silver Spring, Maryland. Office of He Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research. 1990. Federal Meteorological Handbook No. Il. Doppler Radar Meteorological Observations Part B. Doppler Radar Theory and Meteorology. Report FCH-HIlB-1990, Interim Version One. Rockville, Maryland. Department of Commerce, NOAA. Washington, D.C. Pettit, P.E. 1990. Doppler radar detection capabilities at Montgomery, Alabama, 1982 1988. National Weather Digest 15: 23-27. National Weaker Association. Polger, P.D., Goldsmith, B.S., Przywarty, R.C., and I.R. Bocchieri. 1994. National Weather Service warning performance based on the WSR-~8D. Bulletin of He American Meteorological Society 75: 203-214. Simon, S. 1988. The Edmonton Tornado. Cover photoin 15th Conference on Severe LocalStorms held February 22-26, 1988, in Baltimore, Maryland. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Sirmans, D. 1993. WSR-~8D Polarization Change. Operational Support Facility Technology Report, January 1993. Joint System Program Office, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Norman, Oklahoma. Wakimoto, R.M., and .W. Wilson. 1989. Non-supercell tornadoes. Monthly Weather Review 106: 29-38; ~ 17; ~ ~ 13-l 140. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Wakimoto, R.M. 1982. The life cycle of thunderstorm gust fronts as viewed with Doppler radar and rawinsonde data. Monday Weather Review ~ 10: 1060-1082. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Weber, E.M., and S. Wildrotter. 1981. Satellite Interpretation. Technical Note No. 3WW/TN- 81/001. Air Weather Service. Offutt, Air Force Base, Nebraska. Weckwerth, T.M., and R.M. Wakimoto. 1992. The initiation and organization of convective cells atop a cold-air outflow boundary. Monday Weather Review 120: 2169-2187. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Weisman, M.~., and I.B. Klemp. 1986. Characteristics of isolated convective storms. Pp. 331-358 in Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting, P. Ray, ed. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Wilk, K.E., I.T. Dooley, and E. Kessler. 1965. Weather Detection by ARSD-lD, ASR-4, and WSR- 57 Radars: A Comparative Study. National Severe Storms Laboratory Technical Memo, No. I. Norman, Oklahoma. Department of Commerce. U.S. Weather Bureau. Washington, D.C. Wilson, I.W. 1970. Operational measurement of rainfall with the WSR-57: Review and recommenda- tions. Pp. 257-263 in 14th Conference on Radar Meteorology held November 17-20, 1970, in Tucson, Arizona. Boston: American Meteorological Society.

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References 57 Wilson, I.W. 1975. Measurement of snowfall by radar during the IFYGL. Pp 508-513 in the 16th Radar Meteorology Conference held April 22-24, 1975, in Houston, Texas. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Wilson, I.W., and E.A. Brandes. 1979. Radar measurement of rainfall A summary. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 60: 1048-1058. Wilson, I.W., R.D. Roberts, C. Kessinger, and I. McCarthy. 1984. Microburst wind structure and evaluation of Doppler radar for airport wind shear detection. Journal of Climate and Applica- tions in Meteorology 23: 898-915. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Wilson, I.W., T.M. Weckwerth, I. Vivekanandan, R.M. Wakimoto, and R.W. Russell. 1994. Boundary layer clear-air echoes: Origin of echoes and accuracy of derived winds. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology Il: 11X4-1206. Boston: American Meteorological Society.