in geriatric medicine were completed at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston.

CHRISTINE GIANOPOULOS, M.P.A., has been director of the Bureau of Elder and Adult Services in Maine since 1987. The bureau administers all state and federally funded programs for the elderly; the adult protective and public guardianship programs; and Medicaid and state-funded communitybased care services. Prior to that, she was a research associate at the University of Southern Maine’s Edmund S.Muskie Institute on Public Affairs, specializing in the areas of vocational rehabilitation and independent living. She holds a B.A. in economics from the University of Pittsburgh and a M.P.A. from Syracuse University. Her professional and community affiliations include serving as vice president of the National Association of State Units on Aging (NASUA), board member of the Maine chapter of the American Society of Public Administration, and board member of School Administrative District 52. She also serves as chair of NASUA’s Ombudsman Subcommittee.

ELMA L.HOLDER, M.S.P.H., has been the director of the National Citizens’ Coalition for Nursing Home Reform since 1978. She started her nursing facility work in the Oklahoma State Health Department, Medicare survey division, after obtaining a master of science degree in public health from the University of Oklahoma. Ms. Holder moved her work to Washington, D.C. in 1970, to become health consultant for the National Council on Aging. Subsequent work included two and a half years as coordinator of Ralph Nader’s Retired Professional Action Group and two years as coordinator of the National Gray Panthers Long-Term Care Task Force. In 1977, she coauthored the book Nursing Homes: A Citizens’ Action Guide. Ms. Holder was one of the key organizers of the Coalition for Nursing Home Reform in 1975. The organization now has 300 member groups. In her work as executive director Ms. Holder serves on numerous committees, such as the Health Care Financing Administration’s Advisory Committee for the Case-Mix Reimbursement System Demonstration Projects. She works with a 20-member board of directors and 10 staff members. National Citizens’ Coalition for Nursing Home Reform serves as the coordinating organization for the Campaign for Quality Care, and over 40 national organizations participate in work relating to implementation of the new nursing facility reform law. In October 1992, Ms. Holder was named recipient of the Allied-Signal 1992 Achievement Award in Aging for her leadership in health related to aging.

ROSALIE A.KANE, D.S.W., earned her master’s degree from Simmons College School of Social Work in 1965 and her doctorate from the University of Utah School of Social Work in 1975. She is a professor in the Institute for



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