References

Alba, Richard D. 1990 Ethnic Identity: The Transformation of White America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Billingsley, Andrew 1993 Climbing Jacob’s Ladder: The Enduring Legacy of African-American Families. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Bureau of the Census 1975 Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.

1990 Decennial Census of Population and Housing, Public Use Microdata Sample. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.

1992 Statistical Abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Davis, F. James 1991 Who Is Black? One Nation’s Definition. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Der, Henry 1994 Statement made at April 14, 1993, hearing of the Subcommittee on Census, Statistics, and Postal Personnel. Pp. 93-101 in Review of Federal Measurements of Race and Ethnicity. Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, House of Representatives. Serial No. 103-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

del Pinal, Jorge 1992 Exploring Alternative Race-Ethnic Comparison Groups. Current Population Reports, P23-182, Bureau of the Census. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.

Edmonston, Barry, Sharon M. Lee, and Jeffrey S. Passel 1994 U.S. population projections for national origin groups: taking race and ethnic ancestry and exogamy into account. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Social Statistics Section. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association.



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Spotlight on Heterogeneity: The Federal Standards for Racial and Ethnic Classification References Alba, Richard D. 1990 Ethnic Identity: The Transformation of White America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Billingsley, Andrew 1993 Climbing Jacob’s Ladder: The Enduring Legacy of African-American Families. New York: Simon & Schuster. Bureau of the Census 1975 Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1990 Decennial Census of Population and Housing, Public Use Microdata Sample. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. 1992 Statistical Abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Davis, F. James 1991 Who Is Black? One Nation’s Definition. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. Der, Henry 1994 Statement made at April 14, 1993, hearing of the Subcommittee on Census, Statistics, and Postal Personnel. Pp. 93-101 in Review of Federal Measurements of Race and Ethnicity. Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, House of Representatives. Serial No. 103-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. del Pinal, Jorge 1992 Exploring Alternative Race-Ethnic Comparison Groups. Current Population Reports, P23-182, Bureau of the Census. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce. Edmonston, Barry, Sharon M. Lee, and Jeffrey S. Passel 1994 U.S. population projections for national origin groups: taking race and ethnic ancestry and exogamy into account. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Social Statistics Section. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association.

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Spotlight on Heterogeneity: The Federal Standards for Racial and Ethnic Classification Edmonston, Barry, and Jeffrey S. Passel, eds. 1994 Immigration and Ethnicity: The Integration of America’s Newest Arrivals. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press. Edmonston, Barry, and Charles Schultze, eds. 1995 Modernizing the U.S. Census. Panel on Census Requirements in the Year 2000 and Beyond, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council . Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Entwisle, Doris, and N.M. Astone 1994 Some practical guidelines for measuring youths’ race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Child Development65 (December):1521-1540. Eschbach, Karl 1993 Changing identification among American Indians and Alaskan Natives . Demography30(November):635-652. Fletcher, Arthur 1994 Statement made at November 3, 1993, hearing of the Subcommittee on Census, Statistics, and Postal Personnel. Pp. 93-101 in Review of Federal Measurements of Race and Ethnicity. Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, House of Representatives. Serial No. 103-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Ford, Barry L. 1983 An overview of hot-deck procedures. Pp. 185-207 in W.G. Madow, I. Olkin, and D.B. Rubin, eds., Incomplete Data in Sample Surveys.Panel on Incomplete Data, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. New York: Academic Press Frey, William H. 1993 Race, Class and Poverty Polarization Across Metro Areas and States: Population Shifts and Migration Dynamics. Research report No. 93-293, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan. Gans, Herbert 1979 Symbolic ethnicity: the future of ethnic groups and cultures in America . Ethnic and Racial Studies 2 (January): 1-20. Glazer, Nathan, and Daniel P. Moynihan 1963 Beyond the Melting Pot. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 1975 Ethnicity: Theory and Experience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Graham, Susan 1994 Statement at Workshop on Race and Ethnicity Classification: An Assessment of the Federal Standard for Race and Ethnicity Classification. Committee on National Statistics. Project Race, Roswell, GA. Hahn, Robert 1993 Differential classification of race on U.S. infant birth and death certificates: an examination of two hypotheses. American Statistical Association Proceedings, Winter Meeting. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association. 1994 The Coding of Race and Ethnicity in Federal Health Statistics: Problems and Prospects. Presentation at Workshop on Race and Ethnicity Classification: An Assessment of the Federal Standard for Race and Ethnicity Classification, Committee on National Statistics. Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA. Hahn, Robert, and D. Stroup 1994 Race and ethnicity in public health surveillance: criteria for scientific use of social categories. Public Health Reports 109:7-15. Hauser, Robert M. 1994 Measuring socioeconomic status in studies of child development. Child Development 65 (December):1541-1545.

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Spotlight on Heterogeneity: The Federal Standards for Racial and Ethnic Classification Hirschman, Charles 1983 America’s melting pot reconsidered. Annual Review of Sociology 9:397-423. Katzen, Sally 1993 Statement in Review of Federal Measurements of Race and Ethnicity. Hearings before House Subcommittee on Census, Statistics, and Postal Personnel, Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. Washington, DC.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Marks, Jonathan 1994 Human Biodiversity: Genes, Race and History. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. McKenney, Nampeo R., and Arthur R. Cresce. 1993 Measurement of ethnicity in the United States: experiences of the U.S. Census Bureau. Pp. 173-221 in Statistics Canada and Bureau of the Census, Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science, Politics and Reality. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Martin, Elizabeth, T. DeMaio, and P. Campanelli 1990 Context effect for census measures of race and Hispanic origin. Public Opinion Quarterly 54:551-566 Nagel, Joanne 1994 Constructing ethnicity: creating and recreating ethnic identity and culture. Special Issue on Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in America . Social Problems 41(February):152-176. National Center for Health Statistics 1995a Births to unmarried mothers: United States 1980-1992. Vital and Health Statistics 21(53). Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 1995b Current Legislative Authorities of the National Center for Health Statistics. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Nelson, Candace, and Marta Tienda 1985 The structuring of Hispanic ethnicity: Historical and contemporary perspectives. In Richard D. Alba, ed., Ethnicity and Race in the United States. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Okamura, Jonathan 1981 Situational ethnicity. Ethnic and Racial Studies 4 (October):452-465. Paden, John N. 1967 Situational Ethnicity in Urban Africa with Special References to the Hausa. Paper presented at African Studies Association meetings in New York, November. Robey, Bryant 1989 Two hundred years and counting: the 1990 census. Population Bulletin 44(1). Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau. Rodriguez, Clara 1974 Puerto Ricans: between black and white. New York Affairs 1(4):92-101 Rodriguez, Clara, and H. Cordero-Guzman 1992 Placing race in context. Ethnic and Racial Studies (London) 15(4):523-542 Rolark, Stanley, C. Bennett, and R. Harrison 1994 Tables on Multiracial Responses and on Interracial and Interethnic Couples and Children. Presentation at Workshop on Race and Ethnicity Classification: An Assessment of the Federal Standard for Race and Ethnicity Classification. Committee on National Statistics. Bureau of the Census, Ryder, Norman B. 1955 The interpretation of origin statistics. Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 21:466-479. Samhan, Helen 1994 Emerging Ethnic Categories. Presentation at Workshop on Race and Ethnicity Classification: An Assessment of the Federal Standard for Race and Ethnicity Classification, Committee on National Statistics . Arab American Institute, Washington, DC.

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Spotlight on Heterogeneity: The Federal Standards for Racial and Ethnic Classification Schuman, Howard and S. Presser 1981 Questions and Answers in Attitude Surveys: Experiments on Question Form, Wording and Context. New York: Academic Press. Snipp, C. Matthew 1989 American Indians: The First of This Land. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Statistics Canada and Bureau of the Census 1993 Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science, Politics and Reality. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Thompson, Richard 1989 Theories of Ethnicity: A Critical Appraisal. New York: Greenwood Press. U.S. Office of Management and Budget 1978 Statistical Directive No. 15: Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Agencies and Administrative Reporting. Federal Register 43:19269-19270. Waters, Mary C. 1990 Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America. Berkeley: University of California Press. Weinfeld, Morton 1981 Myth and reality in a Canadian mosaic: affective ethnicity. Canadian Ethnic Studies 13(3):80-100. White, Pamela M., Jane Badets, and Viviane Renaud 1993 Measuring ethnicity in Canadian censuses. Pp. 223-269 in Statistics Canada and Bureau of the Census, Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science, Politics and Reality. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Winawer-Steiner, Hinda, and Wetzel, N.A. 1982 German families. Pp. 247-268 in Monica McGoldrick et al., eds., Ethnicity and Family Therapy. New York: Guilford Press.

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