Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants

Volume 1

Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations

Committee on Toxicology

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Commission on Life Sciences

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.,
1994



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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants Volume 1 Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations Committee on Toxicology Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C., 1994

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, non-profit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The project was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant No. NAGW-2239. Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations DONALD E. GARDNER (Chair), ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Research Triangle Park, N.C. JOSEPH BRADY, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md. RICHARD BULL, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash. GARY P. CARLSON, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind. CHARLES E. FEIGLEY, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C. MARY E. GAULDEN, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Tex. WILLIAM E. HALPERIN, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio ROGENE F. HENDERSON, Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, N.Mex. MARSHALL JOHNSON, Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa. RALPH L. KODELL, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, Ark. ROBERT SNYDER, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, N.J. BERNARD M. WAGNER, Wagner Associates, Millburn, N.J. G. DONALD WHEDON, Consultant, Clearwater Beach, Fla. GAROLD S. YOST, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah Staff KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Project Director and Program Director RICHARD D. THOMAS, Program Director (until May 1994) RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Editor CATHERINE M. KUBIK, Senior Program Assistant NIANI SUTARDJO, Project Assistant Sponsor: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants Committee on Toxicology ROGENE F. HENDERSON (Chair), Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, N.Mex. R. HAYSBELL, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y. DEAN E. CARTER, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. DEBORAH A. CORY-SLECHTA, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, N.Y. CHARLES E. FEIGLEY, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C. DONALD E. GARDNER, ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Research Triangle Park, N.C. DAVID W. GAYLOR, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Ark. WALDERICO M. GENEROSO, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn. IAN A. GREAVES, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. SIDNEY GREEN, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Md. CAROLE A. KIMMEL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. LOREN D. KOLLER, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oreg. ERNEST EUGENE MCCONNELL, Raleigh, N.C. MICHELE A. MEDINSKY, Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, N.C. ROBERT SNYDER, Rutgers University, Piscataway, N.J. BAILUS WALKER, JR., University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Okla. HANSPETER R. WITSCHI, University of California, Davis, Calif. GERALD N. WOGAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. GAROLD S. YOST, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants Staff of Committee on Toxicology KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Program Director RICHARD D. THOMAS, Program Director (until May 1994) MARVIN A. SCHNEIDERMAN, Senior Staff Scientist RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Editor CATHERINE M. KUBIK, Senior Program Assistant RUTH P. DANOFF, Project Assistant (until November 1993) NIANI SUTARDJO, Project Assistant

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology PAUL G. RISSER (Chair), Miami University, Oxford, Ohio FREDERICKR. ANDERSON, Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft, Washington, D.C. MICHAEL J. BEAN, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, D.C. EULA BINGHAM, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio EDWIN H. CLARK, Clean Sites, Inc., Alexandria, Va. ALLAN H. CONNEY, Rutgers University, Piscataway, N.J. JOHN L. EMMERSON, Eli Lilly & Company, Greenfield, Ind. ROBERT C. FORNEY, Unionville, Pa. ROBERT A. FROSCH, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. KAI LEE, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. JANE LUBCHENCO, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore. GORDON ORIANS, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. FRANK L. PARKER, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn., and Clemson University, Anderson, S.Car. GEOFFREY PLACE, Hilton Head, S.Car. DAVID P. RALL, Washington, D.C. LESLIE A. REAL, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. KRISTIN SHRADER-FRECHETTE, University of South Florida, Tampa, Fla. GERALDVAN BELLE, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. BAILUS WALKER, JR., Washington, D.C.

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants Staff of Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Associate Director and Program Director for Natural Resources and Applied Ecology GAIL CHARNLEY, Acting Program Director for Human Toxicology and Risk Assessment (since May 1994) RICHARD D. THOMAS, Associate Director and Program Director for Human Toxicology and Risk Assessment (until May 1994) LEE R. PAULSON, Program Director for Information Systems and Statistics RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants Commission on Life Sciences THOMAS D. POLLARD (Chair), Johns Hopkins Medical School, Baltimore, Md. BRUCE N. AMES, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. JOHN C. BAILAR, III, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec MICHAEL BISHOP, Hooper Research Foundation, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco, Calif. JOHN E. BURRIS, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. MICHAEL T. CLEGG, University of California, Riverside, Calif. GLENN A. CROSBY, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash. LEROY E. HOOD, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. MARIAN E. KOSHLAND, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. RICHARD E. LENSKI, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. EMIL A. PFITZER, Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Nutley, N.J. MALCOLM C. PIKE, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, Calif. HENRY C. PITOT, III, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisc. PAUL G. RISSER, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio JOHNATHAN M. SAMET, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, N.Mex. HAROLD M . SCHMECK, JR., Armonk, N.Y. CARLA J. SHATZ, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. SUSAN S. TAYLOR, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, Calif. P. ROY VAGELOS, Merck & Company, Whitehouse Station, N. J. JOHN L. VANDEBERG, Southwestern Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Tex. TORSTEN N. WIESEL, Rockefeller University, New York, N.Y. PAUL GILMAN, Executive Director

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants Other Recent Reports of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Environmental Information for Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Decisions (1994) Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations (1993) Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride (1993) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Issues in Risk Assessment (1993) Setting Priorities for Land Conservation (1993) Protecting Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas (1993) Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology (1992) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Environmental Neurotoxicology (1992) Hazardous Materials on the Public Lands (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Animals as Sentinels of Environmental Health Hazards (1991) Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program, Volumes I-IV (1991-1993) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Monitoring Human Tissues for Toxic Substances (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Tracking Toxic Substances at Industrial Facilities (1990) Biologic Markers in Pulmonary Toxicology (1989) Biologic Markers in Reproductive Toxicology (1989) These reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants Preface The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to humans that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for contaminants, and to review SMACs for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee on Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMACs for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMACs for 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the first 11 SMAC reports that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee. The subcommittee gratefully acknowledges the valuable assistance provided by the following personnel from NASA and its contractors: Dr. John James, Dr. Martin Coleman, Dr. Lawrence Dietlein, Mr. Jay Perry, Mr. Kenneth Mitchell (all from NASA), Mr. James Hyde (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Dr. King Lit Wong, Dr. Hector Garcia, Dr. Chiu Wing Lam (Krug International), and Mr. Donald Cameron (Boeing Company). The subcommittee is grateful to astronauts Drs. Shannon Lucid, Drew Gaffney, Mary Cleave, and Martin Fettman for sharing their experiences. The subcommittee also acknowledges the valuable assistance provided by the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, the Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, the Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida, and the Space Station Freedom Program Office, Reston, Virginia, for providing tours of their facilities. No effort of this kind can be accomplished without the hard work and dedication of a talented staff. Wanda Smarr was the project assistant. Ruth Crossgrove edited the report. Drs. Richard Thomas, James Reisa, and Paul Gilman provided helpful insights. The subcommittee particularly acknowledges Dr. Kulbir Bakshi, project director for the subcommittee, whose hard work and expertise were most effective in bringing the report to completion. Donald E. Gardner, Chair Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations Rogene F. Henderson, Chair Committee on Toxicology