level in developing the rules for residential care homes and new negotiated rate rules. He is also a member of the Assisted Living Facilities of America. Mr. Demmer graduated from St. Cloud State University with a teaching degree.

CARROLL L. ESTES, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Nursing, and director of the Institute of Health and Aging, University of California, San Francisco. She is a consultant to federal and state legislative committees, a member of the IOM, past-president of both the American Society on Aging and the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education, and current president of the Gerontological Society of America. Dr. Estes earned her doctorate in sociology from the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Estes is the recipient of an honorary doctorate in human letters from Russell Sage College (1986), the American Society on Aging award (1988), and the Kent Award of the Gerontological Society of America (1991), among other honors. Her research interests include social policy and aging, health and long-term care, the nonprofit sector, older women, and generational equity. Best known for The Aging Enterprise and Political Economy, Health and Aging, she is author or coauthor of five other books and more than 100 articles. She served as chair of the IOM's Committee to Evaluate the State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program (1993–1994).

CHRISTINE GIANOPOULOS, M.P.A., has been director of the Bureau of Elder and Adult Services in Maine since 1987. The bureau administers all state and federally funded programs for the elderly; the adult protective and public guardianship programs; and Medicaid and state-funded community-based care services. Prior to that, she was a research associate at the University of Southern Maine's Edmund S. Muskie Institute on Public Affairs, specializing in the areas of vocational rehabilitation and independent living. She holds a B.A. in economics from the University of Pittsburgh and an M.P.A. from Syracuse University. Her professional and community affiliations include serving as president of the National Association of State Units on Aging, board member of the Maine chapter of the American Society of Public Administration, and board member of School Administrative District 52. She served on the IOM's Committee to Evaluate the State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program (1993–1994).

ROSALIE A. KANE, D.S.W., earned her master's degree from Simmons College School of Social Work in 1965 and her doctorate from the University of Utah School of Social Work in 1975. She is a professor in the Institute for Health Services Research at the University of Minnesota and at the School of Social Work, and is on the faculty of the Center for Biomedical Ethics. She is nationally recognized for her research and scholarship on the organization and



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