MEETING SUMMARY

FOREIGN ASSISTANCE FRAMEWORK

The meeting began with brief opening remarks by Dr. E. William Colglazier(National Research Council) and Dr. George Schillinger (PolytechnicUniversity). Each commented on the long-standing relationship ofthe National Research Council and the members of its constituentorganizations with scientists and engineers in the former Yugoslavia,and both expressed their hopes that this meeting could help mobilizethe international community to assist in the revitalization of theonce-impressive research and educational systems in the region.

After these comments, the floor was turned over to Dr. Martin Prochnik(U.S. Department of State, retired), chair of the panel on the “Foreign Assistance Framework for Reconstruction of Bosnia-Hercegovinaand Croatia.” He started the session by reminding the audience thatuntil 1990 Yugoslavia was a major contributor to world science, particularlyin the fields of agriculture and health.

The first speaker, Christine Wallich (World Bank), presented informationon the overall reconstruction package for Bosnia-Hercegovina, whichthe World Bank designed in cooperation with the European Bank forReconstruction and Development and other international and nationalinstitutions. This program of approximately $5 billion only addressescritical reconstruction, which is a small part of the estimated tensof billions of dollars in damage, and does not include humanitarianaid. After two donor conferences, a total of $1.8 billion has beenpledged for reconstruction. However, unlike the assistance effortsdesigned by the World Bank for the Palestinians, a trust fund isnot the main vehicle for reconstruction aid as most donors want tomaintain strict control on how their funds are used. This arrangementrequires very close cooperation among the donors, and so far thecoordination has been remarkable.

The reconstruction plan includes more than just physical reconstruction;some funding also will go to investments in human capital, rebuildinginstitutions, and economic restructuring, specifically helping thegovernment move from socialism to a market economy. In order to stretchresources, an emphasis is being placed on using local suppliers,contractors, and technicians. The World Bank has approved projectsin agriculture, transportation, and water engineering, and projectswill soon be approved for district heating, war victim rehabilitation,demining, and employment. The first projects began in March, andthey included emergency lines of credit for small and medium enterprises,social funds to supplement the federal budget, emergency imports,and salaries for key civil servants. There is some urgency to initiateprojects before winter. The snow and cold will impede the reconstructionwork, and there must be visible progress by the planned IFOR pull-outin December. During the discussion, Dr. Wallich provided detailsabout the planned Mine Action Center. This center will organize mineawareness programs, train personnel in mine removal, and operatea mine information and tracking system.

Michael Mertaugh (World Bank) addressed the education reconstructionprograms. The estimated physical damage to higher education is $20million, although this figure is probably on the low side, and enrollmentshave fallen from a pre-war level of 34,000 to 15,000. Industry, whichwas an important



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Reconstructing Science, Engineering, and Higher Education in Bosnia-Hercegovinaand Croatia: Summary of a Meeting MEETING SUMMARY FOREIGN ASSISTANCE FRAMEWORK The meeting began with brief opening remarks by Dr. E. William Colglazier(National Research Council) and Dr. George Schillinger (PolytechnicUniversity). Each commented on the long-standing relationship ofthe National Research Council and the members of its constituentorganizations with scientists and engineers in the former Yugoslavia,and both expressed their hopes that this meeting could help mobilizethe international community to assist in the revitalization of theonce-impressive research and educational systems in the region. After these comments, the floor was turned over to Dr. Martin Prochnik(U.S. Department of State, retired), chair of the panel on the “Foreign Assistance Framework for Reconstruction of Bosnia-Hercegovinaand Croatia.” He started the session by reminding the audience thatuntil 1990 Yugoslavia was a major contributor to world science, particularlyin the fields of agriculture and health. The first speaker, Christine Wallich (World Bank), presented informationon the overall reconstruction package for Bosnia-Hercegovina, whichthe World Bank designed in cooperation with the European Bank forReconstruction and Development and other international and nationalinstitutions. This program of approximately $5 billion only addressescritical reconstruction, which is a small part of the estimated tensof billions of dollars in damage, and does not include humanitarianaid. After two donor conferences, a total of $1.8 billion has beenpledged for reconstruction. However, unlike the assistance effortsdesigned by the World Bank for the Palestinians, a trust fund isnot the main vehicle for reconstruction aid as most donors want tomaintain strict control on how their funds are used. This arrangementrequires very close cooperation among the donors, and so far thecoordination has been remarkable. The reconstruction plan includes more than just physical reconstruction;some funding also will go to investments in human capital, rebuildinginstitutions, and economic restructuring, specifically helping thegovernment move from socialism to a market economy. In order to stretchresources, an emphasis is being placed on using local suppliers,contractors, and technicians. The World Bank has approved projectsin agriculture, transportation, and water engineering, and projectswill soon be approved for district heating, war victim rehabilitation,demining, and employment. The first projects began in March, andthey included emergency lines of credit for small and medium enterprises,social funds to supplement the federal budget, emergency imports,and salaries for key civil servants. There is some urgency to initiateprojects before winter. The snow and cold will impede the reconstructionwork, and there must be visible progress by the planned IFOR pull-outin December. During the discussion, Dr. Wallich provided detailsabout the planned Mine Action Center. This center will organize mineawareness programs, train personnel in mine removal, and operatea mine information and tracking system. Michael Mertaugh (World Bank) addressed the education reconstructionprograms. The estimated physical damage to higher education is $20million, although this figure is probably on the low side, and enrollmentshave fallen from a pre-war level of 34,000 to 15,000. Industry, whichwas an important

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Reconstructing Science, Engineering, and Higher Education in Bosnia-Hercegovinaand Croatia: Summary of a Meeting financial source for universities, has seen its production collapseas overall GDP is down 75%. It continues to be extremely difficultfor the central government to provide any support for higher education,which means that salaries are not being paid and facilities are continuingto deteriorate. Another problem for the universities is the lackof students and faculty members as many were mobilized for the warand were killed or seriously injured, and others fled the countryand are now living in refugee camps abroad. The initial education projects will focus on primary education, becauseprimary education addresses the concerns of a large population, perunit costs are low, and there are few political problems. The $24million program, which will be carried out this summer, will providetextbooks and other educational materials. In addition, some reconstructionwork will be done. In the fall, projects on secondary education willbegin. Although similar to the primary education program, the secondaryeducation projects will also include curricula reform. Before thewar, secondary education was largely vocational, but the trend inEurope over the past few years has been towards general academicprograms as worker-training is undertaken after the completion ofsecondary school. Bosnian secondary education will be reorientedto these European norms since it is so difficult to predict the typesof vocational skills which will be needed in the future Bosnian economy. Higher education will be addressed later. The entire university systemhas broken down, and there are a number of problems beyond physicalreconstruction which complicate revitalizing higher education. First,before the war the universities were geared almost exclusively towardsscience and engineering. In other countries in the region, demandfor programs in foreign language, business management, and computerscience has greatly increased in response to the needs of the privatesector. These new programs will have to be addressed when rebuildingthe universities. Second, under the Federation Act, education isthe responsibility of the cantons, but this is not appropriate forhigher education. It is simply not economically justifiable to havethree independent university systems in a country of 5 million people.At the recent conference on higher education in Barcelona, Spain,there was optimism that the university system would be reunifiedat least within the federation. Dr. Mertaugh also mentioned thatthere are opportunities for universities to collaborate on the manyreconstruction projects. Finally, Dr. Mertaugh noted that when highereducation is addressed by the World Bank, funding will be availablefor recurrent costs in the universities, such as salaries and journals. The next speaker, James Holmes (U.S. Department of State), discussedhow the U.S. Government programs fit into the World Bank matrix.While the greatest share of U.S. Government money ($2 billion) willgo to support IFOR, there will be approximately $1.8 billion overthe next three years for reconstruction and humanitarian efforts.In designing its assistance effort, the U.S. Government has adoptedthe philosophy that aid should be dispersed quickly, should enhanceemployment opportunities, and should support the transition to democracy.In terms of the World Bank categories, the United States has selectedenergy, water and waste, telecommunications, and transportation asthe four sectors it will fund. Specifically, in FY 96, Congress hasallocated about $550 million in aid ($280 million for reconstructionprojects and $270 million for humanitarian assistance), and accordingto the Congressional mandate, almost all of this money must be spentin Sarajevo or the American zone. In addition to the four sectoralcategories, assistance will focus on demining, the internationalpolice task force, emergency shelter repair, reconstruction financing,and rebuilding municipalities. In FY 97, it is expected that theU.S. Government will allocate $450 million for reconstruction, $200million for economic recovery, and $700 million for IFOR. In summary,Mr. Holmes stressed two themes: 1) the

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Reconstructing Science, Engineering, and Higher Education in Bosnia-Hercegovinaand Croatia: Summary of a Meeting projects which promote reconciliation and clearly demonstrate thebenefits of peace will receive priority for U.S. Government funding,and 2) the U.S. Government recognizes that since it cannot do everythingand is only one of many donors, it will concentrate its resourceson a few areas and help coordinate with other donors to ensure thatall the critical areas are being addressed by someone. European aid to Bosnia-Hercegovina was outlined by Aslam Aziz (Missionof the European Union). While the European Union (EU) has not placedas many restrictions on its aid as the U.S. Government, the EU continuesto be concerned about spending funds in regions of the country thatare not cooperating with the International War Crimes Tribunal andnot abiding by other parts of the Dayton Accord. In the short term,considerable funding from the EU will go to humanitarian efforts,but the EU is beginning to redirect its assistance to reconstruction.Mr. Aziz noted that Bosnia no longer needs humanitarian assistanceas much as it needs help mobilizing local talent and local businesses.At the April donors conference, the Europeans pledged $260 millionfor reconstruction and another $280 million in humanitarian assistance;all of this funding will be in the form of grants rather than loans.The first $80 million reconstruction grant targets housing, health,energy, and water supplies; delivery of supplies is expected in thefall. In several years, the EU will funnel Bosnian assistance throughthe PHARE program, the same mechanism through which European aidwent to Central Europe for democratization and marketization programs.The EU plans to be consistent in its approach with all of the countriesin Central Europe. Mr. Aziz acknowledged that the education sectorcannot be ignored in the reconstruction efforts and mentioned thatthe EU has been involved in some programs to provide teacher salariesand textbooks. In response to questions about the priority of highereducation, Mr. Aziz said that in addition to the EU activities, manybilateral programs already exist throughout Europe to help Bosnianuniversities. However, major international assistance for Bosnia-Hercegovina's higher education system has not been developed because there isno clear vision by the Bosnian government on what science and educationshould look like in the future, and the Bosnian government has notpressured the donors to include science and higher education as partof the “essential aid program.” Hans-Peter Boe (International Organization for Migration [IOM]) thenbriefly described the IOM's overall mission and their specific programsin Bosnia-Hercegovina. The IOM, which was established in 1951, assistsrefugees who do not fall under the clear purview of the United NationsHigh Commission on Refugees. In the 1980s, the IOM began an EU-fundedprogram on “Return of Qualified African Nationals” which sought to bring back valuable human capital toAfrican countries. This program is the current model for the four-tieredBosnian program, which initially will focus on the return and placementof refugees who are needed for reconstruction projects. The specificpriority sectors have not yet been identified, but will be shortly.Later project stages will address the general return of Bosniansfrom outside the country, national public health and health of refugees,and technical assistance to the government to establish programsto handle migration issues. The complete program, which is currentlyin the final design stage, has been budgeted at $46 million, althoughthe IOM only has $1 million in hand. Mr. Boe noted that the UnitedNations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)has been designated the “lead agency” for assistance for Bosnia's education system and that UNESCO has madean appeal for $13 million for projects in the region. The morning session concluded with a presentation by Ivo Slaus (CroatianAcademy of Sciences and Arts). He stressed that knowledge is thegreatest power and that without science and education nothing elsewill work, but this fact is being ignored. Advocating a multi-prongedapproach, he made the following points: 1) political leaders in theregion are not stressing science and higher education, even

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Reconstructing Science, Engineering, and Higher Education in Bosnia-Hercegovinaand Croatia: Summary of a Meeting though the costs are negligible in comparison to other expenses;2) in order to diversify sources of support beyond national governments,foundations should be formed to support science, engineering, andhigher education; 3) the existing international Inter-UniversityCenter in Dubrovnik should be strongly supported and new internationalresearch centers, such as the proposed International Center on Peaceand Human Rights, should be created for basic science, marine studies,and agricultural science; 4) bilateral agreements, such as the jointscience and technology funds which were coordinated by the U.S. Departmentof State, have been fruitful and should be strengthened; and 5) economicstructures in Bosnia-Hercegovina and Croatia have been destroyed,and it would be foolish to rebuild them as they were instead of incorporatingthe advances in science and technology in their reconstruction. LUNCHEON SPEAKER At the beginning of his remarks, the Ambassador to the United Statesfrom the Republic of Bosnia-Hercegovina, Sven Alkalaj, stressed thateverything is a priority in Bosnia-Hercegovina. However, with thedemobolization of 175,000 young men underway, their concerns mustbe addressed immediately as leaving them on the streets with no jobsand no schools to attend would be deadly wrong. These men want toput their lives back together and are eager to learn. Years of war have destroyed the country's physical infrastructure and the economy. Damage in Sarajevo aloneis estimated at $1 billion, while some estimate total damage to thecountry at $60 billion. Per capita GDP is now under $500, and industrialproduction is 5% of pre-war levels. Sixty percent of industry isin need of emergency assistance. More than 40% of the housing stockhas been destroyed, and only 20% of the housing in the Federationstands undamaged. Understandably, one of the government's highestpriorities is to greatly expand adequate housing before winter. Internationaldonors are supposed to provide $5.1 billion in total assistance,and so far $1.8 has been pledged. Most of these funds have been targetedat the Bosnian Federation as the international community has refusedto give money for the Republic of Srpska as long as war criminalsremain in power. For its part, the Bosnian Federation has alreadyarrested three indicted war criminals. Ambassador Alkalaj felt thatpeople were willing to forgive and make amends as long as the warcriminals are arrested. After this background, the Ambassador turned specifically to education.In the 1990-91 school year, there were more than 500,000 pupils inthe primary and secondary schools; 34,000 university students; and4,000 graduate students. In addition, many people were enrolled invocational training courses in such fields as electrical, mechanical,and civil engineering. The engineering expertise in Bosnia-Hercegovinapreviously was so high that its engineering expertise was exported.Now many of these engineers and other highly-educated professionalshave been killed or maimed or have fled. In the universities, approximately70% of the professors have left the country. Those who remained continuedto teach because there were still students dedicated to learning.The Ambassador held this up as example that the war did not killthe spirit of the Bosnian people. Now that the war is over, the country needs help in restoring theeducational centers of Sarajevo, Tuzla, Mostar, and Banja Luka. Theuniversities must be rebuilt to encourage the return of educatorswho are still abroad and want to come back, but still do not haveanything to come back to. University laboratories have been destroyed,the equipment has been looted, and the classroom walls have beenburned. Rebuilding the universities will help them as much as rebuildingtheir homes. Without

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Reconstructing Science, Engineering, and Higher Education in Bosnia-Hercegovinaand Croatia: Summary of a Meeting international assistance for reconstruction and without stronglinks between Bosnian universities and those abroad, revitalizinghigher education in Bosnia-Hercegovina will be extremely difficult. Ambassador Alkalaj concluded by reiterating that there is much todo, and both time and the financial resources are limited. However,the young people of Bosnia-Hercegovina are at an important crossroadsin their lives. Most have already sacrificed four years of theirlives and their education for their country, and many have sacrificedmuch more. Will we now allow these young people to fulfill theirdreams of becoming doctors, lawyers, scientists, and engineers? RELEVANT NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL EXPERIENCE During the panel after lunch, several past National Research Council(NRC) international programs were presented in an effort to focusattention on possible concrete models for activities in Bosnia-Hercegovinaand Croatia. Glenn Schweitzer (National Research Council) began withan overview of the NRC Office for Central Europe and Eurasia (OCEE)programs in the region over the past ten years. OCEE's longest standinglink with the region is a program funded by the National ScienceFoundation to support collaborative research between American scientistsand their partners. However, relations with Bosnian scientists wereinterrupted because of the war. In addition to this collaborativeresearch program, OCEE organized several workshops with the Councilof Yugoslav Academies; Mr. Schweitzer highlighted one in 1989 on“Introducing Research Results into Practice” as particularly fruitful. Future workshops could address such topicsas research and development in land-mine removal, which could beproblems. At the end of his presentation, he proposed that the internationaldonors create a more undertaking in cooperation with the proposedMine Action Center, and transboundary environmental centralized mechanismfor disbursing aid to the region, citing certain aspects of the InternationalScience and Technology Center in Moscow, which the NRC is currentlyevaluating, as a potential model. This last suggestion generated considerable discussion. Drs. Slausand Przybylowicz (Rochester Institute of Technology) questioned whetherthe private sector could participate in such an institution, to whichMr. Schweitzer responded that they would be welcome to as long asthey agreed to abide by the operating rules. However, the model isbetter geared towards intellectual capacity building than the physicalreconstruction, in which the private sector presumably would be moreinterested. Others wondered if it would be possible to balance thedecision-making process between the donors, who would want to maintaincontrol of how their assistance is spent, the local governments,whose cooperation would be necessary to carry out projects, and independentexperts, who could provide a more objective view of what is neededand what types of programs are most likely to succeed. Next, Dr. Joseph Cassells (National Institutes of Health) told theaudience about the workshop on “Child Health in the Former Yugoslavia,” which was held in Trieste, Italy in spring 1994. This meeting, whichwas jointly organized by the NRC and the Institute of Medicine, broughttogether pediatricians, surgeons, psychologists, and obstetriciansto discuss: 1) What is the state of child health in the region? 2)What can be done to improve the situation? and 3) How can the internationalhealth community be useful? He said the meeting illustrated thateven during the war, scientists and health professionals from differentregions could come together to address common problems. He notedthat this network of health professionals is still active and thatthey have held two subsequent meetings to review new data and exchangeother information.

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Reconstructing Science, Engineering, and Higher Education in Bosnia-Hercegovinaand Croatia: Summary of a Meeting Besides the comments about this being a good model to address othermedical and psychological impacts of the war, the presentation byDr. Cassells prompted a number of more emotional reminiscences. JanetMayland (U.S. Department of State) spoke of seeing children cry uncontrollablywhen air-raid sirens went off in Dubrovnik. Jelena Gric-Polic (Embassyof Croatia) lamented the destruction of the Inter-University Centerin Dubrovnik, where professors from all over the former Yugoslaviawould gather every winter. People wondered out loud how the psychologicalwounds, which are very deep even in the academic community, willbe healed. Michael Greene (National Research Council) then provided informationon two types of activities being carried out by the NRC Board onScience and Technology for International Development (BOSTID). Thefirst one, focused on “knowledge assessments”, is trying to create a methodology for assessingwhere a country is in the knowledge revolution and what its futureneeds will be. Funded by the World Bank, this activity builds onpast BOSTID programs, particularly in Indonesia, and a November 1994NRC-World Bank symposium on the impact of new technologies. A secondgoal of BOSTID is to help foreign academies become independent providersof advice in addition to being honorary societies. In recent years,this goal has been addressed by conducting joint investigations withforeign academies to provide a hands-on model of how independentstudies are carried out. One is now underway with the Mexican Academyon the future of Mexico City's water supply, and another brings togetherthe academies of Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Liberation Organizationto study regional water issues. For each activity, a single panelexamines the issue and writes one report, which each academy acceptsas its own. Starting the discussion, John Moore (George Mason University) emphasizedthat the two prime assets of the NRC are its staff and its accessto the U.S. scientific community. The meeting participants spentsome time discussing the valuable catalytic role of the NRC couldplay in bringing together different parties to address common problems.In addition, a number of participants, including Ivo Slaus (CroatianAcademy of Sciences and Arts) and Pasko Rakic (Yale University),spoke of the need for the academies in Bosnia-Hercegovina and Croatiato become more involved in providing independent policy advice. Bybecoming involved in the arena of public policy, the governmentswould better understand the value and roles of science, engineering,and higher education, and, in turn, the governments would be moreinclined to make these areas a higher priority in their negotiationswith the World Bank and other international donors. Dr. Zlatic (Universityof Zagreb) felt that even a small push on the academies in the regionby the NRC might be enough to get this process moving. BASIC SCIENCE EDUCATION AND RESEARCH As panel chair, Pasko Rakic (Yale University) opened this sessionby expressing his dismay that science and higher education are nothigher priorities in the reconstruction efforts. Not only do theseinvestments have good returns, but what is infrastructure withoutpeople? As a high percentage of political leaders in Bosnia-Hercegovinaare former university professors, one would expect them to pay moreattention to higher education than the government has shown so far.In wondering how to convince the World Bank and other internationaldonors that science and higher education are important and are criticalto achieving their stated priorities, there was some discussion ofthe World Bank's $50 million loan to Hungary for higher education.The consensus was that Hungary received the funds because it

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Reconstructing Science, Engineering, and Higher Education in Bosnia-Hercegovinaand Croatia: Summary of a Meeting successfully argued that its human capital was a valuable nationalresource, and so far neither the Croatian nor the Bosnian Governmentshas adopted this stand. Reacting to the day's discussion, Ivo Slaus (Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts) departedfrom his prepared remarks to provide a broader picture of the problemsof science in the region. It is estimated that 20% of Croatia's R&D personnel have disappeared; the number for Bosnia is over 50%.People left because they no longer felt that they could do theirjobs under the current situation, and there were many reasons forthis in addition to the war. So, unlike Hungary, which used its loanfrom the World Bank to prevent brain drain, it is in many ways toolate for Bosnia-Hercegovina and Croatia. Turning to science as animportant integrative factor, Dr. Slaus agreed that scientists couldcome together to discuss common problems and address S&T issues,but that was not enough to keep the country together. As a group,scientists and engineers better understand the importance of democracy,markets, and human rights because of their broader exposure to theseconcepts. It is important to build on this community and take betteradvantage of it. Finally, Dr. Slaus, echoing earlier comments, statedthat there is no political will to support science and technology;however, there is a window of opportunity in 1996 because peopleexpect to see progress in every area. He then discussed several ideaswhich would both support science, engineering, and higher educationand would help fulfill existing goals. These suggestions includedestablishing science parks to promote university-industry cooperation,creating a foundation to support R&D, and strengthening the Inter-UniversityCenter in Dubrovnik as a place for researchers from all over theregion to gather. He concluded by calling for the end of hopelessnessand fear that continue to permeate the region to be replaced by creativityand increased autonomy. Dr. Muharem Avdispahic (University of Sarajevo) then gave a presentationon the university system in Bosnia-Hercegovina. There are currentlyfour universities, three of which are on Federation territory (Sarajevo,Tuzla, and Mostar, although the university in Mostar is effectivelydivided between the East and West sectors of the city) and one ofwhich is in Republic of Srpska (Banja Luka). During the war, two-thirdsof the country's university students were at the University of Sarajevoand about 12% of the students studied at the University of Tuzla.Research traditionally has been concentrated in the universities,and although every university had engineering departments, the Universityof Sarajevo had the only science faculty. After 1986, research prioritiesin science, engineering and the humanities were set by a researchcouncil. University research was also closely tied to industry. Dr.Avdispahic saw a negative feature in this link in that scientistsand engineers spent their time on mundane problems instead of pursuingthe world-class research of which they were capable. Looking towards the future, Dr. Avdispahic noted that there has beenabout $100 million worth of damage to the universities in Bosnia-Hercegovina.Stressing that it would be a serious mistake to restore the universitiesto what they were previously, he argued that the universities mustbe strengthened and their role in society enhanced. First, theirfaculties need to be altered in light of the disappearance of theYugoslav university system, which means departments will have tobe created and consolidated. Second, physical infrastructure needsare different than they were five years ago. Not only are new typesof laboratories required, but the needs for telecommunications andcomputer systems are vastly different. As the discussant, Dr. Nedzib Sacirbey broadened the scope of thesession by speaking of the discrimination and prejudice that existedin Yugoslavia, the failures of Western policy, and the great lossesin human terms from the war. He said that the country has lost tenmillion years of life because of the deaths from the war, lower lifeexpectancy, and decreased birth rates, but what is most importantnow is to give people longer, happier, and more productive lives.Science is a critical component for achieving

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Reconstructing Science, Engineering, and Higher Education in Bosnia-Hercegovinaand Croatia: Summary of a Meeting this goal, but science needs people and research facilities. Inaddition to science helping the citizens of Bosnia-Hercegovina liveagain, the country can help other nations by serving as a livinglaboratory for research on such problems as malnutrition and post-traumaticstress disorder. He concluded by stressing that the assistance ofthe United States is needed to help revitalize science in Bosnia-Hercegovina,citing providing short-training courses to scientists who have beenisolated for five years as one example of the type activities inwhich the United States should be involved. Picking up on Dr. Sacirbey's comment on the need for American involvement, Glenn Schweitzernoted that earlier speakers indicated that the Europeans would haveresponsibility for providing international assistance for highereducation in Bosnia-Hercegovina. While grateful for the assistanceof European countries for Bosnia-Hercegovina's universities and expressinghope that it will continue, a number of participants provided reasonsfor the United States to have a presence in Bosnia-Hercegovina'shigher education system. Dr. Avdispahic called for American involvementbecause Bosnia-Hercegovina shares more social values with the UnitedStates than with Europe since both are historically multi-ethnicsocieties. Dr. Avdispahic and Dr. Mirza Kusljugic (University ofSarajevo at Zenica) added that there was less confidence in Europe,that the Europeans have been slow to act, and that the Europeanswant to include Bosnia-Hercegovina in established programs whichare inappropriate for the country's current needs. In terms of actualfinancial support, Dr. Avdispahic reported that the Austrian governmenthas given 400,000 DM in aid and the Italian government 220,000 DM.Taking a different approach, Dr. Slaus and Dr. Rakic argued thatit is in the United States' interest to develop ties with Bosnia's and Croatia's future elite in order to ensure long-termfriendly relations, and one clear way to do this is to have strongties with the universities. ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND RESEARCH Dr. Edwin Przybylowicz (Rochester Institute of Technology) providedthe background for this panel, examining recent changes in engineeringresearch and education in the United States. Dr. Przybylowicz hasa unique perspective on this issue gained from his experience inthe private sector as former director of research for Eastman KodakCompany, his current position in university research as Directorof the Center for Imaging Science at the Rochester Institute of Technology,and his involvement in government funding as a member of the boardof the New York State Science and Technology Foundation. As the war was taking place in Bosnia-Hercegovina and Croatia, therest of the world was changing dramatically. The breakup of the SovietUnion caused markets to shift across the globe and a decrease inmilitary spending in the West. These developments have resulted indramatic changes during the past five years on the funding of researchand development in the United States. There is now closer scrutinyof research and development expenditures and a changed environmentfor partnerships between academia, government, and industry. Oneresult has been a significant reduction of the number of positionsin research and development throughout the United States in the academic,private, and government sectors. Corporations are downsizing, resultingin reduced funding for science. Agencies have become very circumspectabout what they fund. Government programs are increasingly designedto promote university-industry collaborations to facilitate technologytransfer from university to industry. While basic science continuesto be funded by agencies like the National Science Foundation, thepercentage of basic research has been reduced. More emphasis is beingplaced on the tangible results of research and

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Reconstructing Science, Engineering, and Higher Education in Bosnia-Hercegovinaand Croatia: Summary of a Meeting development. National laboratories are trying to become more commerciallyrelevant. Dr. Przybylowicz concluded his remarks by suggesting thatthe landscape of science is changing not only in the United States,but in all other countries, including Bosnia-Hercegovina and Croatia. In his presentation, Dr. Drazan Topolnik (University of Zagreb) explainedthat one of the objectives of the “enemy” during the war was to physicallyand mentally cut Croatia off from the rest of the world. They achievedthis in many crucial areas. For example, roads, railroads, and airtraffic were cut. The war also destroyed communications (radio andcomputer links) between many people, including scientists, universities,and institutes within and outside Croatia. Because of the generaldestruction of facilities and the disruption in research, the beststudents and researchers in Croatia have left the country for betteropportunities abroad. The institutes have been physically and financiallydevastated and drained of their best scientists, yet the institutesare needed to participate in the reconstruction process. For example,the understanding of the future energy needs of the country dependson the work of the Energy Institute. Dr. Topolnik concluded thatCroatia needs regular communication and transportation links withinthe country and to the outside world in order to normalize and thenimprove conditions in the country. His talk was followed by two speakers from Bosnia-Hercegovina. Dr.Sreto Tomasevic (University of Sarajevo at Zenica) gave an overviewof the long history of academia in the region, emphasizing what hadbeen lost over the past five years. Dr. Mirza Kusljugic (Universityof Tuzla) expressed the sentiment shared by everyone that Bosnia-Hercegovinaneeds to develop a sustainable community, and that this cannot bedone without involving science and education. Science is importantin the reconstruction process not only because of the obvious benefitssociety gains from research and development, but also because scientistsinterpret and communicate knowledge. Scientists are uniquely awareof the needs of their own communities and can best help in reconstructingthem. Universities in Bosnia-Hercegovina are now in a position toassist in these efforts. During the war, Bosnian science, engineering,and medicine all helped in the defense of the country. Scientistshad to perform well and make do under grueling circumstances, butthey did unexpectedly well. Dr. Kusljugic suggested they can do aswell after the war in rebuilding their country. Emphasizing the importanceof using local talent in any reconstruction effort, he suggestedcombining foreign and local expertise to get the best results andnoted that U.S. universities and institutes are natural links forsuch activities. While the people of Bosnia-Hercegovina appreciate the leading roleof the United States in IFOR, Dr. Kusljugic mentioned that thereis an expectation that the United States will take the lead in reconstructingBosnia-Hercegovina. Indeed, the job of establishing and maintainingpeace is not complete if only the military objectives of the DaytonAgreement are met. It is even more important in the development stagesthat there should also be money invested in Bosnia businesses. Thedelegations led by the U.S. Department of Commerce are a first stepin that process, and there is hope that the commitment continues. Dr. Kusljugic expanded on Dr. Topolnik's idea that the aggressors stopped the communication between people.The aggressors placed artificial barriers between Bosnians and othersin an attempt to create ethnic tensions and thereby ended open communicationand movement. This separation of people must be repaired immediately,for isolation is a terrible fate for scientists and for the populationin general. Dr. Kusljugic stated that the current brain drain inBosnia-Hercegovina is a result of that isolation from the internationalscientific community, and efforts to stem the brain drain must beinitiated immediately to prevent further deterioration. ReconnectingBosnia with the rest of the world can be achieved at a relativelylow cost via e-mail, global satellite, and Internet. There are manyways that

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Reconstructing Science, Engineering, and Higher Education in Bosnia-Hercegovinaand Croatia: Summary of a Meeting Internet and the Web could be used to restore links both betweenthe universities within Bosnia-Hercegovina and with the rest of theworld. Dr. Kusljugic also suggested that free subscriptions or donatingequipment to the academic community would not cost much, but theywould go a long way in reconnecting people. Finally, Dr. Kusljugicalso brought up the possibility of one day twinning universitiesand institutes in Bosnia-Hercegovina with those in Europe and theUnited States. The panel discussant, Dr. Arthur Bergles (Rensselaer PolytechnicUniversity) summed up the morning's discussion by noting that whilesubsistence and reconstruction are vital, science education and researchand development must be re-established. Dr. Bergles expressed frustrationthat this is so far down on the agenda of the funding agencies. Dr.Bergles also believed that reconstruction should move quickly soas to not lose momentum. He suggested the large-scale introductionof computer hardware/software and the development of concrete programsto which researchers can apply. The question remained: who will do this? As Dr. Przybylowicz statedearlier, currently there are serious strains in the United Stateson funding of education and research. He noted that the United Stateswould be in a stronger position to help on these fronts if this wasa higher priority within America itself. Despite reductions in funding,the majority of Americans believe science should be supported, evenif there are not immediate results or products from that science.The visitors from Bosnia-Hercegovina and Croatia believe that thesame is true in Bosnia. CLOSING SESSION In an effort to integrate the wide-ranging presentations and discussion,Dr. A. George Schillinger (Polytechnic University) opened this closingsession by asking each panel chair to summarize the main points ofhis session. Martin Prochnik (U.S. Department of State, retired) began by acknowledgingthe clear priority of addressing the emotional, psychological, andphysical damage done by the war, which has left several medium- andlong-term issues in need of attention. It is important, however,to recognize the immediate usefulness of science and universitiesfor short-term objectives. For example, applications of recent advancesin de-mining and the evaluation of de-mining activities could bevaluable; to this end, an International Landmine Research and DevelopmentCenter could be attached to the proposed Mine Action Center in Sarajevo.Providing support for academic departments in the health and agriculturalfields would enable their faculties to serve as advisors in additionto engaging in applied research. Such efforts could also have importantshort-term economic and social benefits. Second, Croatia and Bosnia-Hercegovinaare losing their most talented people, who are, or could become,important political, business, and community leaders. It will bevery difficult to bring them back or replace them. Third, the workshopparticipants are not calling for major investments in science andtechnology. A small percentage of the total reconstruction aid, however,would be an important symbolic gesture recognizing the value of humancapital and could be vital to ensuring that the situation in scienceand higher education does not deteriorate further over the next severalyears. As a final comment, Mr. Prochnik said that he was personallyimpressed with how much hope people in the region place in the UnitedStates. Turning to the possible role of the NRC, Dr. John Moore (George MasonUniversity) noted that the NRC has considerable experience administeringexchange programs, organizing workshops, and conducting joint studiesin Central Europe and other regions of the world. He then stressedthe NRC's

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Reconstructing Science, Engineering, and Higher Education in Bosnia-Hercegovinaand Croatia: Summary of a Meeting two greatest assets: 1) its position of leadership, which can legitimizeand lead the process of science and engineering reconstruction inBosnia-Hercegovina and Croatia, and 2) its access to the U.S. scienceand technology (S&T) community. He reiterated several of the pointsmade by Mr. Prochnik, including the importance of integrating universitiesinto reconstruction projects. Finally, Dr. Moore reminded everyonethat economists are convinced of the important role of S&T in economicgrowth. Summarizing the panel on engineering, Dr. Edwin Przybylowicz (RochesterInstitute of Technology) underscored that higher education shouldbe a greater priority both with the Bosnian and Croatian governmentsas well as with donors. Models such as the former U.S. Departmentof State joint funds and domestic programs which tie universitiesand industries are desirable. Finally, the expansion of Internetcapabilities and journal subscriptions would help reintegrate scientistsand engineers of the region into the world community. After these panel summaries, Dr. Schillinger invited the Bosnianand Croatian participants to make final statements. Pointing to thepicture of Abraham Lincoln signing the charter for the National Academyof Sciences, which dominates the Board Room, Dr. Nedzib Sacirbeystressed that even in times of war countries need to remember thehope and promise science brings to modern society. He reemphasizedthat Bosnia-Hercegovina wants to be part of the family of nationssupporting freedom and equality and that science and higher educationare important facets in creating a democratic, modern, and integratedcountry. Building on this sentiment, Dr. Ivo Slaus (Croatian Academyof Sciences and Arts) called science, engineering, and educationessential elements of peace and an important force for building democracyand free markets. He reminded the audience that over the past fewdecades scientists, engineers, and other academics in Central Europehave been the groups most supportive of democracy and free marketsowing to their exposure to the West. He also proposed the establishmentof an international foundation for supporting science, humanities,and higher education in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the establishmentof international centers of excellence (e.g., an international centerfor peace and human rights, marine research center, agriculture center,and center for basic research). In addition, the existing internationalInter-University Center (IUC) in Dubrovnik should be strengthenedand can be a basis for the proposed center for ecological studies.Dr. Muharem Avdispahic (University of Sarajevo), recognizing thenecessity of Western assistance in rebuilding science in Bosnia-Hercegovina,expressed hope that the American and Bosnian scientific communitieswould find areas of mutual interest. Dr. Drazen Topolnik (Universityof Zagreb) and Dr. Mirza Kusljugic (University of Tuzla) supportedthe current World Bank priorities, particularly transportation andenergy, as broad areas for effective collaboration between Americans,Bosnians, and Croatians. Commenting on the preceding discussion, Mr. James Holmes (U.S. Departmentof State) reminded the audience that higher education is one of theWorld Bank's ten priority areas, which is an indication that theinternational community recognizes its importance. However, the U.S.Government decided to target its assistance on three or four otherpriority areas, and it was felt that the Europeans were in a betterposition to rebuild the university system in Bosnia. The U.S. Governmentwill have a $70 million program for projects identified by Bosnianmunicipalities, and there is the potential for higher education projectsto be included in this program, provided municipalities identifythem as priorities. Several other participants questioned the wisdomof relying solely on the Europeans, given the long-standing tieswith U.S. institutions. Also, they were concerned that the universitiesshould be a national priority and not left simply to the municipalitieswith limited funds.

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Reconstructing Science, Engineering, and Higher Education in Bosnia-Hercegovinaand Croatia: Summary of a Meeting A number of other participants reiterated the importance of convincinggovernment officials in Bosnia-Hercegovina and Croatia that science,engineering, and higher education must receive higher priority andthat these institutions can and should be assisted within the currentreconstruction framework. Dr. Veljko Zlatic (University of Zagreb)added that the science and engineering communities in these countriesalso need assistance in becoming better advocates for themselves.Not only do they need American moral support, but also assistancewith such skills as writing proposals. Some participants promisedto examine the possibility of engaging other international organizations,such as the Inter-Academy Panel and the International Council ofScientific Unions, in these endeavors. Following these comments, several participants praised the formerScience and Technology Cooperative Agreements, which were establishedwith a number of Central European countries, as an excellent modelwhich should be revived. Under these agreements, the U.S. Governmentand the cooperating country each placed a fixed amount of money (usuallyin the range of $500,000 to $1.5 million) into a “joint fund”. American andforeign scientists submitted proposals to a joint board, which oversawthe funds. Ms. Janet Mayland (U.S. Department of State) explainedthat the joint funds, despite efforts by the foreign governments,were not considered a high priority by the U.S. Department of State,and international science programs are not viewed favorably by manymembers of Congress. While significantly larger funds are neededin the war-devastated region today, this experience provides a goodbasis for optimism that funds for science and technology can indeedhave substantial impact on economic development. The workshop ended with a call for the establishment of an informalcontact group that would keep in touch with all participants. Itsobjective would be to coordinate efforts to raise the awareness ofthe importance of science, engineering, and higher education withthe U.S., Bosnian, and Croatian Governments and among other internationaldonors. This group would also explore the possibility of organizinga larger meeting in Europe next year.