ATP levels, thirst related to, 188

Atrial natriuretic factor, plasma level changes in aging, 219-220

B

Barometric pressure, and fluid intake, 207-208

Beer intake, effects during marching in heat, 210

Beverage composition

acidity and osmotic concentrations in, 211-212

affecting thirst-quenching properties, 208-211

examples of, 29

Bicarbonate

affecting water and sodium absorption, 16

in Armyade, 113

Blood flow

muscle, in potassium deficiency, 121-123

to skin

dehydration affecting, 25-26, 92

in heat exposure, 217

splanchnic

aging affecting, 225

in heat exposure, 218

Blood volume ratio to plasma volume, 195

Body Fuel450,

composition of, 29

C

Caffeine as thirst stimulus, 209

Calcium

in beverage formulations, with sodium, chloride, potassium, and sucrose 27

losses in sweat, 138

plasma levels in potassium deficiency from training in heat, 120

Carbohydrate intake;

see also Glucose

concentrations in beverages affecting performance, 31, 32-33

during exercise, 56-59

in continuous exercise, 56-58

in intermittent exercise, 58

and reversal of fatigue, 101-105

gastric emptying of supplements in;

see Gastric emptying

postexercise, 59-66

comparison of carbohydrates in, 64-66

glucose infusions in, 63-64

and glycogen storage rates, 60

multiple supplements and amounts of glucose polymer in, 62-63

timing of, 61-62

prior to fatigue, affecting exercise performance, 105-108

timing of

affecting performance, 45, 59, 105-108

during exercise, 99-109

in exercise of mild to moderate intensities, 108-109

postexercise, 61-62

and value of carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, 3-4, 7-8

Carbonated beverages, effects



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