Fluid Replacement and Heat Stress, 1993
Pp. 69-83. Washington, D.C.
National Academy Press
Physiologists commonly recommend the consumption of fluid (with or without electrolytes) and carbohydrate (CHO) during prolonged exercise, particularly prolonged exercise in heat. This recommendation is based on data showing improved thermoregulation and enhanced endurance secondary to fluid and CHO consumption, respectively. The rate at which solutions empty from the stomach is generally thought to be the primary limiting step in the process of fluid-energy replacement (Fordtran and Saltin, 1967). A number of factors have been identified that influence the rate of gastric emptying (Brouns et al., 1987), including: CHO concentration (osmolality), CHO source (osmolality), exercise intensity, meal volume, meal temperature, fat and protein in the ingestate, particle size, and dietary fiber. This review
Carl Foster, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Sinai Samaritan Medical Center, 950 N. 12th Street, Milwaukee, WI 53201