REFERENCES

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks for science literacy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Anderson, R.D. and Mitchener, C.P. (1994). Research on science teacher education. In D.Gabel (ed.), Handbook of Research on Science Teaching and Learning (pp. 3–44). New York: MacMillan.

Andrew, M. (1990). The differences between graduates of four-year and five-year teacher preparation programs. J. Teacher Education 41, 45–51.

Andrew, M. and Schwab, R.L. (1995). Has reform in teacher education influenced teacher performance?: An outcome assessment of graduates of eleven teacher education programs. Action in Teacher Education 17, 43–53.

Association for the Education of Teachers in Science. (1996). Standards for science teacher educators. Available on the AETS WWW site (http://science.coe.uwf.edu/aets/aets.html).

Applegate, J. (1987). Early field experiences: Three viewpoints. In M.Haberman and Backus, J.M. (Eds.), Advances in teacher education, Vol. 3 (pp. 75–93). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.


Baird, J.R., Fensham, P.J., Gunstone, R.F., and White, R.T. (1991). The importance of reflection in improving science teaching and learning. J. Res. in Science Teaching 28, 163–182.

Ball, D.L. and McDiarmid, G.W. (1990). The subject-matter preparation of teachers. In W.R. Houston (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 437–449). New York: Macmillan Publishing.

Banta, T.W., J.P.Lund, K.E.Black, and F.W.Olander. (1996). Assessment in practice: Putting principles to work on college campuses. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Boyer, E.L. (1988). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.


Choy, S.P., Henke, R.R., Alt, M.N., Medrich, E.A., and Bobbitt, S.A. (1993). Schools and staffing in the United States: A statistical profile, 1990–91. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Clark, R.J. and LaLonde, D.E. (1992) A case for department-based professional development sites for secondary teacher education. J. Teacher Educ. 43(1):35–41.

Conant, J.B. (1963). The education of American teachers. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Crosby, G.A. (1996). Implications of the National Science Education Standards for higher education. J. Chem. Ed. 73(9):A200–A201.

Crosby, G.A. (1997). The necessary role of scientists in the education of elementary teachers. J.Chem. Ed. 74(3):271–272.



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Science Teacher Preparation in an Era of Standards-Based Reform REFERENCES American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks for science literacy. New York: Oxford University Press. Anderson, R.D. and Mitchener, C.P. (1994). Research on science teacher education. In D.Gabel (ed.), Handbook of Research on Science Teaching and Learning (pp. 3–44). New York: MacMillan. Andrew, M. (1990). The differences between graduates of four-year and five-year teacher preparation programs. J. Teacher Education 41, 45–51. Andrew, M. and Schwab, R.L. (1995). Has reform in teacher education influenced teacher performance?: An outcome assessment of graduates of eleven teacher education programs. Action in Teacher Education 17, 43–53. Association for the Education of Teachers in Science. (1996). Standards for science teacher educators. Available on the AETS WWW site (http://science.coe.uwf.edu/aets/aets.html). Applegate, J. (1987). Early field experiences: Three viewpoints. In M.Haberman and Backus, J.M. (Eds.), Advances in teacher education, Vol. 3 (pp. 75–93). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Baird, J.R., Fensham, P.J., Gunstone, R.F., and White, R.T. (1991). The importance of reflection in improving science teaching and learning. J. Res. in Science Teaching 28, 163–182. Ball, D.L. and McDiarmid, G.W. (1990). The subject-matter preparation of teachers. In W.R. Houston (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 437–449). New York: Macmillan Publishing. Banta, T.W., J.P.Lund, K.E.Black, and F.W.Olander. (1996). Assessment in practice: Putting principles to work on college campuses. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Boyer, E.L. (1988). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Choy, S.P., Henke, R.R., Alt, M.N., Medrich, E.A., and Bobbitt, S.A. (1993). Schools and staffing in the United States: A statistical profile, 1990–91. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Clark, R.J. and LaLonde, D.E. (1992) A case for department-based professional development sites for secondary teacher education. J. Teacher Educ. 43(1):35–41. Conant, J.B. (1963). The education of American teachers. New York: McGraw-Hill. Crosby, G.A. (1996). Implications of the National Science Education Standards for higher education. J. Chem. Ed. 73(9):A200–A201. Crosby, G.A. (1997). The necessary role of scientists in the education of elementary teachers. J.Chem. Ed. 74(3):271–272.

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Science Teacher Preparation in an Era of Standards-Based Reform Darling-Hammond, L. and Berry, B. (1988). The evolution of teacher policy. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Darling-Hammond, L. and Sclan, E.M. (1996). Who teaches and why: Dilemmas of building a profession for twenty-first century schools. In J.Sikula (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. p. 67–101). New York: Macmillan. Darling-Hammond, L., Wise, A.E., and Klein, S.P. (1995). A license to teach: Building a Profession for 21st-century Schools. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Dewey, J. (1904). The relation of theory to practice in education. In C.McMurry (Ed.), The relation of theory to practice in the education of teachers: Third yearbook for the national society for the scientific study of education (pp. 9–30). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Druva, C.A. and Anderson, R.D. (1983). Science teacher characteristics by teacher behavior and by student outcome: A meta-analysis. J. Res. Science Teaching 20(5), 467–479. Education Commission of the States. (1995). Making quality count in undergraduate education. Washington, DC: U.S. Printing Office. Feiman-Nemser, S. (1990). Teacher preparation: Structural and conceptual alternatives. In W.R. Houston (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 212–233). New York: Macmillan. Feiman-Nemser, S. and Buchmann, M. (1985). Pitfalls of experience in teacher preparation. Teachers College Record 87, 53–65. Fletcher-Flinn, C.M. and B.Gravatt. (1995). The efficacy of computer-assisted instruction: A meta-analysis. J. Educational Computing Res. 12, 219–242. Gess-Newsome, J. and Lederman, N.G. (1993). Preservice biology teachers’ knowledge structures as a function of professional teacher education: A year-long assessment. Sci. Educ. 77(1), 25–45. Guyton, E., and McIntyre, D.J. (1990). Student teaching and school experiences. In W.R.Houston (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 514–534). New York: Macmillan. Holmes Group. (1986). Tomorrow’s teachers. East Lansing, MI: Author. Holmes Group. (1990). Tomorrow’s schools: Principles for the design of professional development schools. East Lansing, MI: Author. Houston, W.R., Haberman, M., and Sikula, J. (1990). Handbook of research on teacher education. New York: Macmillan. Howey, K.R., and Zimpher, N.L. (1986). The current debate on teacher preparation. J. Teacher Education, 37(5), 41–49. Hutchings, P. (1996). Making teaching community property: A menu for peer collaboration and review. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education.

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Science Teacher Preparation in an Era of Standards-Based Reform Jones, L.M. and Kane, D.J. (1994). Student evaluation of computer-based instruction in a large university mechanics course. Am J. Phys. 62(9), 832–836. Kuerbis, P.J. and Micikas, L.B. (1996). Teacher preparation in light of standards-based reform. In Bybee, R.W., ed. National standards and the science curriculum: challenges, opportunities, and recommendations. (pp. 125–130). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. Lanier, J.E., and Little, J.W. (1986). Research on teacher education. In M.C.Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching, 3rd ed. (pp. 527–569). New York: Macmillan. Laws, P. (1991). Calculus based physics without lectures. Physics Today (Dec), 24–31. Lortie, D. (1975). Schoolteacher: A sociological study. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Loucks-Horsley, S., Bybee, R.W., and Wild, E.L.C. (1996). The role of community colleges in the professional development of science teachers. J. College Science Teaching 26(2), 130–134. Mazur, E. (1997). Peer instruction: a users manual. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Moscovici, H. and Gilmer, P.J. (1996). Testing alternative assessment strategies: The ups and the downs for science-teaching faculty. J. College Sci. Teaching 25(5):319–323. Murnane, R.J., Singer, J.D., Willett, J.B., Kemple, J.J., and Olsen, R.J. (1991). Who will teach?: Policies that matter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Nakhleh, M.B. and Krajcik, J.S. (1993). A protocol analysis of the influence of technology on students’ actions, verbal commentary, and thought processes during the performance of acid-base titrations. J. Res. Science Teaching 30:1149–1168. National Center for Education Statistics. (1986). The condition of education, 1986. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. (1995). The condition of education, 1995. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. National Commission on Teaching & America’s Future (1996). What matters most: teaching for America’s future. New York: Author. National Education Association. (1992). Status of the American public school teacher 1990–91. Washington, DC: Author. National Research Council. (1990). Precollege science and mathematics teachers: Monitoring supply, demand, and quality. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (1996a). From analysis to action: Undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (1996b). National science education standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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Science Teacher Preparation in an Era of Standards-Based Reform National Research Council. (1996c). The preparation of teachers of mathematics: Considerations and challenges. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (1996d). The role of scientists in the professional development of science teachers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (1997). Improving teacher preparation and credentialling consistent with the National Science Education Etandards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Science Foundation. (1993). Proceedings of the National Science Foundation workshop on the role of faculty from the scientific disciplines in the undergraduate education of future science and mathematics teachers. Washington, DC: Author. National Science Foundation. (1996). Shaping the future: New expectations for undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. Arlington, VA: Author. Oakes, J. (1990). Multiplying inequities: The unequal distribution of mathematics and science opportunities. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Peters, R.S. (1977). Education and the education of teachers. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Raizen S.A. and Michelsohn, A.M., eds. 1994. The Future of science in elementary schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Richardson, V. (1994). Conducting research on practice. Educational Researcher 23(5), 5–10. Roblyer, M.D., Castine, W.H., and King, F.J. (1988). Assessing the impact of computer-based instruction. Computers in the Schools 5, 1–149. Sarason, S., Davidson, K., and Blatt, B. (1962). The preparation of teachers: An unstudied problem in education. New York: Wiley. Sarason, S.B., Davidson, K.S., and Blatt, B. (1986). The preparation of teachers: An unstudied problem in education (rev. ed.). Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books. Scheffler, I. (1973). Reason and teaching. New York: Bobbs-Merrill. Schon, D.A. (1983). The reflective practitioner. New York: Basic Books. Seymour, E. and Hewitt, N.M. (1997). Talking about leaving: Why undergraduates leave the sciences. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Shavelson, R.J. (1988). Contributions of Educational Research to Policy and Practice: Constructing, Challenging, Changing Cognition. Educational Researcher October, 4–11, 22 Shugart, S.S. and Hounshell, P.B. (1995). Subject matter competence and the recruitment and retention of secondary science teachers. J. Res. Sci. Teaching 32(1):63–70.

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Science Teacher Preparation in an Era of Standards-Based Reform Shulman, L.S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of new reform. Harvard Educational Review , 57, 1–22. Shulman, L.S. (1988). A union of insufficiencies: Strategies for teacher assessment in a period of educational reform. Educational Leadership November: 36–41. Shulman, L.S. (1990). Aristotle had it right: On knowledge and pedagogy (Occasional paper no. 4). East Lansing, MI: The Holmes Group. Sunal, D.W. (1980). Effect of field experiences during elementary methods courses on preservice teacher behavior. J. Res. Science Teaching 17, 7–23. Tolman, M.N. and Campbell, M.K. (1991). Science preparation requirements of elementary school teachers in the United States. J. Science Teacher Education 2(3), 72–76. Trumball, D. (1990). Evolving conceptions of teaching: Reflections of one teacher. Curriculum Inquiry, 20(2):161–182. Vance, V.S. and Schlechty, P.C. (1982). The distribution of academic ability in the teaching force: Policy implications. Phi Delta Kappan, 64(1), 22–27. Williamson, V.M. and Abraham, M.R. (1995). The effects of computer animation on the particulate mental models of college chemistry students. J. Res. Science Teaching 32:521–534. Witkin, H.A. and Goodenough, D.R. (1981). Cognitive styles: essence and origins. New York: International Universities Press. Yates, A. (1995). Higher education has a link to real reform at the K-12 level. Denver Post. April 29:8B. Zimpher, N.L. and Ashburn, E.A. (1992). Countering parochialism in teacher candidates. In Diversity in teacher education: New perspectives (pp. 40–62). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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