Appendix A: Written Critiques

Several individuals were asked to prepare written critiques of the document National Geodetic Survey: Its Mission, Vision, and Strategic Goals in advance of the forum. Those asked to contribute were chosen to provide a wide range of disciplinary perspectives. The critiques appear in the order presented, with minor editing for continuity of style. The last presenter, Edward Butt, submitted a paper entitled Railroad Navigational and Control System based on a National Spatial Reference System in lieu of a formal critique. His paper is available from the Committee on Geodesy.



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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Appendix A: Written Critiques Several individuals were asked to prepare written critiques of the document National Geodetic Survey: Its Mission, Vision, and Strategic Goals in advance of the forum. Those asked to contribute were chosen to provide a wide range of disciplinary perspectives. The critiques appear in the order presented, with minor editing for continuity of style. The last presenter, Edward Butt, submitted a paper entitled Railroad Navigational and Control System based on a National Spatial Reference System in lieu of a formal critique. His paper is available from the Committee on Geodesy.

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Joseph S. Matney MITRE NSRS Specifics Good for Aeronautical Use Framework of monumented 3D points located in GPS-space Accurate to ± 1-2 cm rel each other and Earth's C of G NOS funded Federal Base Network (FBN) of 1.3K points + Cooperatively funded Base Network (CBN), 15K points Expected funding sources for the CBN in aviation? Each monumented point to Have good satellite visibility Be about 25 km (13.5 nm) apart A subset to be GPS-reference stations Significance of on-line access to ref stations to aviation? More accurate geoid to represent the Earth's MSL surface Zero reference for GPS-measured elevations and altitudes Expected future role for barometric altimetry in aviation? Proposed Change to NSRS Poses No Major Administrative Challenges Distributing Navigational Reference Updates World uses ICAO's AIRAC System to synch updates (AIRAC = Aeronautical Information Regulation and Control) Updates distributed every 28 days, 13 times a year Updates to be posted to all users with = 42 days leadtime Geodetic Datum Changeover experienced recently Prior to 15 Oct 92, NAD-27 was FAA's Reference Datum Then NAD-83 (same as GPS's WGS-84) replaced NAD-27 No show-stopping problems emerged from that Changeover date/specifics advertised with = 1 year lead

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Some Questions NAD-83 and NAVD-88 to be compatible with the FBN/CBN grid Aviation community now relies on NAD-83 and NGVD-29 NGVD-29 defines height relative to local vertical and MSL Implications of NAVD-88, FBN/CBN grid, new geoid to av? NOAA's Digitized Chart Data Bases and On-line Access What is the assumed relationship to FAA programs?; e.g., Operational Data Management System (ODMS?) Obstruction Evaluation #038; Airport/Airspace Analysis Airways, Routes, Approach #038; Departure proc design Surveying #038; Recording Facts vs. Arbitrating Planned Change FAR Part 77: power to control navigation hazards limited FAA often is slow to learn of the existence of a hazard Is this a problem along coastlines and in waterways? Can NOAA #038; FAA work more effectively in this regard?

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System John A. Thorpe Analytical Surveys, Inc. (critique written by Eric DesRoche, Measurement Science Inc.) Strategic Goals Strategic Goal #1 The NGS mandate has always been to maintain the National database and distribute it to the public. We do not understand what there is to gain by changing the name from NGRS to NSRS. The NGS state advisors, for the most part, are of little value to the geodetic and mapping industry. We believe that many of them are not well educated in the subject and only tend to mislead the land surveying community. In addition, they tend to take a back seat to the State DOT administrators. An example is Wisconsin, where the DOT routinely advises cities and counties on geodetic issues and have outlined their own standards and procedures while ignoring NGS. As a result, control projects are being undertaken and are not blue-booked. Strategic Goal #2 The FGCS Standards and Specifications do not keep up with demands of the user community and the changing survey technologies. For example, the current GPS standards were prepared in May, 1988 and reprinted in August, 1989. The control network standards and specifications (H and V) are September, 1984 reprinted May, 1987. Some examples where this tardiness has affected our companies are the following: The use of digital leveling technology in Fairfax County The use of Rapid-Static GPS surveying in Montgomery, MD Strategic Goal #3 This goal is impressive from the scientific standpoint and perhaps required in other areas of research, i.e., tectonic plate motion studies, tide variations etc., but offers little to the user community.

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Strategic Goal #4 A tightening of the existing horizontal control network was required to support city, county, and even state-wide mapping and GIS projects. The CBN (order B network) has done this. However, we do not fully support the NGS approach of adjusting these high precision networks on a state-by-state basis. This has caused some problems at state boundaries with changing coordinate values, etc. Strategic Goal #5 Blue-Booking has always been a fundamental service of NGS. This provides an economical QA/QC on geodetic control projects, provides cities and counties with qualified subcontractors and thus a quality product, and provides a means by which to disseminate the data to the public. The current time-frame on getting a blue-book project accepted by NGS is far too long. Strategic Goal #6 Research eventually benefits everyone. However, the problem with NGS and other agencies is that they do not collaborate on their efforts and results. An example is GPS-Assisted photogrammetry where the USGS, NGS and others tend to do their own thing. More collaboration with the private sector would be beneficial, perhaps through the CBD? Strategic Goal #7 Could this goal not be more easily and economically obtained by involving the private sector much like the USGS NAPP? Strategic Goal #8 Private Sector involvement?

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Strategic Goal #9 With real-time differential corrections being the area of considerable research, I feel that making corrections available 24 hours after the fact will be a dated technology before it is fully operational. Several companies are currently providing corrections via FM sub-carriers. Strategic Goal #10 Heighting has always been the weakest link with GPS. A more accurate geoidal model would be useful to the mapping and surveying communities. Strategic Goal #11 One federal agency redefining GPS orbital information should be sufficient to support the user community. At present, do NGS, USGS, DMA, Scripps collaborate on this? For most commercial applications, the broadcast ephemeris is sufficient. Strategic Goal #12 A nation-wide datum such as NAVD 88 is required. It would be beneficial if all agencies would convert their information to this datum and request that all future surveys also use this datum. Strategic Goal #13 Improvement in this area has been made with the control data being made available on CD-ROM. NOAA 1995 - 2005 Strategic Plan Section 1.5 How does NOAA plan to provide jobs to the private sector?

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System NOAA has addressed the urgent need to update nautical charts, coastal mapping, densification of control etc. However, the current production rates will not meet their goals. Section 3.1 What private companies are contracted to NOAA? How does the private sector apply? Summary I feel that in order for NOAA to reach its goals and provide the required data to the user community, well qualified companies must be involved. NGS is required to: oversee all high precision geodetic work (i.e., blue-booking #038; independent adjustments) prepare current Standards and Specifications maintaining the national database distributing data to the public research such as improved geoidal models technical advice (but not through uneducated state advisors) In our opinion, NGS should not be: Using federal funds to compete with the private sector. Involved with projects outside of the U.S., even if the World Bank or U.S. AID is involved. For example, what is the role of NGS in Romania? Undertaking fieldwork that can be performed more economically by private companies.

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Robert W. Foster Engineering Consultant Typical activities of the "local surveyor:" Cadastral surveys "…relating to land boundaries and subdivisions, made to create units suitable for transfer or to define the limitations of title." Control surveys in support of design professions and construction industry Data collection surveys in support of design professions and construction industry Data collection surveys in support of title transfer industry Control surveys for mapping Data collection surveys for mapping Post-construction surveys to memorialize position of features Background: Surveys performed by the local surveyor ordinarily relate to local control systems rather than geographic coordinates. However, in some jurisdictions surveyors are required by law to reference their surveys to geodetic coordinate systems. Location and extent of land parcels are evidenced by monumentation recognized as reflecting original intent. The law ordinarily recognizes monumentation of lines and corners as controlling over other definition. In some jurisdictions the law may recognize record coordinates as evidence of position but will nearly always hold to local monumentation over geodetic definition. As GPS technology expands, both in its development and application by the surveying profession, legal institutions may in the future recognize record coordinates as controlling parcel location. Control and data collection surveys for design professionals and the construction and title transfer industries are ordinarily performed with reference to local vertical datums and horizontal control systems in order to relate to local infrastructure. Geodetic positioning is applied for construction projects involving long lines, such as highways.

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Post-construction surveys are ordinarily referenced to the same systems as pre-construction surveys. Implications: In some jurisdictions surveyor access to a qualified geodetic reference system is required by law, therefore accessibility of the National Geodetic Reference System is a necessity. Access to the National Geodetic Reference System will be vital to the local surveyor in cadastral work when legal institutions recognize geodetic position as controlling parcel definition. Access to the National Geodetic Reference System is necessary for the surveyor performing control surveys requiring geodetic positioning. The application of GPS currently being used by the local surveyor in cadastral surveys is usually for measuring rather than for positioning. Line distances and vectors can be determined by differential application. The positioning application is more apt to be utilized by the surveyor primarily for mapping and control, and for this application access to the National Geodetic Reference System is vital. Control network of monumented stations at 1 × 1 spacing will be of little value to local surveyors in cadastral applications, and of limited value in other forms of surveying for surveyors using conventional surveying techniques. Surveyors equipped with GPS equipment may access such a network for major projects requiring geodetic positioning but for community-based operations this spacing is too great to be economical for the local surveyor. Surveyors equipped with single frequency GPS equipment may find that Federal Base Network spacing produces insufficient accuracies. FGCS standards for static positioning must be followed to produce acceptable results, but users and suppliers of GPS equipment are developing new procedures such as "rapid static" and "real time kinematic" for which FGCS standards have not been established. Comment: These observations are made from the perspective of the "local surveyor." The local surveyor is typically a practitioner with a scope of operations within his

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System community and within a ring of communities two deep encircling his or her own location. Constraints on the local surveyor determining techniques and procedures to be applied in any survey include: Minimum standards established by regulation and common practice Client requirements Client budgets Competitive pressures These constraints discourage surveyors from adventuring into innovative applications of technology for the sake of future efficiencies. The practice of surveying on the local level is an exercise in pragmatic decision-making. On the other hand surveyors in some jurisdictions are already taking steps to expand monumented networks. In Michigan the state survey remonumentation program is providing for 80 monumented positions in addition to 40 stations being established by the National Geodetic Survey. A broader perspective of the issue derives a more compelling conclusion. Area mapping, resource inventory, multi-states infrastructure construction and management, geographic information systems, and other activities in which geodetic surveying is to be a central component will make intense use of the Federal Base Network. Cooperative Base Networks and User Densification Networks will become a logical extension of the FBN. Eventually even the local surveyor will make use of these networks, especially when purchasers of surveying services and the legal institutions that make the final determination of parcel location finally demand positioning information with more than a local reference.

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Lawrence R. Fenske California Department of Transportation Introduction: We applaud NGS for its exhaustive efforts to develop a strategic plan for fulfilling current and future spatial referencing needs, and for soliciting reviews from geodetic data users. The evaluation of NGS's existing goals and development of a strategic plan for the 21st century is essential and timely given (a) today's limited federal resources, (b) the tremendous advances in positioning technology created by GPS, (c) the expanding use of spatial data, especially for nonsurveying purposes, (d) the spatial referencing needs of today 's information and management systems such as GIS, and (e) the opportunities to improve commerce through modern positioning and referencing technologies. An in-depth review of NGS's strategic plan by geodetic data users is necessary to ensure the plan meets the needs of the users and also to foster acceptance and use of the proposed, new national spatial referencing system (NSRS). Specific NRC Questions: Is the NSRS compatible with systems currently used? In general, the proposed NSRS is compatible with geodetic control currently used by local surveyors (NGS's historical control networks or control based on these networks). However, there will be differences which will require education for the local surveyor. For example: The coordinates of stations directly referenced to the state High Accuracy Reference Network will not be exactly consistent with those that were not directly referenced. This will limit the available control for some surveys. Also, procedures for dating coordinate values should be implemented to clearly identify the basis of the coordinate values shown on survey documents.

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System COMPUTING IN THE FUTURE - PDA Portable - Personal Data Assistant. Communication Medium - Telephone, pager, clock, alarm, electronic mail. Personal Information Resource - Notepad, address book, diary, calendar, reminders. Reference Source - Newspaper, dictionary, encyclopedia. Personal Navigation Resource - Maps, positioning, traffic conditions, route planner, route related information system, route guidance. THE ELEMENTS OF THE NSRS INCLUDE Federal Base Network* Cooperative Base Network* User Densification Network* National Earth Orientation Service Continuously Operating Reference Stations* Precise GPS Orbits Geoid Models International Terrestrial Reference Frame *Indispensable for IVHS and PDA Navigation Systems REVIEW OF DRAFT PLAN Is the NSRS compatible with systems currently used in your community? Yes and no. GPS is referred to a geocentric reference frame while maps are often referred to non-geocentric datums. Confusion exists in the IVHS community over these differences and inconsistences. Does the plan meet the current and future needs of your community? Why/why not? Yes. If fully implemented, it would assist the IVHS community to fully realize their mobile positioning and locating objectives.

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System What are the three key goals in the strategic plan for your community? Are there other goals that should incorporated in the plan? Strategic goals 1,2,3,4,5,9,13,14, and 15 are important to the IVHS community. The three most important strategic goals are as follows: #5 - User Densification Network; #/9 - Continuously Operating Reference Stations for DGPS; and #13 - Data Access. An additional goal of reconciling the GPS geocentric positioning world with the location world of addresses is needed; especially within the context of coordinate tagging and addressing of information in the digital yellow pages, traffic and other road-related information. Does your community need a link to the NGS for assistance in implementing the NSRS? If so, what form should that link take? Yes. NGS needs to work closely with IVHS America and its members in ensuring that positioning and mapping standards are adhered to for the various spatially-related information used in IVHS.

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Jim Morgan Chevron Petroleum Technology Company WITH RESPECT TO OIL INDUSTRY NEEDS: The NOAA/NGS plan as proposed is more than adequate to meet existing and anticipated future needs through year 2005. In fact, the existing NAD 83 and NAVD 88 datums are satisfactory for oil industry positioning needs. It is difficult to imagine or believe that all the proposed goals will be adequately funded. I was disappointed that monetary budget estimates were not included in the plan. I encourage NOAA/NGS to prioritize the goals of this plan and include $ estimates subsequent to this forum. My personal preferences on factors to use in prioritizing the plan are (in order of importance): Air safety Safety at sea Environmental concerns Other positioning needs of government and industry Positioning needs of scientific community My order of importance of proposed strategic goals: SG 8 — Airport Surveying and Mapping SG 7 — Mapping the Coastal Zone SG 12 — NAVD 88 Implementation SG 10 — GPS Leveling SG 13 — Data Access SG 11 — GPS Orbits SG 9 — CORS SG 6 — Geodetic Research SG 2 — Coordination of Federal Geodetic Activities SG 1 — Transition to NSRS SG 3 — Federal Base Network SG 4 — Cooperative Base Network SG 5 — User Densification Network

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Eugene Pentemonte American President Lines (critique written and presented by Carl Seiberlich) Is the NSRS compatible with systems currently used in your community? Yes Does the plan meet the current and future needs of your community? Why/why not? Yes, but careful management of the transition must be made. What are the three key goals in the strategic plan for your community? Are there any other goals that should be incorporated in the plan? By far goal 1, the transition to NSRS is of greatest importance. Goals 7, 9, 10, 11 and 13 are important to the marine community. Does your community need a link to the NGS for assistance in implementing the NSRS? If so, what form should that link take? This appears to be covered in current goals. Issues of major concern to American President Lines: Continued availability of charts and nautical publications Electronic Chart Systems Provision of digital chart data Development of international standards c. Maintenance of fax weather information and time checks during transition period

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Major problem in calibration of RDF equipment with shut down of radio beacons in many areas. This situation requires a major review. Development of satellite based cellular telephone systems for reliable, worldwide use. Continued monitoring of GMDSS program.

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Sue Nichols University of New Brunswick The following points are made from a broad user perspective with emphasis on a wide interpretation of GIS and spatial data management. Significant, overlapping trends in spatial data management related to spatial reference systems: increasing need to integrate multiple data sets (vertical integration, horizontal integration, and integration of different formats as well as types of data); Example: local to national/global level; satellite imagery with conventional map data; local land records system development need for real time, static positioning information direct to users Example: cadastral surveys; personal location devices and anti-theft tracking devices need for three dimensional and dynamic positioning capabilities Example: DTMs; monitoring systems; vehicle navigation need to support development of national spatial data infrastructures Example: NRC report Examples of related issues for spatial data management: increasing use of GPS positioning access to data incompatibility of data being collected and captured: different datums; different accuracies (conflation programs); different epochs, etc. long term reliability and updating systems duplication of effort responsibility and liability audit trails

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Priority of Strategic Goals from a spatial information management perspective: Data Access Coordination Cooperative Base Network User Densification CORS NAVD 88 implementation Comments on Goals: Data Access needs to be given greater emphasis and higher priority; e.g., what mechanisms will be used? How can users be tracked for updates? CORS needs to be more specific; how will it deal with real time positioning? Coordination of Federal Geodetic Activities: how will compliance to standards be monitored and enforced? NAVD 88 Implementation: how will this effect existing data bases? What effect will this have on state and regional systems? Transition of NSRS: how does this differ from existing system? Cooperative Base Network: who maintains data and who is legally responsible for quality? User Densification Network: what incentives are there for participation? Mapping the Coastal Zone: why will a federal agency carry the cost? What real needs are there for comprehensive coastal zone mapping? Will it be user driven or mandate driven? Airport Surveying and Mapping: will this be user driven or mandate driven? In general the comments include: need to be user and need driven vs. mandate driven (costs!!!) need to emphasize user access need to emphasize how coordination can be achieved

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System need to be more concerned with liability/responsibility issues need to look 10-20 years ahead and perhaps put much more emphasis on GPS, Active Control, and improving user access to data and to updates.

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Yehuda Bock Scripps Institution of Oceanography Federal Base Network (FBN) #038; Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) It appears to be difficult to discard old concepts: Let's face it, monument-only geodetic stations are obsolete Let's not take partial measures, Entire FBN should consist of CORS at the proposed l00-km spacing NSRS is fully defined and accessible as follows: Precise coordinates and velocities of FBN/CORS are given in International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) maintained by International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) Precise orbits are available in near real-time in cooperation with International GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS) FBN/CORS data are easily accessible through electronic/bulletin board arrangements in near real-time at high sampling rates GPS surveys then become “point-positioning” exercises relative to the nearest FBN/CORS stations. Cost to install FBN/CORS (1300 stations) if starting from scratch ~$30,000,000 Cooperative effort is needed with other entities to maximize resources Cost to operate FBN/CORS ~$4,000,000/Year What about Cooperative Base Network (CBN) of 25,000 monuments? Probably not necessary — NOAA should not waste energy #038; resources, except to expand CORS in select areas FBN/CORS — Can NOAA do it? Not now, current performance needs improvement e.g., Orbit quality not adequate, tracking sites not providing highest quality data, not enough attention to detail

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Quality, Quality, Quality — how to achieve? This comes with motivation Motivation comes when well-chosen personnel are given adequate resources — this is not the situation today TQM is not enough Some advice and interaction from the outside is required — grants program should be established, links with academic and research community enhanced Futuristic outlook is very important There are too many outmoded concepts Draft Implementation Plan has the correct concepts scattered throughout, but it gets obscured by the “old” ideas

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Kurt Maynard John E. Chance #038; Associates, Inc. STRATEGIC GOALS 7 & 8 Whereas the NGS should well be the Government researchers and coordinators of Geodetic activities the private sector is well capable of performing coastal mapping as well as Airport surveying and mapping. Take the example of the Army Corps of Engineers in developing supervisory and contract administration to facilitate and build a working relationship with private industry to provide the survey product. Institute joint developments with private industry to design and build survey systems that will address the needs of the 21st century. Realize when field operations are conducted as a business in a competitive climate, efficient and cost effective products result. FORM STRATEGIC ALLIANCE WITH UNIVERSITIES Help set up a survey curriculum that will support the new national spatial reference system. Provide National Geodetic Survey personnel to the universities as teachers and advisors for the survey curriculum on a temporary basis.