Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System

Committee on Geodesy

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1994



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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System Committee on Geodesy Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Support for this study was provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Copies of this report are available from: Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20418 Cover art, which depicts a GPS satellite passing over North America, by Cathy Garland, Riverside County Flood Control and Water Conservation District. Copyright1994by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System COMMITTEE FOR THE FORUM ON NOAA's STRATEGIC PLAN FOR A NATIONAL SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM William H. Young, Riverside County Flood Control and Water Conservation District, Chair M. Elizabeth Cannon, The University of Calgary Clifford W. Greve, U.S. Geological Survey Robert Packard, City of Los Angeles Richard Sailor, The Analytic Sciences Corporation National Research Council Staff Anne Linn, Program Officer Shelley A. Myers, Project Assistant

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System COMMITTEE ON GEODESY Thomas Herring, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair Robin E. Bell, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University B. Clark Burchfiel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology M. Elizabeth Cannon, The University of Calgary Christopher Jekeli, The Ohio State University Roger L. Merrell, Consultant Richard Sailor, The Analytic Sciences Corporation David Sandwell, University of California, San Diego William Young, Riverside County Floor Control and Water Conservation District National Research Council Staff Anne Linn, Program Officer Shelley Myers, Project Assistant

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES J. FREEMAN GILBERT, University of California, San Diego, Chair GAIL M. ASHLEY, Rutgers University THURE CERLING, University of Utah MARK P. CLOOS, University of Texas at Austin NEVILLE G. W. COOK, University of California, Berkeley JOEL DARMSTADTER, Resources for the Future DONALD J. DEPAOLO, University of California, Berkeley MARCO T. EINAUDI, Stanford University NORMAN H. FOSTER, Independent Petroleum Geologist, Denver CHARLES G. GROAT, Louisiana State University DONALD C. HANEY, University of Kentucky ANDREW H. KNOLL, Harvard University PHILIP E. LAMOREAUX, P.E. LaMoreaux and Associates, Inc. SUSAN LANDON, Thomasson Partner Associates, Denver MARCIA K. MCNUTT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology J. BERNARD MINSTER, University of California, San Diego JILL D. PASTERIS, Washington University EDWARD C. ROY, JR., Trinity University National Research Council Staff JONATHAN G. PRICE, Staff Director THOMAS M. USSELMAN, Associate Staff Director WILLIAM E. BENSON, Senior Program Officer KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Program Officer BRUCE B. HANSHAW, Program Officer ANNE M. LINN, Program Officer LALLY A. ANDERSON, Staff Assistant CHARLENE E. ANDERSON, Administrative Assistant JUDITH L. ESTEP, Administrative Assistant SHELLEY A. MYERS, Project Assistant

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Forum on NOAA's National Spatial Reference System COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES M. GORDON WOLMAN, The Johns Hopkins University, Chair PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America PETER S. EAGLESON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology EDWARD A. FRIEMAN, Scripps Institution of Oceanography W. BARCLAY KAMB, California Institute of Technology JACK E. OLIVER, Cornell University FRANK L. PARKER, Vanderbilt/Clemson University RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston THOMAS A. SCHELLING, University of Maryland LARRY L. SMARR, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign STEVEN M. STANLEY, The Johns Hopkins University VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons WARREN WASHINGTON, National Center for Atmospheric Research EDITH BROWN WEISS, Georgetown University Law Center National Research Council Staff STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director MORGAN GOPNIK, Assistant Executive Director JEANETTE A. SPOON, Administrative Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate ROBIN ALLEN, Senior Project Assistant