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Violence and the American Family

Report of a Workshop

Rosemary Chalk, Editor

Board on Children and Families

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

and

Institute of Medicine

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C.
1994



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Violence and the American Family: Report of a Workshop Violence and the American Family Report of a Workshop Rosemary Chalk, Editor Board on Children and Families Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council and Institute of Medicine National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1994

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Violence and the American Family: Report of a Workshop NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the Johnson Foundation of Racine, Wisconsin, but the support of these organizations does not imply that they take responsibility for any statements or views expressed in this report. Available from: Board on Children and Families Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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Violence and the American Family: Report of a Workshop BOARD ON CHILDREN AND FAMILIES SHELDON H. WHITE (Chair), Department of Psychology, Harvard University JACK SHONKOFF (Vice Chair), University of Massachusetts Medical School JOMILLS H. BRADDOCK, Department of Sociology, University of Miami, Coral Gables LARRY BUMPASS, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin FERNANDO A. GUERRA, San Antonio Metropolitan Health District, San Antonio, Texas BERNARD GUYER, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Johns Hopkins University ALETHA C. HUSTON, Department of Human Development and Family Life, University of Kansas ROBERT MICHAEL, Irving B. Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago PAUL NEWACHECK, Institute of Health Policy Studies and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco JULIUS RICHMOND, Department of Social Medicine, Harvard University LISBETH SCHORR, Harvard Project on Effective Services, Washington, D.C. CAROLE SIMPSON, ABC News, Washington, D.C. DEBORAH STIPEK, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Los Angeles DIANA TAYLOR, Department of Family Health Care Nursing, University of California, San Francisco GAIL WILENSKY, Project Hope, Bethesda, Maryland JOEL J. ALPERT (Liaison), Council, Institute of Medicine ANN L. BROWN (Liaison), Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council RUTH T. GROSS (Liaison), Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine DEBORAH A. PHILLIPS, Director ROSEMARY CHALK, Senior Program Officer NANCY CROWELL, Research Associate DRUSILLA BARNES, Senior Project Assistant

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Violence and the American Family: Report of a Workshop This page in the original is blank.

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Violence and the American Family: Report of a Workshop WORKSHOP ON VIOLENCE AND THE AMERICAN FAMILY Participants MARGARET C. HEAGARTY (Chair), Director, Department of Pediatrics, Harlem Hospital Center, New York LUCY BERLINER, Director of Research, Harborview Sexual Assault Center, Seattle, Washington EDWARD N. BRANDT, JR., professor, College of Medicine, University of Oklahoma KAREN BURSTEIN, judge, Brooklyn Family Court, New York STU COHEN, Deputy Director, Health and Human Development Programs, Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, Massachusetts DEBORAH DARO, Director of Research, National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse, Chicago, Illinois HOWARD DUBOWITZ, assistant professor of pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore FRANKLYN DUNFORD, research associate, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado at Boulder BYRON EGELAND, professor of child psychology, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota RICHARD GELLES, Director, Family Violence Research Center, University of Rhode Island, Kingston MALCOLM GORDON, psychologist, Violence and Traumatic Stress Research Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services KATRINA JOHNSON, health scientist administrator, Behavioral and Social Research Program, National Institute on Aging, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services JILL KORBIN, associate professor, Department of Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University ALBERT KRAMER, consultant in criminal justice, Boston, Massachusetts DAVID LLOYD, Director, National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services E. MICHAEL MCCANN, District Attorney, Milwaukee, Wisconsin LIEUTENANT THOMAS MALECEK, Commander, Juvenile Division, St. Louis Metropolitan Police CRAIG MAYFIELD, Administrative Coordinator of Batterers Anonymous-Beyond Abuse, Sojourner Truth House, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

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Violence and the American Family: Report of a Workshop MARYGOLD MELLI, professor, University of Wisconsin Law School JAMES MERCY, Chief of Epidemiology, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services DANIEL O'LEARY, distinguished professor of psychology, State University of New York at Stony Brook COURTNEY O'MALLEY, program associate, Edna McConnell Clark Foundation, New York KARL PILLEMER, professor, Human Development and Family Services, Cornell University MARSHALL ROSMAN, Director, Department of Mental Health, American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois BARBARA SABOL, Commissioner, Human Resources Administration, New York City PATRICIA SCHENE, Director, Children's Division, American Humane Association, Englewood, Colorado LAWRENCE W. SHERMAN, professor of criminology, University of Maryland KATHIE STOLPMAN, executive director, Sojourner Truth House, Milwaukee, Wisconsin MURRAY STRAUS, professor of sociology, Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire CRAIG UCHIDA, Acting Director of Research, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice CATHY SPATZ WIDOM, Director, Hindelang Criminal Justice Research Center, State University of New York at Albany Staff ROSEMARY CHALK, Study Director, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council NANCY CROWELL, Research Associate, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council SUSANNE STOIBER, Director, Division on Economic and Social Studies, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council PAT MRAZEK, Study Director, Committee on the Prevention of Mental Disorders, Institute of Medicine