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References Allison, Elisabeth K. 1976 "Sex linked earning differentials in the beauty industry." Journal of Human Resources 11 (Summer):38~90. Astin, Helen S.. Allison Parelmam and Ann Fisher 1975 Sex Roles: A Research Bibliography. Rockvillc, Md.: National Institute of Mental Health. Astin. Helen S.. Nancy Suniewick. and Susan Dweck 1971 ~'omen: A Bibliography on Their Education and Careers. Washington, D.C.: Human Services Press. (Reprinted in 1975 by Behavioral Publications, NO fork.) Baron, Harold 1971 "the demand for black labor." Radical America 5 (March and April):1~6. Baron. Harold. and Bennett Hymer 1968 "1 he Negro in the Chicago labor market." In Julius Jacobsen (cd.), The Negro and the American Labor Movement. New York: Doubleday (Anchor Books). Barrett, Nancy; S. 1979 "Women in the job market: occupations, carmogs, and career opportunities." Pp. 3101 in Ralph E. Smith (cd.), The Subtle Revolution: Women at Work. Washington. D.C.: The Urban Institute. Beck, E. M.. Patrick M. Horan, and Charles M. Tolbert 1978 'Stratification in a dual economy: a scctoral model of carmogs determination." American Sociological Review 43 (October):704 20. 1980a "industrial segmentation and labor market discrimination." Sodial Problems 28 (December): 1 1~30. 1980b "Reply to Hauser. 'Social stratification iD industrial society: funber canoe for a structural alternative.' ' American Sociological Review 45 (A~t):712-18. Becker, Gary S. 1957 The Economics of Discrimination. First Edition. Ago: Um~rc~ty of Chicago Press. 1971 The Economics of Discrimination. Second Edition. Chicago: U~crsity of Chi. cago Press. 97

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98 WOMEN, WORK, AND WAGES 1975 Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, With Special Reference to Education. Second Edition. New York: National Bureau of Economic Rc- scarch. Bergmann, Barbara R. 1971 "the effects on white incomes of discrimination in employment.'' Journal of Political Economy 79 (March/April):294 313. "Occupational segregation' wages and profits when employers discriminate by race or sex." Eastern Economic Journal 1 (April/July):10~10. Bibb, Robert, and William H. For`.` 1977 "The effects of industrial, occupational. and sex stratification on wages in blue- collar markets." Social Forces 55 (June):97096. Bickner, Mel Liang 1974 Women at Work: An Annotated Bibliography. Los Angeles: University of California, Institute of Industrial Relations. Manpower Research Center. Birnbaum, Michael H. 1979 "Procedures for the detection and correcti.on of salary inequities." Pp. 121 44 in T. R. Pezzullo and B. E. Bnttingham (ads.), Salary Equity: Detecting Sex Bias in Salaries Among College and University Professors. Lexington. Mass.: Lexington Books. Blau, Prancinc D. 1977 Equal Pay in the Office. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books. Blau, Francine D., and Carol L. Jusenius 1976 "Economists' approaches to sex segregation in the labor market: an appraisal." Pp. 181-99 in Martha Blaxall and Barbara Reagan feds.), Women and the Workplace: The Implications of Occupational Segregation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Blucstone, Barry 1970 "The tripartite economy: labor markets and the working poor." Poverty and Human Resource Abstracts 5 (July/August):1~35. Bluestone, Barry, William 1~. Murphy. and Mary H. Stevenson 1973 Low Wages and the Working Poor. Ann Arbor. Mich.: IJniversity of Michigan, Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations. Bridges, William P., and Richard A. Berk 1974 "Determinants of white-collar income: an evaluation of equal pay for equal work." Social Science Research 3 (September):211-34. 8uchele, Robert 1976 "Jobs and workers: a labor market segmentation perspective on the work cx- pcnencc of middlc-a~cd men." Unpublished paper submitted to the Secretary of Labors Conference on the National Longitudinal Survey of the Pre-Rctire- ment Years, Boston. Buckley, J. 1971 "Pay differences between men and women in the same job." Monthly Labor Review 94 (November):36 39. Cain, Glen 1976 "Lee challenge of segmented labor market theories to orthodo% theory: a sur- lacy." Journal of Economic Literature 14 (Dccember):121~57. Chamberlain, Neil, and Donald Cullen 1971 Lee Labor Sector. New York: McGraw Hill. auistensen v. Iowa 1977 563 F.2d 353, ITS. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. 1974

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References 99 Cook, Thomas D., and Donald T. Campbell 1979 Inferring cause from passive observation." Ch. 7 in Quasi E%pcnmcntation: Design and Analysis for Field Settings. Chicago: Rand McNally. Corcoran. Mary E. 1979 Womcn's experience, labor force withdrawals, and women's wages: empirical results using the 1976 Panel of Income Dynamics." Pp. 216~45 in Cynthia B. Lloyd Emil, S. Andrews' and Curtis L. Gilroy (ads.), Women in the Labor Market. Conference on Women in the Labor Market, 1977, Barnard College. FJcw York: Columbia Llaivcrsity Press. Corcoran, Mary' and Gregory J. Duncan 1979 ..Work history. labor force attachment. and earnings differences between the races and sexes." Journal of Human Rcs,ources 14 (Wintcr):3~20. County of Washington, Oregon, Ct al. v. Gunther et al. 1980 No. 80 429. Argued before the Supreme Court ldarch 23, 1981. Decided June 8, 1981. Dar}and, M. G., S. M. Dawkins, ]. L. Lovasich, E. L. Scott, M. E. Sherman, and J. Z. Whipplc 1973 'Applications of multivariatc regression to studies of salary differences between men and women faculty." Pp. 12~32 in Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section of the American Statistical Association. Washington, D.C.: American Statistical Association. Docringer. Peter B.. and Michael J. Piore 1971 Internal Labor Markets and Manpower Analysis. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. FIeath. Duncan, Gregory J.. and Saul Hoffman 1978 "Training and earnings." Pp. 10~50 in Gregory J. Duncan and James tit Morgan (eds. ), Five Thousand American Families: Pancrns of Economic Ptog rcss. Vol. 6. Accounting for Race and Sc% Diffcrcsces in Earnings and Other Analyses of the First Nine Years of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Duncan. Beverly. and Otis Dudlcy Duncan 1978 Sex Typing and Social Roles: A Research Report. New York: Academic Press. Duncan, Otis Dudley, and Beverly Duncan 1955 'A methodological analysis of segregation indc~cs." American Sociological Review 20 (Apnl):21~17. Edwards, Richard C. 1977 "Personal traits and 'success' in schooling and work." Educational and Psy- chological Mcasuremcot 37 (Spring): 125~38. 1979 Contested Terrain: The Transformation of the Workplace in America. New York: Basic Books. England, Paula 1982 "lilac failure of human capital theory to explain occupational sex segregadon." Journal of Human Resources. In press. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 1972 " 'A unique competence': a study of equal cmploymcot opportunity in the Bell system." Congressional Record, extension of remarks, February 17, pp. 4507-36. Pcatherman, David L, and Robert M. Heuser 1976 "Sexual inequalities and socioeconomic achic~cmcat in the l).S., 1962-1973." American Sociological Rc~cw 41 (Junc):462~83.

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loo WOE, WORK, AND WAGES Flanagan, Robert ]. 1976 "Actual versus potential impact of government antidiscrimination programs." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 29 (July):486 503. Freeman, Richard 1973 Black Elite: Education and Labor l~arket Discrimination. New York: McGraw Hill. Friedman, Milton 1971 "The supply of factors of production." Pp. ~20 in John F. Bunion, L>c K. Bcoham, William M. Vaughn, and Robert J. Flanagan (ads.), Readings in Labor Market Analysis. thaw York: Holt. Rcinhart and Winston. Fuchs, Victor 1971 "Diffcrcoces in hourly earnings between men and women." bSonthly Labor Review 94 (May):~15. Galloway, Sue. and Alycc Archuleta 1978 "Sex and salary; equal pay for comparable work." American Libraries 9 (May):281-85. Glenn, Evelyn Nakano 1980 "The dialectics of wage work: Japancsc-American women and domestic serv. ice, 190~1940." Feminist Studies 6 (Fall):432-71. Goldberger. Arthur S. 1968 Topics in Regression Analysis. New York: Macmillan. Gordon, David M. 1972 Theories of Poverty and Underemployment. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books. Gregory, Robert G., and Ronald C. Duncan 1981 "doe rcic~ancc of segmented labor market thconcs: the Australian experience of tEc achievement of equal pay for women." Journal of Post Keynesian Eco- nomics 3 (Spnng):40~28. Gwartocy, James, and Richard Stroup 1973 "Measurement of employment discrimination according to sex." Southern Eco- nomic Journal 39(Apnl):575 87. Hacker, Sally L. 1978 'Sex stratification, technology and organizational change: a longitudinal analy- sis of AT&T." Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the American So" biological Association, San Francisco, August. Halaby, Charics FJ. 1979 "Sexual inequality in the workplace: an cmploycr-specific analysis of pay dif- fercoces." Social Science Research 8 (1darch):7~104. Hamson, Bennett, and Andrew Sum 1979 "The theory of 'dual' or segmented labor markets." Journal of Economic Issues 13 (Scptember):687-706. Hartmenn, Heidi I. 1976 "Capitalism, patriarchy. and job segregation by sex." Signs I (Spring, Pan 2~:137~69. Hertmann, Heidi I., Patnma A. Roos, and Donald J. Trciman 1980 Strategies for assessing and confecting pay discrimination: an empirical cxc.- cisc." Staff paper prepared for the Committee on Occupational Classification and Analysis, National Rcscarch Council, National Academy of Sciences. June. H user, Robert M. 1980 'Cdmmcat on Beck ct al., ASR, October 1978, ~Stratiblation in a dual ccon- omy."' Amcncan Sociolo~pcal Review 4S (August):702-11.

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Rclerences 101 International Labour Office 1975 "Equal remuneration." General Survey by the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, Repot III (Part 4B). Ge- neva: Inters ational Labour Office. Kahn, Lawrence hit. 1976 'internal labor markets: San Francisco IGngshoremen." Industrial Relations 15 (October) :33~37. Kohen. Andrew I., with Susan C. Brcinich. and Patricia 1~. Shields 197S Women and the economy: a bibliography and a review of the literature on sex diffcrcotiation in the labor market." Columbus: Ohio State Vni~crsity, Center for Human Resource Research. ICronstadt, Sylvia 1978 "Women v. the City of Denver: 'new frontier' for equal nghts." Arc Nation (April 29~:50~506. Ems, Judith Long 1979 Dine Second X: Sex Role and Social Roles. New York: Elsevicr. LUcmons, Mary, et al. v. City and County of Denver 1978 17 FEP Gases 906, 907 (The United States District Count for the Distnct of Colorado); Civil Action No. 78-1499, ITS. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit. L^itan, Ssr A., and Richard S. Bclous 1979 "doe minimum wage today: how well does it work?" Monthly Arbor Rc~cw 102 (3uly):17-21. Lucas, Robert E. B. 1977 'sardonic wage equations and psychic wages in the returns to schooling." American Economic Review 67 (Scptember):54~58. Maceoby, Eleanor Emmons, and Carol Nagy Jacklin 1974 The Psychology of Scx Diffcrcnces. Stanford: Stanford tJnivcrsity Press. Medenslcy, Albert 19S9 "lithe fitting of straight lines when both variables arc Subject to error." Journal of the American Statistical Assocation S4~285~:17~205. Idedden, Janice F. 197S "Discriminatio~a manifestation of male marlcet power?" Pp. 146~74 in Cyn- thia B. Lloyd (cd.), Sex, Discrimination, and the Divison of Labor. New York: Columbia University Press. Malkicl, B. G., and J. A. Malkicl 1973 "~alc-femalc pay diffcrcatials in professional employment." Amcnun Eco- nom~c Review 63 (Scptember):693~705. McCormick, Ernest J., and D. R. Ilgen 1980 Industrial Psychology. Seventh Edition. Engkwood C1iffs, N.J.: Prcaticc-Hell. McNulty, D. 1967 "Difference in pay between men and women wor~ccr'." MontbJy Icebox Review 90 (Deeember):4~)~43. Mednidc, Martha T. Shuch, Sandra Schwartz Tangn, and Lois Wadis Hoffman (ads.) l97S Women and Achie~cmcot: Social "d NtotivedoDel Alms. New Yorl`: Wiley (Heisted Press). Miller, Ann R., Donald J. Trciman, Pamela S. Cain, and Papas A. Roos (ads.) 1980 World, Jobs, and Occupations: A Critical Review of Ale Diaionery of Oa:u- pstional Titles. Rcpon of the Committee on Occupational Falsification and Analysis to the V.S. Department of Labor. W - inpon, D.C.: National Aced- emy Press.

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102 WO.MEN, WORK, AND WAGES Mincer' Jacob 1970 "The distribution of labor incomes: a survey with special reference to the human capital approach." Journal of Economic Literature 8 (March):~26. Mincer, Jacob, and Solomon W. Polachek 1974 "Family investments in human capital: earnings of women." Journal of Political Economy 82 (March/April, Part II):S7~S108. 1978 "Women's earnings reexamined." Journal of Human Resources 13 (Win- tcr): 1 1~34. Mostcller, Frederick, and John W. Tukey 1977 Data Analysis and Regression: A Second Course in Statistics. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. NcwTnan, Winn 1976 "Combatting occupational segregation: presentation iii." Pp. 26~72 in Martha Blaxall and Barbara Reagan (ads.), Women and the Worlcplace: Zinc Impli- cations of Occupational Segregation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Oaxaca, Ronald 1973 "Sex discrimination in wages." Pp. 12051 in Orley Ashenfelter and Albert Rees teds.), Disenmination in Labor Markets Princeton ~ ~ D~-~_ University Press. Oppenheimer, Valerie K. 1970 We Female Labor Force in the United States: Demographic and Economic Factors Governing Its Growth and Changing Composition. Wcstpon, Conn.: Greenwood Press. Osterman, Paul 1978 .`c - ~ morels _1~;IA___ ~_~ __:_:__ ~ ~ ~ . ~ . - ~ ~ I 1 1 ~ ~ ~ v l ~ ~A, ll~all`~,.;~;, ~miuren, aria slaus~lcal Discrimination." Discussion paper no. 16. Department of Economics, Boston University. Perlman, Nancy D., and Bruce ]. Ennis 1980 "Preliminary memorandum on pay equity: achieving equal pay for work of comparable value." Albany: State University of New York, Center for Women in Government. Phelps. Edmund S. 1972 "Lee statistical theory of racism and sexism." American Economic Review 62 (September):6506. Phelps-Brown, E. H. 1977 We Inequality of Pay. Berkeley: llaivcrsity of California Press. Piore, Michael J. (cd.) 1979 [reemployment and Inflation: Institutional and Structuralist Views. White Plains, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, Inc. Polachek, Solomon 1976 "Occupational segregation: an altcrna~c hypothesis." Journal of Contempo rary Business 5 (Wintcr):1-12. 1979 "Occupational segregation among women: theory, evidence, and a prognosis." Pp. 137-57 in Cynthia B. Lloyd, Emily S. Andrews, and Curtis L. Gilroy (ads.), Women in the Labor Marlcet. Confcrcacc on Women in the Labor Market, 1977, Barnard College. FJcw York: Columbia University Press. Rees, Albert, and George P. Shultz 1970 Workers and Wages in an Urban Labor Market. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Reich, Michael 1978 'Who benefits from racism? The distribution among whites of pins and losses

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References 103 from racial inequality. ' Journal of Human Resources 13 (Fall):524 44. 1981 Racial Inequality: A Political Economic Analysis. Princeton, 14.~.: Princeton Vniversit) Press. Rcmick' Helen 1978 "Strategies for creating sound. bias free job evaluation plans." In Job Evaluation and EEO: The Emerging Issues. Ncu York: Industrial Relations Counselors, Inc. 1980 "Beyond equal pay for equal work: comparable worth in the State of Wash- ington.' Pp. 405~8 in Ronnie Steinberg Ratner (cd.), Equal Employment Police; for Women: Strategies for Implementation in the United States. Canada, and Western Europe. Philadelphia: Temple University press. Roos, Patricia A. 1981 "Sex stratification in the workplace: male-female diffcrcoces in economic rc" turns to occupation." Social Science Research 10~3~. Rosen, Sherwin 1974 "Hedonic prices and implicit markets: product differentiation in pure compe- tition.' Journal of Political Economy 82 (January/Fcbruary):34 SS. Rumberger. Russell W., and Martin Carnoy 1980 "Segmentation in the US labour market: its offsets on the mobility and cannings of whites and blacks." Cambridge Journal of Economics 4 (June):117-32. Sanborn, H. 1964 "Pay differences between men and women." Industrial and I~bor Relations Review ~ 7 (July ) :53~50. Sawhill, Isabel V. 1973 "The economics of discrimination against women: some new findings." Journal of Human Resources 8 (Summer):38~96. Scanzoni, John H. 1975 Sex Roles. Life Styles and Childbearing: Changing Patterns in Mamage and the Family. leek York: Free Press. Schlei, Barbara Lindemann. and Paul Grossman 1976 Employment Discrimination Law. (Supplement 1979~. Washington, D.C.: Bu- reau of National Affairs. Schultz, T. W. 1961 'Investment in human capital." American Economic Rc~cw Sl (March):1-17. Scott, W. Richard 1979 'Measuring outputs in hospitals." Pp. 27~308 in National Research Council, Measurement and Interpretation of Productivity. Panel to Review Productivity Statistics. Committee on National Statistics. Washington, D.C.: National Acad- cmy of Sciences. Smith, James P.. and Finis R. Welch 1977 'Black-white male wage ratios: 1960~70." American Economic Review 67 (June):32~38. Smith, Ralph E. 1979 "the movement of women into the labor force." Pp. 1-29 in Ralph E. Smith (edit, The Subtle Revolution: Women at Work. Washington, D.C.: l~c Urban Institute. Smith, Robert 1979 "Compensating wage differentials and public policy: a renew." Industnal and Labor Relations Review 32 (April):33~S1.

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104 WOMEN, WORK, AND WAGES Sommers, Drip 1974 "Occupational rankings for men and women by cogs." Monthly Labor Rc~cw 97 (August):34 51. Stevenson, Mary H. 1973 "Women's wages and job segregation." Politics and Society 4 (Fall):8~96. 1974 "Detc~nants of low wages for women workers." Unpublished PhD disser tation. University of Michigan. 1975 "Relative wages and sex segregation by occupation." Pp. 175-200 in Cynthia Lloyd (ed.), Scx, Discrimination, and the Division of Labor. New York: Col umbia University Press. 1978 "Wage differcsecs bcmcen men and women: economic theories." Pp. 8~107 Ann H. Stromberg and Shirley Hardness (ads.), Women Working. Palo Alto, Calif.: Hayfield. Stokenberg, Ross M. 1979 "The mcasuremcot and decomposition of causal effects in nonlinear and non- additive models." Pp. 459~88 in Karl F. $chuessler (cd.), Sociological Meth- odology 1980. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Stone, Kathenoc 1975 "1-nc omens of job structures in the steel industry." Pp. 27~84 in Richard C. Edwards, Michael Reich, and David M. Gordon (ads.), Labor Market Scg- mcntation. Lc~gton, Mass.: D.C. Health. Sister, Larry, and Herman Miller 1973 "Income diffcrcnces between men and women." American Journal of Sociology 78 (3anuary):962-74. Talbert, Joan, and Christine E. Bose l9T7 "Wage attainment processes: the retail clerk case." Amcncan Joumal of So- ciology 33 (Scptember):40~24. Thurow, Lester C. 1969 Poverty and Discrimination. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution. 1975 Generating Inequality. New York: Basic Booics. Trciman, Donald 1. 1973 "Occupational differences in marriage and childbearing among women: an an- alytic strategy." Paper given at the Workshop on Women's Roles and Fertility, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Belmont, Md., December. 1977 Occupational Prestige in Comparative Perspective. New York: Academic Press. 1979 Job Evaluation: An Analytic Review. Intenm Rcpon of the Committee on Occupational Classification and Analysis to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Aced- cmy of Sciences. Treiman, Donald J., and Kc~t Tcrrell 75a "Sex and the process of status att~cst: a comparison of worldling women and men." American Sociological Review 40 (April): 174~200. 197Sb "Women, woric, and wages~sreDds ~ the female occupational stricture sines 1940." Pp. lS7-200 in Keme~ C. led and Seymour Spilerman (ads.), Social Indicator Models. New York: R=scll Sage Foundation. Tyler, Gus 1978 "Ibe other economy." We NO I ^ - or, May 8. U.S. Bureau of the C;cosus 1973 Ccasus of Population: 1970. Subject Repot. Final Report PC(2~-7A, Occur /

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