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OVERVIEW The Ocean Studies Board (OSB) was created in July 1985 and serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on matters of ocean science and policy. It is one of eight units within the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources (CGER) of the National Research Council (NRC) which work on issues including radioactive waste management, water science and technology, climatology, and earth sciences, among others. The NRC is jointly administered by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine, and applies the intellectual resources of the scientific and engineering communi- ties to national problems through its volunteer advisory commissions, boards, and committees. The OSB is a multidisciplinary body with representation from the fields of marine biology and biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics, engineering, and marine nolicv. Its members serve staggered three-vear terms. The OSB . ~ A_ ~ carries out much of its work through its smaller, more specialized commit- tees and panels. At the end of 1994, there were 23 members serving on the Board. The members are listed on page iii, and brief biographies are included in Appendix IV. Members of the various subgroups are listed in Appendix I. Members of OSB and its subgroups are chosen from academic institu- tions, national laboratories, and industry on the basis of outstanding professional qualifications. They serve as individuals rather than as repre- sentatives of organizations. In 1994, more than 120 distinguished men and women served on the OSB and its subgroups. In addition, several hundred others participated in OSB-sponsored symposia, workshops, and regional meetings throughout the year. The OSB can examine ocean science and policy issues of national and international importance either on its own initiative or at the request of Congress or federal agency sponsors. The board meets three times annually to review existing projects and develop new ones, discuss federal ocean research programs, and help formulate U.S. positions on international ocean science issues. OSB members identify issues for study, assess study plans and background documents, review draft reports, serve on committees, nominate new committee and board members, and organize special sessions for professional meetings. OSB activities are supported primarily by federal agencies, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmen- tal Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of State, the U.~. Geological Service (USGS), the National Biological Service (NBS), and the Minerals Management Service (MMS). Support is occasionally obtained from GOALS OF THE OSB To promote the advance- ment of scientific under- standing of the ocean by overseeing the health of ocean sciences and stimu- lating the progress of ocean sciences; To encourage the wise use of the ocean and its re- sources through the appli- cation of scientific knowl- edge; To lead in the formulation of: rational and internation- al marine policy and to clarity scientific issues that affect this policy; and To promote international cooperation in oceano- graphic research and to improve scientific and technical assistance to developing countries. 1

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foundations, such as the Arthur W. Mellon Foundation and the David and Lucille Packard Foundation. OSB activities fall into three broac} categories: promoting the health of ocean sciences in the United States, encouraging the protection and wise use of the ocean and its resources, and applying ocean science to improve national security. Within each area, the OSB focuses on basic science and, if appropriate, on how science relates to policy. A brief description of OSB accomplishments in 1994, along with activities planned for 1995 and beyond, is presented herein. 2