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OCEAN ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCES The ocean plays a role in regulating the Earth's climate, sustains a large portion of the Earth's biodiversity, and is used for a variety of sometimes conflicting purposes. Populations have increased and marine ecosystems, in particular coastal ecosystems, are increasingly affected by human activities, including pollution and depletion of important resources. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand the potential effects of oceanic changes on society. Ocean environment and resource issues are in acute need of new science- based policy. To address these concerns, the OSB's second area of interest is the application of scientific knowledge for the protection and wise use of the ocean and its resources, as well as to understand the ocean's role in global change. Committee on Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals (Complefedt Activity) Marine scientists are increasing their use of acoustic methods to conduct oceanographic research. Low-frequency sound, because of its physical properties, is particularly useful for studying ocean circulation, the structure and processes of ocean sediments ant! crust, and global climate change. There are many sources of low-frequency sound in the ocean including natural sources such as wave action, ice cracking and seismic activity, and human-made sources such as ships and of} ant! gas drilling. Low-frequency sound is of special interest as it relates to marine mammals, because they are known to vocalize, and presumably hear, in these frequencies and because they are protected} by one or more laws the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and the Fur Seal Act. Consequently, to provide effective protection, it is necessary to determine the effects of low-frequency sound on marine mammals and to assess accurately the impact and contributions of the various human activities producing such sounds. The Committee on Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals was established in 1992 to review the current state of knowledge ant! ongoing research of the effects of low-frequency sounc] (~-1000 Hz) on marine mammals; advise the sponsors about effects on marine mammals while considering the trade-offs between possibly harmful effects and the benefits of underwater sound as a research tool; ant! recommend research needed to improve the basic unclerstanding of the effects of low-frequency sound on marine mammals. Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals C.arrenc Knowledge and Rcseare* bleeds "There are literally no data available on the audi- tory sensinvi~ of any ba- leen whales, although evi- dence from several sources suggests that members of this suborder are much more sensitive to [ow-fre- quency sound than mem- bers of the toothed whale suborder. " Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals (NRC 1994) 7

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As part of its deliberations, the committee was briefed about marine mammal research sponsored by the ONR, the NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA/NMFS), and the MMS. In addition, a representa- tive from NOAA's Office of Protected Resources explained the federal marine mammal protection and management programs and the legal and regulatory aspects of conducting scientific research in accordance with the MMPA and ESA, and the applicability of these laws and regulations to oceanographic research. Committee members and outside experts summarized scientific knowI- edge from their areas of expertise, for example, effects of low-frequency sound and noise on marine mammals, marine mammal auditory physiology, underwater low-frequency sound propagation, ambient noise, and marine mammal behavior and communication. The committee's findings and recommendations are published in the report, Low-Frequency Sound aquamarine Mammals: Current Knowledge arm Research Needs. The committee report reviews what is known about the effects of low-frequency sound on marine mammals, makes recommendations for improving the regulatory process governing scientific research under the MMPA, and makes recommendations for future research to improve the understanding of the effects of low-frequency sound on marine mammals. A briefing was held in April in Washington, D.C., to disseminate the major findings and recommendations to interested congressional staff. Committee on Fisheries (Compleledt Activity) More attention is being focused on the management of living marine resources, in part because these economically valuable resources are increas- ing in demand and decreasing in supply. Under such conditions, effective management based on the best scientific information is key to maintaining sustainable populations while maximizing available catch and profit. Ineffective management results in waste, lost profits, and perhaps most importantly, may not maintain sustainable populations. The OSB formed the Committee on Fisheries in 1992 to review alternative fisheries management approaches and to identify and analyze strategic-level priority issues concerned with: science, criteria for public-sector performance in fishery management and conservation, fishery policy, and policy implementation. 3 - L 8 The committee gathered information about critical fisheries issues from panels of interest groups including fecleral agency representatives, congressio- nal staff, fisheries managers, fishing industry representatives, and environ- mental organizations in the mid-AtIantic anti the Gulf of Mexico regions.

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In 1993, the committee focused on fisheries issues relevant to the reauthorization of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act. In 1994, the committee completed its report, Improving the Management of U.S. Marine Fisheries, in time for consideration by Congress during the reauthorization hearings. Committee to Review Aflar'lic Bluefin Tuna (CompletedF Activity) Atlantic bluefin tuna are highly migratory fish of remarkable value and size. They are among the largest bony fish found in marine waters, reaching lengths over 10 feet, weights over i,200 pounds, and ages over 30 years- and Hey are reported to bring a high selling price, as much as $10,000 per fish. It is not surprising that Atlantic bluefin tuna are prized commercial and recreational catches worldwide. Although international management began in 1966 with the signing of the International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas TOCCATA, it did not prevent the significant decline in abundance of Atlantic bluefin tuna when comparing the mid-1970s levels to current levels. The current abundance of Atlantic bluefin tuna in the western North Atlantic Ocean is significantly less than its estimated abundance for the mid-1970s. Additional management and conservation measures were imposer! in the 1980s but the original cause of the decline since the 1970s has not been determined. Issues of heavy fishing effort, increased catch technology and equipment, changing oceanographic conditions, uncertainty in the scientific data, and a lack of understanding and knowledge about the basic life history of this fish, have all been discussed as possible contributors. To assist in preparing for the 1994 annual {CCAT meeting scheduled for November in Madrid, NOAA asked the OSB to conduct a technical review of the scientific basis for management of Atlantic bluefin tuna. To provide timely advice, the study was conducted within six months and the final report was transmitted to NOAA at the end of August. A public briefing was held on August 3l, 1994, in Washington, D.C., to present the committee's major report findings and recommendations. The briefing was well-aKended by congressional staff, agency staff, commercial fishing representatives, environmental organization representatives, and other interested parties. Several weeks after the release of the report, NOAA asked the committee for several follow-on activities with regard to assisting NOAA to prepare for the ICCAT meeting. In particular, the committee chairman presented the report findings and recommendations at an TCCAT scientific working group meeting on bluefin tuna held in Malaga, Spain. In addition, the committee held a one-day dissemination meeting to discuss the details of its analyses and recommendations primarily with NOAA scientists and managers involved with Atlantic bluefin tuna. The clissemina- tion meeting was an open meeting and focused on the scientific analyses. Interested persons from the commercial industry, environmental organiza- tions, and fishery managers participated also and found it to be very informative. The committee's efforts had a significant impact in the final decision- making at ICCAT. The report includes a number of recommendations for "I woula, like to take this opportunity to personally thank the Academy and the Fauna Assessment] Pane! for their efforts on this project. The Aca- d~emy responded quickly to the NMFS request for the study and assembled an experienced", know'- edgeable and unbiased panel. . The pane' itself immediately rose to the challenge, reviewing un- tola' amounts of dFata and addressing a mullifud~e of difficult questions in a very limited lime frame. " Gerry Studds Chairman, U.S. House Committee on Merchant Marines and Fisheries ~-- _ ~_ ~ _ ~ 1 ' ~ 9

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"Scientific knowledge about coastal ecosystems, including the human com- ponerlf, is needed to en- sure the management of these systems in a way that Committee on the Coastal Ocean will preserve their value (Completed Activity) indefinitely. 1' regarding the science and the assessment of AtIantic bluefin tuna, and the committee may have the opportunity in 1995 to work with NOAA and ICCAT to improve the assessment of Atiantic bluefin tuna. The Committee on the Coastal Ocean was established in 1989 to provide -Improving Interactions guidance and oversight for the science of the coastal ocean and its application between Coastal Science to societal needs. The committee responded to requests from federal and Policy (NRC 1995) agencies for advice and review of their programs, and launched efforts to improve the linkage between coastal ocean science and environmental policy development, and to promote research related to marine biological diversity. Report on this activity will be published in 1995. Committee activities focused in four areas of importance for enhancing coastal ocean science in the United States: . . . . Assist in the development of a coherent U.S. coastal ocean science program. The committee articulated a broad vision of the needs, purposes, and foci for U.S. coastal ocean science. Present and former committee members former} the core of the Committee to Identify High-Priority Science to Meet National Coastal Needs (see page 13~. Improve the linkage between coastal ocean science arm policy. Coastal science and coastal zone management often proceed indepen- dently, with little opportunity for mutually beneficial interactions. The committee initiated a study to recommend means to improve interactions between coastal science and management (see page 5~. Respond to agency and congressional requests for review aM advice. The committee providecl a timely review of DOE's Ocean Margin Program in 1991. Improve the linkage between U.S. arm international coastal science exports. The committee encouraged the development of means to use the U.S. educational system for international human resource devel- opment for coastal ocean science. Committee on Biological Diversity in Mar7rte Systems (Completed Activity) The Committee on Biological Diversity in Marine Systems was a cooperative activity with the NRC's Board on Biology, established to plan and convene a workshop on marine biological diversity. 10

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Little is known about marine biodiversity, the evolution and extinction of marine species, and factors controlling species distributions. This is an important topic as marine species are experiencing increasing pressure from habitat degradation and loss, invasion by non-indigenous species, and changes in environmental parameters due to climate change, pollution, and other natural and human-induced factors. A workshop held May 24-26, 1994, was the first phase of the project. The second phase was a study based on the workshop findings and the expertise of committee members to develop a phased plan for priority re- search on biological diversity in marine systems. Recent widespread but inadequately understood changes in the biological diversity of life in the sea have been attributed largely to the effects of human activities such as fishing, chemical pollution and eutrophication, physical alterations to habitats, and introduction of foreign species. The report, Ur~erstand~ng Marine Biodiversity: A Research Agenda for the Nation, outlines a detailed and ambitious research plan for filling the gaps in our knowledge and making real progress towards being able to predict the magnitude and extent of human impacts on marine biodiversity. In its 1992 report Oceanography in the Next Decade: Building New Partnerships, the OSB identified marine biological diversity as one of seven critical issues that ocean scientists should be addressing. This report follows through on that recommendation by proposing a coordinated national research strategy that emphasizes integrated, regional-scale approaches in an environmentally and socially aware context. The program would integrate ecological, taxonomic, and oceanographic research over a range of spatial and temporal scales with the goal of improv- ing understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that create, maintain, and regulate marine biological diversity. The report also discusses the impor- tance of recent advances in research tools, such as molecular genetics, advanced instrumentation, and improved models, and new theoretical ap- proaches. During the May meeting, the underlying problems of changing marine biodiversity were reviewed; past research approaches and results were dis- cussed; and the committee's proposed research framework was presented, re- vised, and refined. This combination of focused study and deliberations within the committee, supplemented by input from the research community, has resulted in a strong, well-documented statement of research priorities that is expected to receive broad support when the report is published in February 1995. Committee on Oceanic Carbon (Complefedt Activity) Issues: "The availability of rel- iable chemical and isotopic reference materials consfi- futes a foundation for global change research programs that conduct measurements at various places, over an extended" period of time, by different invesfigators, and from many countries. The key to achieving correct mea- suremenfs that are compa- rable regardless of when, where, and by whom they are made lies in adherence to a carefully thought-out quality assurance plan. " A Committee on Oceanic Carbon was formed in 1992 to focus on three chemical measurement technologies for ocean science, oceanic carbon dioxide (C02) measurements, calibration, and Taro Takahashi data; and Chair, Committee on Oceanic Carbon 11

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. carbon exchange across the air-sea and sediment-water interfaces, and its relation to the global carbon cycle. As the committee discussed means of improving knowledge of the global carbon cycle, it became obvious that new measurement techniques and instruments would be required for carbon and other biologically important elements. In particular, in situ remote sensors are needed for long-term measurements of specific elements and molecules. The committee issued a report, Applications of Analytical Chemistry to Oceanic Carbon Cycle Studies, in late 1993. The report identifies state- of-the-art measurement technologies of promise for use in ocean science and discusses technical hurdles, opportunities, and the role that govern- ment and academia can play in overcoming the non-technical barriers to successful research, development, and transfer of these technologies to the ocean science community. The committee recommended new techniques for measuring carbon dioxide, nutrients, trace metals, and other biologi- cally important elements and compounds. In 1994, the committee issued a letter report highlighting the need to develop new reference materials for carbon system measurements to the agencies that fund carbon research and measurements. 1__ 12 - The Ocean's Role in Global Change (Completed Activity) si~ The OSB has had a long-standing interest in the role of the ocean in global climate change, climate prediction, and other global processes. Although that role is not fully understood, there is general agreement that it ~ Is s~gn~ncant. Present and proposed research and observation programs aim to increase knowledge of ocean processes and ultimately to provide an understanding of these processes sufficient to enable the prediction of the long-term interaction of the ocean and climate systems. The OSB has coordinated its activities on global change with related activities of the NRC Board on Global Change (BGC) through a variety of means, including an OSB member being appointed as a liaison to the BGC. A number of large, multi-disciplinary research programs have been planned and initiated over the past decade to study various aspects of the ocean's role in global cycles. The OSB completed a report in 1994, The Ocean's Role in Global Change, that documents the major ocean-related research programs that contribute to the understanding the ocean's role in the global cycles, including the plans and accomplishments of these programs, and significance of these accomplishments. On March 9th, this report was the subject of a hearing by the Senate Dr. Robert White, Vice- Chairman of the NRC, presented the report and in his statement concluded that the report "describes the programs now underway and the progress made in increasing understanding the role of the oceans in global environmental change." This report serves as an educational document and reference work that should be of interest to decision makers and policy makers in universi- ties, federal agencies, and Congress. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.

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The OSB will continue to work with the BGC and other relevant NRC boards to develop appropriate studies related to the ocean's role in global change. Committee to Identity High-Priori Science to Meet National Coastal Needs (Completed Activity At the request of the Freshwater and Marine Environments Subcommittee of the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources Research (CENR), the OSB formed a committee to analyze available documentation about academic and agency coastal research programs and provide an integrated assessment of research priorities. The CENR subcommittee requested assistance from the NRC in prioritizing among research topics advanced by academic and agency research programs and those listed in its implementa- tion plan, in terms of how these activities can contribute to the policy for coastal areas identified by CENR. This project was formulated as a "fast-track" study, carried out over a period of four months. The committee analyzed written agency and aca- demic science plans and program reviews to determine how their science contributes to addressing the coastal issues identified by CENR. The committee identified nine priority research areas for focus by joint activities of the federal agencies: eutrophications, habitat modification. hydrologic and hydrodynamic disruption, exploitation of resources, toxic effects. introduction of nonindigenous species, global climate change and variability, shoreline erosion and hazardous storms, pathogens and toxins affecting human health. The committee categorized research topics related to these problems within five research areas identified by the CENR subcommittee and offered other, more general recommendations. The committee's report was approved at the end of 1994, and will be available in early 1995. 13

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12ewlew of U.S. Planning for the Global Ocean Observing System _ ~ Hi- ~ ma_ _ 14 Committee to Review U. S. Planning for a Global Ocean Observing System (Complefedt Activity) In 1994, the OSB was requested by NOAA to conduct a quick review of the status of the Global Ocean Observing System (GODS) and to provicie advice to U.S. agencies on their roles in the developing system. The Committee to Review U.S. Planning for GOOS convened a three-day meeting that resulted in a consensus report, Review of the U.S. Planningfor the Global Ocean Observing System, to NOAA and other agencies. This review will be helpful as they proceeci with their fiscal year 1996 budget planning, and will serve as a useful basis for discussion with the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. The stucly report evaluates whether U.S. plans fit with the international plans, and whether the U.S. response to international requirements is appropriate. The success of this activity has resulted in a request from the Interagency Ad Hoc Working Group for GOOS for follow-up studies in 1995 that will: ~, - ~ - , prioritize activities from the NRC report, provide advice to U.S. agencies regarding an operational concept for the GOOS and its relationship to other ongoing and planned activities recommenct appropriate academic and industry roles in GOOS, ant! recommend a mechanism for future review of GOOS activities. Committee to Review Results of ATOC's Marine Mammal Research Program (Plaurledt Activity) At the request of the Department of Defense's Advancer! Research and Projects Agency (ARPA), the OSB is undertaking an updated study of the effects of low-frequency sound on marine mammals. The OSB plans to establish a study committee to conflict an independent review of the results from the marine mammal research program of ARPA's Acoustic Thermome- try of the Ocean Climate (ATOC) experiment as a follow-on to the report completed by the recent OSB Committee on Low-Frequency Sound anti Marine Mammals. The NRC report Low-Frequency Sound arm Marine Mammals recommended research to improve our knowledge in this subject area. The primary objective of this study is to compare the new data with the research needs specified in the report, specifically, to indicate strengths and weaknesses of the data for answering the important outstanding questions about marine mammal responses to low-ffequency sound and to identify those areas where gaps in our knowledge continue to exist. This review will be helpful to ARPA and NOAA/NMFS as they prepare for the implementation of the ATOC research program. The committee's findings will be conveyed to these agencies in the form of a consensus report.

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Committee on Marine Fisheries (Proposed Activity) Fisheries management issues are highly controversial worIdwicle. In 1994, two fisheries reports were completed by OSB stucly committees. Improving the Management of U. S. Marine Fisheries presented recommencia- tions for improving U.S. fisheries management. The report served as a useful resource document while Congress was engaged in national debate and deliberation as part of the reauthorization of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976. Another fisheries study was undertaken at the request of NOAA for a technical review of the scientific basis of management for Atlantic bluefin tuna. This study was completed within 6 months and produced the report, An Assessment of Atiantic Bluefin Tuna. This report provided NOAA with information and recommendations pertaining to stock assessments of AtIantic bluefin tuna that were useful to NOAA in preparation for the 1994 TCCAT meetings. The report recommendations had a significant impact propelling ICCAT to account for transatlantic mixing in their management decisions. NOAA sent a written request to the OSB to continue the fisheries committee activities. The OSB plans to establish a committee to conduct a study to review and develop performance measures for marine fisheries management, a priority topic indicated by the agency. The committee will review the transition in some marine fisheries from open access to rights- based management and evaluate the sociological, economic, ant! biological impacts on a fishery. The committee will review existing measures and develop appropriate measures that can be used to indicate the performance of management (e.g., sociological, economic, ant] biological measures of success). The study will include examining Individual Transferrable Quotas (ITQ) ant} other systems of allocating shares in fisheries. An objective evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of these management systems will be useful to NOAA/ NMFS. The 24-month study will result in a consensus report to NOAA reviewing and recommending performance measures for marine fisheries management, providing timely scientific advice on an issue of national importance to fisheries management. Committee on the Arctic Research Vessel (Prop used Activity) At the request of the NSF, OSB, in collaboration with the Polar Research Board (PRB), is conducting a study to review and evaluate the scientific requirements for an arctic research vessel in the context of national research needs in oceanic regions of the Arctic. The committee will consider: scientific goals, priorities, and requirements for Arctic ocean sciences; 15

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national facilities needed to meet scientific requirements; scientific requirements for arctic research vessels; resource projections and requirements; and management options and recommendations. Although OSB and PRB each have made recommendations about research and instrumentation needs for government research vessels, no focused, comprehensive review of priorities for arctic oceanographic science and available arctic-capable science platforms has been conducted since 1988. Ocean scientists have become increasingly concerned about whether the budgets for planned and future science programs can support the operating costs for the vessels that may be available and whether platform and in- strument availability will match research needs. The long-term need for arctic research vessels is unknown because little long-range planning for arctic science has been conducted. Activities include a three-clay workshop to provide information for the committee's deliberations, bringing together representatives from industry, government, and academia to discuss the five issues listed above, as well as any other issues identified by the committee at its first meeting. The products of this study will be a proceedings of the workshop and a report containing the committee's findings and recommendations. Committee on Dual-Use Technology (Prop used Activity) The ONR, like the other fecleral agencies, must evaluate its efforts to target certain areas of "strategic research." National laboratories are moving quickly into new areas of research anti development as the U.S. defense budget is decreasing. The NRC received a request from the ONR to conduct a study that would assist it in expanding its commitment to dual-use research. The OSB will establish a committee to review the status of dual-use research in ONR labs and develop a set of prioritized science and technology initiatives related to Navy and industry needs. The National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) and ARPA may also be involved, although their ocean application interests need to be determined. This study will be helpful to ONR and other federal agencies in relation to their budget planning. Agencies will be asked to brief the committee about their planned strategies for dual-use technologies and strategic research over the next 5 years. Industry and academic representatives with expertise in of] and gas exploration and development, environmental monitoring and remediation, engineering, fisheries, and remote sensing will be invited to participate. Issues of particular interest in this study include: Are the Navy laboratories responding to the dual-use theme? In what areas does the Navy have particular competence for research that would be of interest to industry? 16

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How does Me Navy now interact with industry? Does Tic 6.1 to 6.~a lntegr~lon bear on the issues of dual-use? Wb~ Me Me potential roles of ARPA and N1ST in dual-use actlvl- 11es? Me commlueo wlH syn~os~o No Endings of the meodng web other ln~rm~lon g~orlug acdvldos to develop a committee consensus ropou. 17

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