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OCEAN STUDIES BOARD ANNUAL REPORT 1994 Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995
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OCEAN STUDIES BOARD WILLIAM MERRELL (Chairman), Texas A&M University System, Galveston, Texas ROBERT A. BERNER, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut DONALD BOESCH, The University of Maryland, Cambridge GERALD CANN, Consultant, Rockville, Maryland ROBERT CANNON, Stanford University, California WILLIAM CURRY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ELLEN STRUDEL, University of California, Irvine RANA FINE, University of Miami, Florida JOHN E. FLIPSE, Independent Consultant, Georgetown, South Carolina MICHAEL FREWICH, Oregon State University, Corvallis GORDON GREVE, Consultant, Katy, Texas SUSAN MANNA, Oregon State University, Corvallis ROBERT A. KNOX, University of California, San Diego JOHN MAGNUSON, University of Wisconsin, Madison ARTHUR R.M. NOWELL, University of Washington, Seattle BARRY RALEIGH, University of Hawaii, Honolulu PETER B. RHINES, University of Washington, Seattle FRANK RICHTER, University of Chicago, Illinois BRIAN ROTHSCHILD, University of Maryland, Solomons THOMAS C. ROVER, University of Alaska, Fairbanks LYNDA SHAPIRO, University of Oregon, Charleston SHARON SMITH, University of Miami, Florida PAUL STOFFA, University of Texas, Austin Staff MARY HOPE KATSOWOS, Director EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Staff Officer ROBIN PEUSER, Research Associate MARY PECHACEK, Administrative Associate ROBIN ALLEN, Senior Project Assistant LAVONCYE MALLORY, Senior Secretary CURTIS TAYLOR, Office Assistant Copies available in limited quantity from OCEAN STUDIES BOARD National Research Council Milton Harris Building 470 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America · · ~ 111
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COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES M. GORDON WOLMAN (Chairman), The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania EDITH BROWN WEISS, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, D.C. JAMES P. BRUCE, Canadian Climate Program Board, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada WII~lAM L. FISHER, University of Texas, Austin EDWARD A. FRIEMAN, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La JolIa, California GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, University of Virginia, Charlottesville W. BARCLAY KAMB, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena PERRY L. MCCARTY, Stanford University, California S. GEORGE PHILANDER, Princeton University, New Jersey RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario, Canada THOMAS A. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park ELLEN SlI~BERGELD, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, D.C. STEVEN M. STANLEY, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida Staff STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director MORGAN GOPNIK, Assistant Executive Director NANETTE SPOON, Administrative Officer SAND! FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate 1V