those who did not know about the program, and also to replace freshmen who leave.

Undergraduates must maintain a 3.2 GPA in science and mathematics course work and satisfactory academic progress. Furthermore, students will be required to sign a yearly, renewable contract in which they declare their intent and commitment to pursue advanced (doctoral) study in science and engineering. A fuller discussion of selection criteria is contained in Chapter 6.

Students must attend a graduate school that is a member of a National Scholars Consortium to retain their eligibility for scholarship and other forms of program support. They will be required to apply through the normal admissions process. Students who choose not to attend a member institution will no longer be National Scholars, but they will be tracked and kept involved in the informal organization. (See the section on Student Choice in this chapter.)

Undergraduate students will be provided an annual merit scholarship of $6,000 for four years, to be applied to tuition, room and board, and fees. In addition, students with financial need will receive an additional need-based award to fill the gap between all financial resources and the cost of attendance. Graduate students will receive two years of support, one in the first or second year of their graduate career and one at the dissertation stage. Each year's award will be for $23,000, consisting of a stipend and an institutional allowance for tuition and fees. (See Chapter 5 for a fuller discussion of student financial support.)

STRUCTURE: NATIONAL SCHOLARS CONSORTIA

Why a Consortium Approach?

Before describing the organizational structure of a National Scholars Program, it is useful to explain why we have chosen to recommend a consortium approach rather than an established training grant, fellowship, or other models. We see many advantages to a consortium approach. The most obvious is that it is amenable to the development of the vertical integration necessary to establish a program continuum from high school through doctoral study. High schools, colleges, universities, agencies, and organizations working together can support student development through all levels of the educational system.

More generally, a consortium can marshal a wider range of resources and expertise to target the stated needs than a single institution or organization. Each partner can participate according to its individual capabilities. A local research laboratory might fund a single fellowship or internship, while a state university system might host summer research opportunities for many students. A consortium affords an opportunity for institutions or organizations that lack the capacity to mount an initiative alone to contribute in a collaborative effort. We cite, as a possible example, liberal arts colleges that are renowned for their teaching excellence but lack affiliations with minority communities.

A consortium offers potential financial economies and administrative advantages. Expanding and strengthening established programs can reduce infrastructure costs and may be cost effective. The flexibility inherent in this collaborative approach permits wide latitude in the organization and scale of the



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