financial need of students. The amount of the need-based grant will be calculated after students have applied for and received any federal, state, or institutional financial assistance for which they qualify.

In order to develop an accurate estimate of the cost of providing undergraduate scholarships to National Scholars, the following information would be required for each student: student financial need as established by federal methodology, cost-of-attendance at the institution in which the student enrolls, the amount of any institutional grant awarded, and all other scholarship assistance a student may receive. Because we do not have such information, we must make informed guesses about student family income, what kinds of institutions they may attend (cost-of-attendance), and the dollar amount of other scholarship assistance they may receive. Institutions that request funds to implement a National Scholars Consortium would, of course, be able to supply much of this information and should state in their proposal the cost-of-attendance, available scholarship monies, and anticipated grants to National Scholars.

Some information is available that will assist in making estimates. The NASA-sponsored SHARP PLUS program summarized the income distribution of its apprentices. Since the minority high school students who participate in this program must have demonstrated an aptitude for and interest in pursuing science and engineering, these students are likely candidates for the National Scholars Program. Accordingly, their family incomes may be comparable to those of National Scholars. These data permit rough calculations of eligibility for Pell grants and highly speculative estimates of institutional need-based grants. Second, the College Entrance Examination Board conducts an annual survey of college and university tuitions, fees, room and board, and student personal expenses such as books, supplies, transportation, and other personal items. The figures are compiled by type of college—two-year and four-year, public and private, and residential and commuter (student). For 1995-96, the estimated total costs of attending a four-year public college or university as a residential student were $9,285. For private colleges, the comparable figure was $19,762. These are average values. We expect that many of the institutions that choose to participate in a National Scholars consortium would be more costly to attend. For example, the estimated cost of attendance at Colby College, a private liberal arts college, for 1995-96 was $27,940, exclusive of transportation. Cost of attendance also increases for out-of-state students who enroll at public universities where there is additional non-resident levy of several thousand dollars. The non-resident charge for students at the University of Maryland Baltimore County was $5,100 for 1995-96.

Estimated Student Subsidies

A rough estimate of grant aid required to assure that a student's full financial need will be met without requiring National Scholars to take out loans or work at non-science related jobs can be derived from data on the economic status of the 1993 SHARP PLUS participants. Based on the federal methodology for calculating student aid eligibility, the approximate expected family contribution to educational costs associated with each income bracket is reported in Table 1. The figures presented in the table reflect the National Scholars Program provision that the difference between the cost of attendance and the expected family contribution should be met by grants. These estimates assume that



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