Glossary

All Kids Count Program:

A grant program funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation that seeks to improve immunization rates among preschool children by supporting the development and implementation of community-based computerized systems that record and monitor children's immunization status. Twenty-three planning grants were awarded in 1992, and 16 implementation grants were awarded in 1993. The Annie E. Casey Foundation funded 2 of the 16 implementation grants. The program is administered by The Task Force for Child Survival and Development, located in Atlanta, Georgia.

Automated dialing technology:

Manual or computer-linked devices that can be programmed to place telephone calls and deliver a variety of taped or computer-generated messages.

Childhood Immunization Initiative:

A comprehensive effort announced by the President in 1993 to respond to the problem of underimmunization among preschool children. Its goals include eliminating certain vaccine-preventable diseases (e.g., diphtheria, measles, and rubella), increasing immunization coverage for recommended vaccines to at least 90 percent among 2-year-olds by 1996, and improving the delivery of immunization services. (See box on page 28 for additional information.)

CityMatCH:

A national organization of maternal and child health programs from city and county health departments with jurisdiction over areas with populations of 100,000 or more. It was established in 1988 to promote communication and collaboration among urban maternal and child health



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Overcoming Barriers to Immunization: A Workshop Summary Glossary All Kids Count Program: A grant program funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation that seeks to improve immunization rates among preschool children by supporting the development and implementation of community-based computerized systems that record and monitor children's immunization status. Twenty-three planning grants were awarded in 1992, and 16 implementation grants were awarded in 1993. The Annie E. Casey Foundation funded 2 of the 16 implementation grants. The program is administered by The Task Force for Child Survival and Development, located in Atlanta, Georgia. Automated dialing technology: Manual or computer-linked devices that can be programmed to place telephone calls and deliver a variety of taped or computer-generated messages. Childhood Immunization Initiative: A comprehensive effort announced by the President in 1993 to respond to the problem of underimmunization among preschool children. Its goals include eliminating certain vaccine-preventable diseases (e.g., diphtheria, measles, and rubella), increasing immunization coverage for recommended vaccines to at least 90 percent among 2-year-olds by 1996, and improving the delivery of immunization services. (See box on page 28 for additional information.) CityMatCH: A national organization of maternal and child health programs from city and county health departments with jurisdiction over areas with populations of 100,000 or more. It was established in 1988 to promote communication and collaboration among urban maternal and child health

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Overcoming Barriers to Immunization: A Workshop Summary programs to improve the planning, delivery, and evaluation of maternal and child health services at the local level. Every Child By Two: An immunization campaign initiated by Rosalynn Carter and Betty Bumpers in 1991 to promote age-appropriate immunization of children from birth to 2 years of age. Carter, Bumpers, and others associated with the program work with spouses of governors and other elected officials as well as health care providers, national organizations, and community leaders to provide public education and improve the delivery of immunization services. Immunization Action Plans (IAPs): Plans developed by states and major urban areas for activities necessary to achieve 90 percent immunization of 2-year-olds. Funds from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, first made available in 1992, can be used by grantees to remove barriers to immunization, support the vaccine delivery infrastructure, and develop innovative approaches to improve immunization levels of preschool children. Immunization Registry: A system, generally computer-based, to identify all children in a target population (e.g., a city or state) and record information about the immunizations received by those children. Registries can be used to assess immunization levels within the target population, assess the effectiveness of new programs to improve immunization levels, compare immunization rates among groups within the population for targeted outreach and follow-up, identify for families and providers children due or overdue for immunizations, and give families or providers information on a child's immunization status. Medical home: A source of continuous, comprehensive, coordinated primary care that is financially and geographically accessible. Missed opportunity: Failure to administer medically appropriate vaccine to a child during a health care visit. Many missed opportunities occur because health care providers lack access to a child's immunization record, inappropriately withhold immunizations because of perceived contraindications to immunization, or do not administer at one office visit all of the vaccines for which a child is due. National Immunization Campaign: A program established in 1991 by the Children's Action Network and business, health, government, child advocacy, and community organization to promote immunization of children and community education about immunization and child health care. The program includes national activities, building immunization coalitions in 16 target cities, and developing resource materials for efforts in other communities.

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Overcoming Barriers to Immunization: A Workshop Summary National Immunization Program: Established in 1993 within the office of the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is a successor to the Division of Immunization within CDC's National Center for Prevention Services. The National Immunization Program administers the federal immunization grant program and grants to states to support Immunization Action Plans. It also conducts studies of immunization levels and factors underlying low immunization rates and provides technical assistance to states and communities. The National Immunization Program is the lead agency for operational aspects of the President's Childhood Immunization Initiative. National Vaccine Program Office: Authorized by federal legislation in 1986 to coordinate and provide direction for each element of the immunization process: vaccine development, testing for safety and efficacy prior to licensure, licensing, production, procurement, distribution, delivery, and continued evaluation of vaccines in use. It operates within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. For the President's Childhood Immunization Initiative, the National Vaccine Program Office is responsible for interagency coordination and program oversight. Standards for Pediatric Immunization Practices: A set of 18 guidelines for immunization practices developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in collaboration with representatives from 22 public and private organizations representing public and private providers, professional organizations, and state and local health departments. Tracking systems: Manual or computer-based systems to monitor the immunization status of children within a particular population and identify when immunizations are due or overdue for each child. Individual providers can operate tracking systems within their own practices, and immunization registries can have tracking capabilities. U.S. Immunization Survey: A household survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control in conjunction with the Current Population Survey of the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The survey collected demographic variables, vaccine history, and appropriate disease history to estimate immunization levels of children. The survey was discontinued after the 1985 round. Universal purchase: State purchase of vaccines at the federally negotiated contract price for distribution to participating public and private providers without charge. Providers administer these vaccines to all children in their practice. Providers do not charge for the vaccines but may charge an administration fee for the immunization service.

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Overcoming Barriers to Immunization: A Workshop Summary Vaccine Information Pamphlets (VIPs): Pamphlets developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to fulfill a requirement under the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act that providers ensure that parents are adequately informed of the risks and benefits of specific immunizations before their children are vaccinated. These pamphlets must be used when providers are administering vaccines purchased through a federal contract. Vaccines for Children Program: Beginning in October 1994, the federal government will purchase vaccines to immunize children who are (1) eligible for Medicaid (even if they are not enrolled), (2) without health insurance, (3) insured but have no coverage for immunization and obtain immunizations at federally qualified health centers or rural health clinics, or (4) Native Americans. States will distribute the vaccines to participating providers without charge. Providers will be permitted to charge limited fees for administering the vaccines.