programs to improve the planning, delivery, and evaluation of maternal and child health services at the local level.

Every Child By Two:

An immunization campaign initiated by Rosalynn Carter and Betty Bumpers in 1991 to promote age-appropriate immunization of children from birth to 2 years of age. Carter, Bumpers, and others associated with the program work with spouses of governors and other elected officials as well as health care providers, national organizations, and community leaders to provide public education and improve the delivery of immunization services.

Immunization Action Plans (IAPs):

Plans developed by states and major urban areas for activities necessary to achieve 90 percent immunization of 2-year-olds. Funds from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, first made available in 1992, can be used by grantees to remove barriers to immunization, support the vaccine delivery infrastructure, and develop innovative approaches to improve immunization levels of preschool children.

Immunization Registry:

A system, generally computer-based, to identify all children in a target population (e.g., a city or state) and record information about the immunizations received by those children. Registries can be used to assess immunization levels within the target population, assess the effectiveness of new programs to improve immunization levels, compare immunization rates among groups within the population for targeted outreach and follow-up, identify for families and providers children due or overdue for immunizations, and give families or providers information on a child's immunization status.

Medical home:

A source of continuous, comprehensive, coordinated primary care that is financially and geographically accessible.

Missed opportunity:

Failure to administer medically appropriate vaccine to a child during a health care visit. Many missed opportunities occur because health care providers lack access to a child's immunization record, inappropriately withhold immunizations because of perceived contraindications to immunization, or do not administer at one office visit all of the vaccines for which a child is due.

National Immunization Campaign:

A program established in 1991 by the Children's Action Network and business, health, government, child advocacy, and community organization to promote immunization of children and community education about immunization and child health care. The program includes national activities, building immunization coalitions in 16 target cities, and developing resource materials for efforts in other communities.

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