National Immunization Program:

Established in 1993 within the office of the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is a successor to the Division of Immunization within CDC's National Center for Prevention Services. The National Immunization Program administers the federal immunization grant program and grants to states to support Immunization Action Plans. It also conducts studies of immunization levels and factors underlying low immunization rates and provides technical assistance to states and communities. The National Immunization Program is the lead agency for operational aspects of the President's Childhood Immunization Initiative.

National Vaccine Program Office:

Authorized by federal legislation in 1986 to coordinate and provide direction for each element of the immunization process: vaccine development, testing for safety and efficacy prior to licensure, licensing, production, procurement, distribution, delivery, and continued evaluation of vaccines in use. It operates within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. For the President's Childhood Immunization Initiative, the National Vaccine Program Office is responsible for interagency coordination and program oversight.

Standards for Pediatric Immunization Practices:

A set of 18 guidelines for immunization practices developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in collaboration with representatives from 22 public and private organizations representing public and private providers, professional organizations, and state and local health departments.

Tracking systems:

Manual or computer-based systems to monitor the immunization status of children within a particular population and identify when immunizations are due or overdue for each child. Individual providers can operate tracking systems within their own practices, and immunization registries can have tracking capabilities.

U.S. Immunization Survey:

A household survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control in conjunction with the Current Population Survey of the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The survey collected demographic variables, vaccine history, and appropriate disease history to estimate immunization levels of children. The survey was discontinued after the 1985 round.

Universal purchase:

State purchase of vaccines at the federally negotiated contract price for distribution to participating public and private providers without charge. Providers administer these vaccines to all children in their practice. Providers do not charge for the vaccines but may charge an administration fee for the immunization service.

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