The Advanced Materials and Processing Program and the Restructuring of Materials Science and Technology in the United States: From Research to Manufacturing

Proceedings of the 1993 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum

Solid State Sciences Committee

Board on Physics and Astronomy

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

and

National Materials Advisory Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1995



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The Advanced Materials and Processing Program and the Restructuring of Materials Science and Technology in the United States: From Research to Manufacturing: Proceedings of the 1993 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum The Advanced Materials and Processing Program and the Restructuring of Materials Science and Technology in the United States: From Research to Manufacturing Proceedings of the 1993 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum Solid State Sciences Committee Board on Physics and Astronomy Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications and National Materials Advisory Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995

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The Advanced Materials and Processing Program and the Restructuring of Materials Science and Technology in the United States: From Research to Manufacturing: Proceedings of the 1993 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This project was supported by the Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG05-92ER45469, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant No. F49620-92-J-0455, and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-9224653. Additional copies of this report are available from: Solid State Sciences Committee Board on Physics and Astronomy National Research Council, HA 562 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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The Advanced Materials and Processing Program and the Restructuring of Materials Science and Technology in the United States: From Research to Manufacturing: Proceedings of the 1993 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum SOLID STATE SCIENCES COMMITTEE OF THE BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY* JULIA WEERTMAN, Northwestern University, Chair PAUL A. FLEURY, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Vice Chair J. DAVID LITSTER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Past Chair S. JAMES ALLEN, University of California at Santa Barbara NEIL ASHCROFT, Cornell University Y. AUSTIN CHANG, University of Wisconsin at Madison UMA CHOWDHRY, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. CHARLES McMAHON, AT&T Bell Laboratories DONALD R. PAUL, University of Texas at Austin JAMES ROBERTO, Oak Ridge National Laboratory JOHN J. RUSH, National Institute of Standards and Technology THOMAS P. RUSSELL, IBM Almaden Research Center BRUCE A. SCOTT, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center CHARLES V. SHANK, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory SHELDON M. WIEDERHORN, National Institute of Standards and Technology DANIEL MORGAN, Program Officer NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD JAMES C. WILLIAMS, General Electric, Chair JAN D. ACHENBACH, Northwestern University BILL R. APPLETON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory ROBERT R. BEEBE, Consultant I. MELVIN BERNSTEIN, Tufts University J. KEITH BRIMACOMBE, University of British Columbia JOHN V. BUSCH, IBIS Associates HARRY E. COOK, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ROBERT EAGAN, Sandia National Laboratories CAROLYN HANSSON, Queen's University KRISTINA M. JOHNSON, University of Colorado LIONEL C. KIMERLING, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JAMES E. McGRATH, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University RICHARD S. MULLER, University of California at Berkeley ELSA REICHMANIS, AT&T Bell Laboratories EDGAR A. STARKE, University of Virginia JOHN STRINGER, Electric Power Research Institute KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, General Motors JAMES WAGNER, Johns Hopkins University JOSEPH WIRTH, Raychem Corporation *See Appendix B for the membership of the Board on Physics and Astronomy and of the two Boards' parent Commissions.

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The Advanced Materials and Processing Program and the Restructuring of Materials Science and Technology in the United States: From Research to Manufacturing: Proceedings of the 1993 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum This page in the original is blank.

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The Advanced Materials and Processing Program and the Restructuring of Materials Science and Technology in the United States: From Research to Manufacturing: Proceedings of the 1993 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum Preface The Solid State Sciences Committee (SSSC) of the Board on Physics and Astronomy is a multidisciplinary standing committee of the National Research Council that is charged with monitoring the health of materials research in the United States. For over a decade it has held periodic forums in Washington, D.C., to bring together government policymakers and the scientific community. The 1993 forum focused on the federal government's new multiagency Advanced Materials and Processing Program (AMPP). The AMPP was a particularly appropriate topic since its origins are closely connected with previous SSSC forums. The program draws heavily on a 1989 National Research Council report, Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s. The idea of preparing such a report arose during the 1985 forum, the study's progress was the subject of forums from 1986 to 1988, the final report itself was the subject in 1989, and the federal response was addressed in 1991. The 1993 SSSC Forum, on the subject “The Advanced Materials and Processing Program and the Restructuring of Materials Science and Technology in the United States: From Research to Manufacturing,” was sponsored jointly with the National Materials Advisory Board and the Washington Materials Forum.* Approximately 100 people participated, including leading policymakers and researchers from the federal agencies, the Congress, universities, industry, and the national laboratories. The first session was a keynote address by Senator Jeff Bingaman on the evolution of U.S. technology policy and future challenges for government-industry partnerships. The second session consisted of presentations by representatives of five federal agencies involved in the AMPP, followed by a panel discussion. The third session focused on the integration of materials science, engineering, and societal needs, with speakers from a national laboratory, a university, and an industry consortium. The fourth and fifth sessions addressed the challenges of the 21st century, not only technical issues but also challenges for education and new forms of partnership. Speakers in sessions four and five came from a wide range of materials-related companies and from universities and national laboratories. * The Washington Materials Forum, organized in 1991, is a consortium of professional societies with an interest in materials science and technology: the Materials Research Society, American Physical Society, American Chemical Society, American Ceramics Society, American Vacuum Society, ASM International, Metals Mining and Materials Society, Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, Society for Hybrid Microelectronics, Mineralogical Society of America, Federation of Materials Societies, Electrochemical Society, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

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