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APPENDIX C AIRLINER CABIN SAFETY REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS This appendix presents information about airliner cabin safety regulations, standards, and recommendations It is based on items listed in the Cabin Safety Index prepared by the FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute, \2 supplemented by relevant items in the Federal Resister since the index was published. It presents relevant regulations and recommendations concerning emergency procedures, nonemergency procedures, equipment, crew training, and passenger information and briefing with respect to fires.(Table C-1), decompression (Table C-2), medical emergencies (Table C-3), and ditching and evacuation (Table C-4~. Table C-5 deals with preflight and in-flight announcements, and Table C-6 presents a summary of typical air carrier operating procedures with respect to firefighting and firefighting training. 278 -

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279 TABLE C-1 Standards, Regulations, and Recommendations About Fires Emergency Procedures Air Carrier Operations Bulletin: Air carrier emergency procedures pertaining to lower-lobe operation should be reviewed. 22 Nonemer~enc~ Procedures Regulation: No passenger or crew member may smoke while the "no smoking" sign is lighted, and each passenger shall fasten his or her seat belt and keep it fastened while the seat belt sign is only Airworthiness Directive: 1,000-h periodic inspections, and repairs as necessary, of all lavatory trash receptacles to ensure fire containment procedures. 2 ~ Air Carrier Operations Bulletin: Inspection of lavatory before takeoff and periodically during flight.20 Enuipment Regulation: Hand fire extinguishers available for all baggage compartments with access by crew members.8 Regulation: Hand fire extinguishers available for crew, passenger, and cargo compartments, 6 uniformly distributed in passenger compartments with two Halon 1211 extinguishers per airplane. \5 Regulation: Protective breathing equipment must be installed for each isolated separate compartment in the airplane, including upper- and lower-lobe galleys.1 3

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280 TABLE C-1 (continued) Proposed regulation: Protective breathing equipment that protects crew members from effects of smoke, carbon dioxide, or other harmful gases and that protects crew members while combatting fires on board; one such device must be in each upper- or lower-lobe galley, one on the flight deck, one for use in each accessible cargo compartment, and one within 3 ft of each required fire extinguisher. 2s Regulation: Floor proximity emergency escape-path marking for passengers when all sources of illumination more than 4 ft above the cabin aisle are obscured.] 9 Regulation: Smoke detectors in each lavatory and galley, automatic fire extinguisher for each lavatory trash receptacle. \5 Airworthiness Directive: Installation of "no smoking" signs on each side of lavatory doors and ashtrays near lavatory entrances. 2 Crew Training Regulation: Instruction in emergency assignments and procedures; location, function, and operation of emergency equipment (i.e., portable fire extinguishers, including the type for different classes of fires); handling of fires on growled and in flight. 3 Regulation: Actual operation of emergency equipment for each type of aircraft once each 24 calendar mo.3 Proposed Regulation: One-time emergency drill to be accomplished during initial training; additional emergency training to be accomplished once each 24 mo.25 Air Carrier Operations Bulletin: Initiate ground training or operations bulletins to inform flight deck crews and cabin crews of the causer, characteristics, and hazards associated with fluorescent light ballast fires.17

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~e, Boa TABLE C-1 (continued) Air Carrier Operations Bulletin: Review emergency procedures pertaining to the lower lobe to ensure that procedures and equipment are adequate.22 Passenger Information/Bri_ _ ~ Regulation: Preflight briefing conce ming smoking.2 Airworthiness Directive: Preflight briefing not to smoke in lavatories.21

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282 TABLE C-2 Standards, Regulations, And Recommendations About Decompression Emergency Procedures (None) Nonemer~encY Procedures Regulation: Minimal mass flow of supplemental oxygen is specified in terms of mean tracheal oxygen partial pressure (precise specifications depend on exact equipment, altitude, duration at altitude, and other factors).9 Equipment Regulation: Supplemental oxygen must be available for crew and passengers whenever the airplane is operated above 10,000 ft (exact provisions depend on the flight altitude and duration at altitude).14 Regulation: Each flight attendant shall, during flight above flight level 250 (25,000 ft), carry portable oxygen equipment with at least a lS-min supply of oxygen, unless enough units or spare outlets and masks are distributed throughout the cabin to ensure immediate availability to each cabin attendant.] 4 Crew Trainine Regulation: Instruction in emergency assignments and procedures; location, function, and operation of emergency equipment; instruction in handling emergency situations (including rapid depressurization) . 3 Regulation: Crew members who serve in operations above 2S,OOO ft must receive instruction in respiration, hypoxia, duration of consciousness without supplemental oxygen at altitude, gan expansion, gas bubble formation, physical phenomena, and incidents of Repressurization. 3

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~ e ~ coo TABLE C-2 (continued) Passenger Information/Briefinz Regulation: Before flight is conducted above flight level 250 (25#000 It)' a crew member sball instruct the passengers on the necessity of using oxygen in the event of cabin depressurization.l.

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284 TABLE C-3 Standards, Regulations, and Recommendations About Medical Emergencies Emergency Procedures (None) NonemerzencY Procedures Regulation: Conditions under which a passenger may carry and operate equipment for the storage, generation, or dispensing of oxygen are specified.l Equipment Regulation: Approved first-aid kits for treatment of injuries likely to occur in flight or in minor accidents must be provided (the number of kits varies according to the number of passengers carried) .6 Regulation: Emergency medical equipment; one medical kit would be required on each passenger-carrying flight and should contain equipment and drugs required to provide basic life support during medical emergencies that might occur during flight, such as myocardial infarction, severe allergic reactions, acute asthma, insulin shock, protracted seizures9 and childbirth. Crew Training Regulation: Instruction in emergency assignments and procedures; location, function, and operation of emergency equipment (including first-aid equipment and its proper use); instruction in handling emergency situations (including illness, injury, or other abnormal situation involving passengers or crew members).3 Regulation: Familiarization with the emergency medical kiters

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285 TABLE C-3 (continued) Passenger formation/Briefinz Regulation: Crew members who serve in operations above 25,000 ft must receive instruction in respiration, hypoxia, duration of consciousness without supplemental oxygen at altitude, gas expansion, gas bubble formation, physical phenomena, and incidents of depressurization.3 Passenger Information/Briefina (None)

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286 TABLE C-4 Standards, Regulations, and Recommendations About Ditching and Evacuation Emergency Procedures Air Carrier Operations Bulletin: In case of an unplanned emergency landing, the flight attendants might have only enough time to give a short command, such as "lean over" or "grab your ankles".! 6 Air Carrier Operations Bulletin: In case of a planned emergency landing, passengers should be briefed on proper bracing positions.16 NonemerzencY Procedures Air Carrier Operations Bulletin: Principal operations inspectors should ensure that flight attendants are fully aware that escape slides should be inflated manually if autoinflation fails. 23 Air Carrier Operations Bulletin: Principal operations inspectors should evaluate seat spacing and passenger briefing card brace positions. \6 Equipment Regulation: Each passenger-carrying landplane emergency exit (other than over-the-wing) that is more than 6 ft from the ground with the airplane on the ground and the landing gear extended must have an approved means to assist occupants in descending to the ground.! Regulation: An approved flotation means or a life preserver must be within easy reach of each seated occupant for extended over-water operation; 7 enough liferafts to accommodate all occupants must be provided; 5 each certificate holder shall demonstrate the effectiveness of emergency evacuation equipment and procedures and shall describe these in its manual. 4

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287 TABLE C-4 (continued) Crew Training Regulation: Instruction in emergency assignments and procedures; location, function, and operation of emergency equipment, including, for ditching: cockpit preparation; crew coordination; passenger briefing and cabin preparation; donning and inflation of life preservers; removal and inflation of each type of l.iferaft; transfer of each type of slide/raft from one door to another; deployment, inflation, and detachment of each type of slide/raft; use of liferaft; boarding of passengers and crew into a raft or a slide/raft pack. 3 Air Carrier Operations Bulletin: Principal operations inspectors must continually review their assigned air carriers' emergency evacuation procedures. 2 4 Passenger Information/Briefin~ Regulation: In extended over-water operations, all passengers are to be orally briefed on the location and operation of life preservers, liferafts, and other flotation means, including a demonstration of the method of donning and inflating a life preserver. 2

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288 TABLE C-5 Additional Pansenger Briefing Preflight Announcements Regulation: Smoking; location of emergency exits; use of safety belts, including how to fasten and unfasten them; location and use of required emergency flotation devices. 2 In-fli~ht Announcements Regulation: Immediately before or immediately after the seatbelt sign is turned off, an announcement shall be made that passengers should keep their seatbelts fastened while seated.2

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289 TABLE C-6 Summary of Typical Air Carrier Operating Procedures with Respect to Firefighting and Firefighting Training Firefi~htinz Cabin crew member discovering fire to identify the source and type of fire and switch off any electric supply involved, take nearest appropriate fire extinguisher, and attack the fire. Second cabin crew member to be called to alert the captain and the senior member of the cabin crew. Senior member of the cabin crew takes charge of firefighting, ensures that all necessary resources are available, and ensures that all portable oxygen bottles are removed from the scene. Passengers are advised to keep heads down and to cover noses and mouths; if time and conditions permit, damp face cloths would be distributed. Firefiahtinz Training On initial course, cabin crew are trained in the use of fire extinguishers and smoke protection hoods; practical use of equipment at the fire training ground is included; each student experiences a short period in a smoke chamber. Students are required to demonstrate proficiency in firefighting in a synthetic smoke-filled cabin mockup. Every third year, cabin fire and smoke is the main theme for flight crew and cabin crew annual checks; audiovisual review and familiarization with equipment under guidance of instructor; fire-smoke situation presented to cabin crew without warning in cabin mockup to check proficiency; flight crew briefed on cabin fire drill.

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290 REFERENCES 1. Additional emergency equipment. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Pt. 121.310. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985. 2. Briefing passengers before takeoff. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Pt. 121.571. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985. Crewmember emergency training. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Pt. 121.417.` Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 198S. 4. Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Pt. 121.397. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985. 5. Emergency equipment for extended over-water operations. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Pt. 121.339. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985. 6. Emergency equipment. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Pt. 121.309. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985. Emergency flotation means. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Pt. 121.340. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985. 8. Fire precautions. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Pt. 121.221. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 198S. 9. Minimum mass flow of supplemental oxygen. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Pt. 25.1443. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985. 10. Oxygen for medical use by passengers. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Pt. 121.574. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985.

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291 11. Passenger information. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Pt. 121.317. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985. 12. Pollard, D. W., J. A. Steen, W. J. Biron, and R. L. Cremer. Cabin Safety Subject Index. FAA-AM-84-1. Oklahoma City, Okla.: U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Civil Aeromedical Institute, 1984. 13. Protective breathing equipment. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Pt. 25.1439. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985. 14. Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized cabins. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Pt. 121.333. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985. U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. Airplane cabin fire protection: Final rule. Federal Register 50~29 March):12726-12733, 1985. 16. U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. Brace for impact positions. ACOB No. 1-76-23, pare. 224. In Air Carrier Operations Bulletins, Consolidated Reprint. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, 1985. 17. U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. Cabin fluorescent light ballast fires. ACOB No. 8-82-1, pare. 966. In Air Carrier Operations Bulletins, Consolidated Reprint. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, 1985. 18. U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. Emergency medical equipment: Final rule. Federal Register 51(9 Jan.):1218-1223, 1986. 19. U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. Floor proximity emergency escape path marking: Final rule. Federal Register 49(26 Oct.):43182-43186, 1984.

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292 20. U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. In-flight lavatory fires. ACOB No. 1-76-17, pare. 218. In Air Carrier Operations Bulletins, Consolidated Reprint. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, 1985. 21. U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. Inspections of Lavatory Trash Receptacles for Fire Containment Procedures. Airworthiness Directive 74-09-08, Docket No. 13603. 22. U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. Problems associated with lower lobe galleys.` ACOB No. 1-76-14, pare. 215~4~. In Air Carrier Operations Bulletins, Consolidated Reprint. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, 1985. U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. Procedures and training for emergency evacuations. ACOB No. 1-76-21, pare. 222. In Air Carrier Operations Bulletins, Consolidated Reprint. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, 1985. 24. U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. Procedures and training for emergency evacuations. ACOB No. 8-76-10, pare. 911. In Air Carrier Operations Bulletins, Consolidated Reprint. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, 1985. 25. U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. Protective breathing equipment: Notice of proposed rulemaking. Federal Register 50~0ct. 10~:41452-41459, 1985.