12

Effects of Military Fuels On the Eyes and Skin

There is no information on dermal and ocular toxicity in humans following exposure to fuel vapors. To assess the potential toxicity to the eyes and skin following exposure to the vapors without those data, the subcommittee used information on the dermal and ocular toxicity following application of total fuel to the skin and eyes or dermal injections, largely in experimental animals.

DERMAL AND OCULAR EFFECTS OF JP-4 FUEL

In studies using rabbits and guinea pigs, Kinkead et al. (1992a) investigated dermal irritation, dermal sensitization, and ocular irritation resulting from exposure to petroleum-derived JP-4. Dermal irritation was evaluated using the Draize scoring technique 1



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 104
Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors 12 Effects of Military Fuels On the Eyes and Skin There is no information on dermal and ocular toxicity in humans following exposure to fuel vapors. To assess the potential toxicity to the eyes and skin following exposure to the vapors without those data, the subcommittee used information on the dermal and ocular toxicity following application of total fuel to the skin and eyes or dermal injections, largely in experimental animals. DERMAL AND OCULAR EFFECTS OF JP-4 FUEL In studies using rabbits and guinea pigs, Kinkead et al. (1992a) investigated dermal irritation, dermal sensitization, and ocular irritation resulting from exposure to petroleum-derived JP-4. Dermal irritation was evaluated using the Draize scoring technique 1

OCR for page 104
Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors hr, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, and 7 days following application of 0.5 mL of JP-4 to the abraded skin of six female New Zealand White rabbits. Based on the Draize measures, the primary dermal-irritation index was determined to be 1.04—slightly irritating. Dermal sensitization was assessed following topical application of 0.1 mL of JP-4 to the clipped flanks of 10 Hartley male albino guinea pigs four times over a 10-day period. The challenge dose was applied 2 weeks later. The skin site was scored using the Draize technique for edema and erythema 24 hr and 48 hr following challenge of the clipped flanks with 0.1 mL of JP-4. JP-4 was not found to be a skin sensitizer in guinea pigs. Ocular irritation was examined using the Draize scoring technique 20 to 30 sec after instillation of 0.1 mL of JP-4 in the conjunctival sacs of nine New Zealand White rabbits. The results showed no ocular irritation following the JP-4 exposure. DERMAL AND OCULAR EFFECTS OF DIESEL FUEL Vernot et al. (1990) investigated lethality resulting from exposure to diesel fuel. Diesel fuel (5 mL/kg of body weight) was applied to approximately 10% of the total body surface of two abraded and two nonabraded male and female New Zealand White rabbits. Following exposure for 24 hr, the animals were observed for 14 days. No deaths occurred. In studies performed on rabbits and guinea pigs, Vernot et al. (1990) investigated dermal irritation, dermal sensitization, and ocular irritation resulting from exposure to diesel fuel. Dermal irritation was evaluated using the Draize scoring technique 3 days following application of 0.5 mL of diesel fuel to abraded and nonabraded skin of three male and three female New Zealand White rabbits. Based on the Draize scoring measures, the primary dermal-irritation index was 6.8—extremely irritating.

OCR for page 104
Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors Dermal sensitization was assessed following topical application of 0.5 mL of diesel fuel to the skin of 10 male Hartley guinea pigs for 6 hr, three times a week for 3 weeks. The challenge dose of 0.5 mL was applied 2 weeks later, and the skin was scored using the Draize technique for edema and erythema 24 hr following challenge. Diesel fuel was not found to sensitize the guinea pig skin. Ocular irritation was examined using the Draize scoring technique 20 to 30 sec after instillation of 0.1 mL of diesel fuel in the eyes of New Zealand White rabbits. Diesel fuel was not found to be irritating to the eyes of the rabbits. DERMAL AND OCULAR EFFECTS OF JP-8 FUEL In studies performed on rabbits and guinea pigs, Kinkead et al. (1992b) investigated dermal irritation, dermal sensitization, and ocular irritation resulting from exposure to petroleum-derived JP-8 jet fuel. Dermal irritation was evaluated using the Draize scoring technique 1 hr, 1, day, 2 days, 3 days, and 7 days following application of 0.5 mL of JP-8 to abraded and nonabraded skin of six female New Zealand White rabbits. Based on the Draize measures, the primary dermal-irritation index was 1.29—slightly irritating. Dermal sensitization was assessed following topical application of 0.1 mL of JP-8 to the clipped flanks of 10 Hartley male albino guinea pigs four times over a 10-day period. The challenge dose of 0.1 mL was applied 2 weeks later. The skin sites were scored using the Draize technique for edema and erythema 24 hr and 48 hr following challenge. Ten percent of the animals showed a skin-sensitization response. JP-8 is considered to be a weak skin sensitizer. Ocular irritation was examined using the Draize scoring technique 20 to 30 sec after instillation of 0.1 mL of JP-8 in the con

OCR for page 104
Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors junctival sacs of nine New Zealand White rabbits. There was no ocular irritation following JP-8 exposure. DERMAL AND OCULAR EFFECTS OF DFM FUEL In studies performed on rabbits and guinea pigs, Kinkead et al. (1992c) investigated dermal irritation, dermal sensitization, and ocular irritation resulting from exposure to petroleum-derived DFM. Dermal irritation was evaluated using the Draize scoring technique 1 hr, 1, day, 2 days, 3 days, and 7 days following application of 0.5 mL of DFM to abraded and nonabraded skin of six female New Zealand White rabbits. Based on the Draize measures, the primary dermal-irritation index was 1.17—mildly irritating. Dermal sensitization was assessed in 20 Hartley male albino guinea pigs using the modified Landsteiner test. Animals received seven 0.1-mL intradermal injections of a 0.01% solution of DFM in peanut oil in the lumbo-sacral area over a 15-day period. The animals were challenged after 3 weeks with 0.5 mL of DFM in the scapular area and were examined for edema or erythema 24 hr or 48 hr after challenge. The results showed that 45% of the animals had dermal-sensitization responses. Therefore, DFM is considered to have a moderate sensitization potential. Ocular irritation was examined using the Draize scoring technique 20 to 30 sec after instillation of 0.1 mL of DFM in the conjunctival sacs of nine New Zealand White rabbits. The results showed no ocular irritation following DFM exposure. DERMAL AND OCULAR EFFECTS OF JP-5 FUEL In studies performed on rabbits and guinea pigs, Kinkead et al.

OCR for page 104
Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors (1992d) investigated dermal irritation, dermal sensitization, and ocular irritation resulting from exposure to petroleum-derived JP-5. Dermal irritation was evaluated using the Draize scoring technique 1 hr, 1, day, 2 days, 3 days, and 7 days following application of 0.1 mL of JP-5 to abraded and nonabraded skin of six female New Zealand White rabbits. Based on the Draize measures, the primary dermal-irritation index was 0.04—nonirritating. Dermal sensitization was assessed in 20 Hartley male albino guinea pigs using the modified Landsteiner test. Animals received seven 0.1-mL intradermal injections of a 0.01% solution of JP-5 in peanut oil in the lumbo-sacral area over a 15-day period. The animals were challenged after 3 weeks with 0.05 mL of JP-5 in the scapular area and were examined for edema or erythema 24 hr or 48 hr after challenge. The results showed that 30% of the animals had dermal-sensitization responses. Therefore, JP-5 is considered to have a moderate sensitization potential. Ocular irritation was examined using the Draize scoring technique 20 to 30 sec after instillation of 0.1 mL of JP-5 in the corneal sacs of nine New Zealand White rabbits. The results showed no ocular irritation following JP-5 exposure. CONCLUSIONS Of the fuels tested, only diesel fuel showed a high skin-irritation response—a Draize score of 6.8 ("extremely irritating"). No ocular damage was found at the doses used, nor was there evidence of extensive skin sensitization. JP-8 was a weak skin sensitizer and JP-5 showed a moderate sensitization potential.