Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors

SUBCOMMITTEE ON PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVELS FOR MILITARY FUELS

COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
WASHINGTON, D.C.,
1996



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Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors SUBCOMMITTEE ON PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVELS FOR MILITARY FUELS COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C., 1996

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Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The project was supported by the U.S. Army under Contract No. DAMD 17-89-C-9086. Additional copies of this report are available from the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors SUBCOMMITTEEONPERMISSIBLEEXPOSURELEVELSFORMILITARYFUELS ROGENE F. HENDERSON (Chair), Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, N.Mex. DEAN E. CARTER , University of Arizona, College of Pharmacy, Tucson, Ariz. CHARLES E. FEIGLEY , University of South Carolina, School of Public Health, Columbia, S.C. NATHAN J. KARCH , Karch & Associates, Inc., Washington, D.C. MICHELE A. MEDINSKY , Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, N.C. FLORABEL G. MULLICK , Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D.C. ROBERT SNYDER , Environmental & Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, N.J. HANSPETER R. WITSCHI , University of California, Davis, Calif. Staff KULBIR S. BAKSHI , Project Director R UTH E. C ROSSGROVE , Editor C ATHERINE M. K UBIK , Senior Program Assistant L UCY F USCO , Project Assistant Sponsor: U.S. Army

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Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors COMMITTEEONTOXICOLOGY ROGENE F. HENDERSON (Chair), Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, N.Mex. DONALD E. GARDNER (Vice-Chair), Raleigh, N.C. DEBORAH A. CORY-SLECHTA, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y. ELAINE M. FAUSTMAN, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. CHARLES E. FEIGLEY, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C. DAVID W. GAYLOR, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Ark. WALDERICO M. GENEROSO, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn. IAN A. GREAVES, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. SIDNEY GREEN, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Md. LOREN D. KOLLER, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oreg. MICHELE A. MEDINSKY, Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, N.C. JOHN L. O'DONOGHUE, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y. ROBERT SNYDER, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, N.J. BAILUS WALKER, JR. , Howard University, Washington, D.C. ANNETTA P. WATSON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn. HANSPETER R. WITSCHI, University of California, Davis, Calif. GERALD N. WOGAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. GAROLD S. YOST, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

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Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors Staff, Committee on Toxicology K ULBIR S. B AKSHI, Program Director M ARVIN A. S CHNEIDERMAN, Senior Staff Scientist R UTH E. C ROSSGROVE, Editor C ATHERINE M. K UBIK, Senior Program Assistant L UCY F USCO, Project Assistant

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Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors BOARDONENVIRONMENTALSTUDIESANDTOXICOLOGY PAUL G. RISSER (Chair), Miami University, Oxford, Ohio MICHAEL J. BEAN, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, D.C. EULA BINGHAM, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio PAUL BUSCH, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., White Plains, N.Y. EDWIN H. CLARK, II , Clean Sites, Inc., Alexandria, Va. ALLAN H. CONNEY, Rutgers University, Piscataway, N.J. ELLIS COWLING, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C. GEORGE P. DASTON, Procter & Gamble Co., Cincinnati, Ohio DIANA FRECKMAN, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo. ROBERT A. FROSCH, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. RAYMOND C. LOEHR, University of Texas, Austin, Tex. GORDON ORIANS, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. GEOFFREY PLACE, Hilton Head, S.C. DAVID P. RALL, Washington, D.C. LESLIE A. REAL, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. KRISTIN SHRADER-FRECHETTE, University of South Florida, Tampa, Fla. BURTON H. SINGER, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. MARGARET STRAND, Bayh, Connaughton and Malone, Washington, D.C. GERALD VAN BELLE, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. BAILUS WALKER, JR., Howard University, Washington, D.C. TERRY F. YOSIE, E. Bruce Harrison Co., Washington, D.C.

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Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors Staff Program Directors, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Associate Director and Program Director for Natural Resources and Applied Ecology CAROL A. MACZKA, Program Director for Toxicology and Risk Assessment LEE R. PAULSON, Program Director for Information Systems and Statistics RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering

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Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors COMMISSIONONLIFESCIENCES THOMAS D. POLLARD (Chair), The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FREDERICK R. ANDERSON, Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft, Washington, D.C. JOHN C. BAILAR III , University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. JOHN E. BURRIS, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. MICHAEL T. CLEGG, University of California, Riverside, Calif. GLENN A. CROSBY, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash. URSULA W. GOODENOUGH, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. SUSAN E. LEEMAN, Boston University, Boston, Mass. RICHARD E. LENSKI, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. THOMAS E. LOVEJOY, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. DONALD R. MATTISON, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. JOSEPH E. MURRAY, Wellesley Hills, Mass. EDWARD E. PENHOET, Chiron Corp., Emergyville, Calif. EMIL A. PFITZER, Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Hackensack, N.J. MALCOLM C. PIKE, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. HENRY C. PITOT III , University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisc. JONATHAN M. SAMET, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. HAROLD M. SCHMECK, JR., North Chatham, Mass. CARLA J. SHATZ, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. JOHN L. VANDEBERG, Southwestern Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Tex. PAUL GILMAN, Executive Director

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Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors OTHERRECENTREPORTS Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995) Biologic Markers (Urinary Toxicology (1995), Immunotoxicology (1992), Environmental Neurotoxicology (1992), Pulmonary Toxicology (1989), Reproductive Toxicology (1989)) Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (three reports, 1994-1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Ranking Hazardous Sites for Remedial Action (1994) Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations (1993) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Issues in Risk Assessment (1993) Setting Priorities for Land Conservation (1993) Protecting Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Hazardous Materials on the Public Lands (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Animals as Sentinels of Environmental Health Hazards (1991) Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program, Volumes I-IV (1991-1993). Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Monitoring Human Tissues for Toxic Substances (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Tracking Toxic Substances at Industrial Facilities (1990)

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Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors Committee on Toxicology Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water (1995) Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water (1995) Review of the U.S. Naval Medical Research Institute's Toxicology Program (1994) Health Effects of Permethrin-Impregnated Army Battle-Dress Uniforms (1994) Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 (1994) Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride (1993) Guidelines for Developing Community Emergency Exposure Levels for Hazardous Substances (1993) Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants (1992) Review of the U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency Toxicology Division (1991) Permissible Exposure Levels and Emergency Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Airborne Contaminants (1991) These reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press: (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313

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Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors Preface N aval personnel might be exposed to toxic concentrations of vapors from military jet-propulsion (JP) fuels JP-5 and JP-8 and diesel fuel marine (DFM) during the servicing and fueling of tanks, trucks, jeeps, and other vehicles stored in newly designed sealift ships. The U.S. Navy is concerned that exposure to fuel vapors from those operations might have an adverse health impact on naval personnel. To protect their health, the U.S. Naval Environmental Health Center 's Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board proposed interim exposure limits for these fuels. The Navy also requested that the National Research Council (NRC) independently determine whether the proposed interim exposure limits for these fuels are appropriate. The NRC assigned the project to the Committee on Toxicology (COT), which convened the Subcommittee on Permissible Exposure Levels for Military Fuels. The subcommittee reviewed the

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Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors toxicity data for the three fuels and assessed the technical basis for the Navy's interim exposure limits. This report of the subcommittee is intended to aid the Navy in finalizing exposure limits for JP-5, JP-8, and DFM fuel vapors to protect naval personnel. For example, the subcommittee's recommended exposure levels for the fuel vapors will be used by engineers to determine the ventilation requirements in the cargo holds of the new strategic sealift ships. Captain David A. Macys, Commander Kenneth Still, and Lieutenant Commander Paul Gillooly are gratefully acknowledged for their interest and support of this project. Other individuals who provided information to the subcommittee are James Crawl, Robert Carpenter, Michael Machinsky, Ronald Nix (all from the U.S. Navy), Lieutenant Colonel James McDougal and David Mattie (both from the U.S. Air Force); David Mongillo, Robert Drew, and Robert Barter (all from the American Petroleum Institute), and Edward Vernot (retired). This report could not have been produced without the untiring efforts of the NRC staff, including Paul Gilman, executive director, Commission on Life Sciences; James J. Reisa, director, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Carol Maczka, director, Toxicology and Risk Assessment Program; Ruth Crossgrove, editor; Lucy Fusco, project assistant; and Catherine Kubik, senior program assistant. I especially acknowledge the subcommittee's great debt to Kulbir Bakshi, who not only ably fulfilled the role of project director but also contributed substantially to the drafting and revision of the report. Without his skills and input, our task could never have been completed in such a timely manner. Finally, I would like to thank all the members of the subcommittee for their expertise, input, and support throughout our deliberations. Rogene F. Henderson, Ph.D. Chair, Subcommittee on Permissible Exposure Levels for Military Fuels; and Chair, Committee on Toxicology