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Sex A Acetic acid, damage to archival materials from, 12-13, 15 Acid gases manual monitoring methods for, 28 see also specific gases Acid hydrolysis, 16, 18 Acidic paper, degradation of, 5, 8, 35,40-41, 45 Adhesives,pollution-induced failure of, 18 Aerosol mass concentration, air-conditioning effect on, 23 Air pollutants damage caused by, 15-19 materials damaged by, 11 unregulated, 12-13, 19 see also Indoor air pollutants Air quality standards, 11-15, 22, 24-28 Air-conditioned buildings, particulate matter concentrations in, 23 Air-conditioning systems design of to meet air quality objectives, 28 humidity sensors, 25 Alkaline particles, damage to archival materiels from, 13, 15 ANSI standards for archival firms, 55 for optical disks, 73 for paper record storage, 26-28 for particulate matter filtration, 27-28 Archivalcopying, 2, 6,8-9, 11,84, 86 Archival materials, air pollutant damage to, 12, 15-19 Archival paper pulps suitable for producing, 34 standards and specifications for, 42, 44 use of reclaimed fiber in, 35 Archival standards for electrophotographic reproduction, 1,86 for magnetic tape, 1, 64-65 for mixed collections, 27 for optical disks, 1, 73 forpapers,1, 26-28,34,41-42, 44 for photographic firms, 1,55-56 see also ANSI standards; NBS standards B Bound volumes, deterioration of, 25-26,83, 84 Bromine removal by ventilation systems, 24 C Carbon, elemental, see Soot Carbon monoxide, air quality standards for, 12 Cellulose acid gas reaction with, 15 degradation of fibers of, 38 in photographic film bases, 49 Chemiluminescent monitors, 28-29 Computer disks, properties of, 63 Computer software and documentation, archival properties of, 66, 68 Computer tapes formats, 62-63 properties of, 64 see also Magnetic tape 103

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04 Continuous monitoring systems, detection limits for, 28-29 Copying, see Archival copying Cotton fibers air pollutant damage to, 15, 16, 18 structure of, 34 D Damage predictions, 25,39 Diethylaminoethanol, damage to archival materiels from, 15 Digital data storage systems, 74, 76 Disks, see Computer disks Documents, see Paper records; Records Dyes, air pollutant damage to, 18 E Electrophotographic reproduction, archival standards for, 1,86,90 Electrostatic precipitators, ozone generation by, 24 Environmental control systems passive, 27-28 see also Air-conditioning systems; Pollutant removal systems; Ventilation systems Environmental criteria for preservation of records, 11-31, 38,53,56, 61, 65, 73-74 p File boxes, environmental protection afforded by, 25-28,83-84 Formaldehyde, damage to archival materials from, 13, 15 Formic acid, damage to archival materials from, 12, 15 H Humidity control recommendations for collections management, 24-25,27,38,53,56, 61, 65,73-74 effects on magnetic tapes, 66 effects on paper properties, 38 censors, 25 Huntington Library Art Gallery ozone levels, 22 nitrogen oxide levels in, 20 ozone removal from, 22 Hydrochloric acid, damage to archival materiels from, 12 Hydrogen peroxide, damage to archival materiels from, 12 Indoor air pollutants detection limits of manual monitoring systems for, 28 INDEX levels, 19-21 monitoring for, 28-29 sources of, 13, 15 Inks air pollutant damage to, 18 archival quality, 44 J. Paul Getty Museum, ozone removal from, 22 Japanese woodblock prints, air pollution-induced fading of, 18 K Kraft pulp, paper production from, 34 L Lead air quality standards for, 12 removal by ventilation systems, 24 Leather, observed damage to, 16 Library of Congress air-conditioning system, 25 commercial-scale deacidification of papers by,41 Library of Congress Madison Building acid gas control systems in,21 ozone levels in, 20 Lignin, effect on quality of paper, 34 Los Angeles County Museum, ozone removal from, 22 M Machine-readable records accession end preservation of, 1,82 advantages and disadvantages, 62-63, 66, 81 archival properties of, 62 fife conversion of, 61-62, 68,81 life expectancy of, 61-62 Magnetic recording media archivalcriteria for, 61-62, 66 hardware life expectancy, 68 properties of, 63-66, 68 software and documentation, 66, 68 trends in, 62, 66 Magnetic tape advantages and disadvantages of,9,81,86 archival standards for, 1, 64-65 archival status of, 61 binder systems, 64,81 hydrolysis effects on, 64-65 fife expectancy of, 66,81 print-through phenomenon, 64 response to humidity, 66 rewinding standards for, 65-66 stability of, 61, 64

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INDEX winding standards for, 64-65 see also Computer tapes Manual monitoring systems, detection limits for, 28 Metal fasteners, corrosion of, 18 Mieroenvironments acid-free boxes, 25-27 polyester encapsulation, 25,42, 45 Microfiche formal, 57 Microfilm / Microfilming as an archival medium, 86 compaction of, 58 eomputer-aidedretrievalof,57 format standards for, 56-58 image stability of, 53, 55 indexing of, 57 NARA, preservation of records by, 89 purposes of, 51-52 thermally processed silver, 55 Micrographics trends, 57-58 Mimeographs deterioration of, 5, 80 preservation of, 90 Mixed collections environmental standards for, 27 temperature and humidity control for, 25 Monitoring for indoor air pollutants, 28-29 see also Continuous monitoring systems; Ozone Manual monitoring systems N National Archives and Records Administration collection housing, 25,83 criteria for preservation of records, 88 current situation at, 5-8, 80 deterioration of collections of, 79 frequency of use of records, 88 hazard to collections from acid gases, 26-27 preservation of damaged records by, 52 prime function of, 8 soiling hazard to collections at, 26 volume of holdings, 5-6 National Archives Building air-conditioning system, 25 nitrogen oxide levels in, 20 ozone levels in, 20 sulfur dioxide levels in, 19 temperature and humidity control in, 24-25,83 National Gallery London), sulfur dioxide levelsin, l9 National Gallery (Washington, D.C. acid gas control systems in, 21 ozone levels in, 20 NBS standards, for environmental control in archives, 26 105 Nitric acid, damage to archival materials from, 12 Nitrogen oxides air quality standards for, 12, 26 damage to archival materials from, 15, 18-19 indoorlevels of, 19-20 removal systems, 21, 26 Nitrous acid, damage to archival materials from, 12 Norton Simon Museum, ozone removal from, 22 Nylon, air pollutant damage to, 16, 18 o Optical disks advantages and disadvantages of, 9, 75,81, 86 applications formats for, 72-73 archival qualities of, 74, 76 archivalstandards for, 1, 73,81 compact {digital audio), 71-72 erasable, 72 fife expectancy, 71-74, 76,81 markets for, 72 preservation, use, and storage, 73-74 Oxidants/Oxidation, damage to archival materiels from, 12, 15, 18 air quality standards for, 12, 24, 26 effect on cotton textiles, 18 effect on paper records, 15 facing caused by, 18 hazard to National Archives from, 26 indoor levels of, 20 removal systems, 22, 26 p Paper acid generation in,41 advantages and disadvantages as an archival material, 44-45, 86 aging rate of, 38-39, 42,44 air pollutant damage to, 15- 16 archival standards for, 1,35,86 bonding agents in, 35 brightness, 37-38 cellulosic fiber structure in, 33-34 color measurement in, 38 composition and structure of, 33-38 definition of, 33 discoloration of, 34 elastic response, 37 filler use in, 35,37,41, 44 fold endurance, 37-39 from cotton fibers, 34 from wood fibers, 34 hydrogen bonding in, 34-35, 38

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06 lignin-containing,34 mechanicalbehaviorof, 34-35, 37-39 19th and 20th century, life expectancy of, 79 opacity of, 38 permanence factors, 38-42, 44-45 pH control in, 35, 37-39,45 physical properties of, 37-38 pigment use in, 35 rosin use in, 35 sizing agents in, 35,37, 42 veiling of, 15-16, 23, 26 stretch, 37 tearing strength, 37 web formation, 34 see also Acidic paper; Permanent paper; White paper Paper quality decline in, 79 recommendations for improvement in, 1, 41,81,82 Paper records cold storage of, 38,45 considerations for copying of, 8, 82 deacidification of, 41-42, 45, 83-84 encapsulation of, 42, 45 environmental control for, 83 handling, 81-82 high-risk, survey of, 6 housing in file boxes vs. bound volumes, 25-28, 83,84 lamination of, 42, 52 mass treatment of, 82-84 oxidation of, 15 preservation methods, 41-42,81 -83 staining of from metal fasteners, 18 Particulate matter air qualify standards for, 12-13, 22, 26 ANSI standards for, 27-28 damage-causing subfractions of, 13, 15-16 indoor-outdoor concentration relationships, 22-23 photographic film protection from, 56 removal systems, 22-24,26 size distribution of, 22 soiling of paper by, 15- 16, 23, 26 Permanent paper, 1, 80-82 Peroxyacetyl nitrate, damage to archival materiels from, 12 Photographic films adhesion between film support and image layers, 55 advantages and disadvantages of, 8, 56-59 aging of, 52-53 air pollutant damage to, 18-19 archival applications for,51-52 archival standards for, 1,55-56,80 cellulose-based, 49, 51, 52, 56, 61 INDEX color stability of, 53 diazo, 53, 55 enclosure materials for, 56 exposed, processing of, 55-56 gases harmful to, 56 image stability of, 53 microblemishes on, 19,56 nitrate-based, 49, 51, 52, 56, 61 permanence of, 52-55 polyester-based, 51 silver halide-based, 49, 55 storage standards for, 55-56 structure of, 49-51 vesicular, 53-55 see also Microfilm/Microfilming Pigments, air pollutant damage to, 18 Pollutant removal systems activated carbon-based, 21-22, 24 for nitrogen oxides, 21 for ozone, 22 for particulate matter, 22-24 for sulfur dioxide, 19, 21 monitoring performance of, 29 Pollutants, see Air pollutants; Indoor air pollutants; and specipcpollutants Pulp, see Kraft pulp; Sulfate pulp Pulsed fluorescent monitors, 28-29 Purafil system, 21 R Rayon, air pollutant damage to, 16, 18 Reclaimed fibers, use in archival paper, 35 Recommendations archival copying, 2, 86 archival standards for NARA, 1,41,82 environmental standards for mixed collections, 24-25, 27,38,53,56, 61, 65, 73-74 indoor air quality, 25-28,84 magnetic recording media, 62, 81,82,84-85 mass treatment of records, 1-2,84 monitoring indoor air pollutants, 28-29 optical disk use, 81 paper quality, 1,41, 80, 82 photographic film standards, 80 preservation actions and strategies, 2, 86-90 temperature and relative humidity, 24-25, 27,38,53,56, 61, 65,73-74,84 Records acid gases damaging to, 12 damage from rodents, termites, fungus, bacteria, and exposure to light, 29 environmental criteria for preservation of, 11-31 having no intrinsic value, 6 mass treatment of, 1-2,84

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INDEX quick-copy reproductions, 5 see also Machine-readable records; Paper records Retention policy for copies of documents having no intrinsic value, 6 S 107 Tate Gallery {London) nitrogen dioxide levels in, 19 sulfur dioxide removal from, 21 Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry {TAPPI] standards for permanent paper, 44 Temperature Sainsbury Center for Visual Arts {England), ozone levels in, 20 Semiconductor memories as archival storage 64, 65, 73-74 medium, 93 ~~ Smog, size distribution of particles in, 23 Software, see Computer software and documentation Soiling, hazard to National Archives collections, 15- 16, 26 Soiling index, effect of air-conditioning on, 23 Soot damage to archival materials from, 13 protection of records from, 26 sources of, 16, 24 Southwest Museum Library, ozone removal from, 22 Standards, see ANSI standards; Archival standards; NBS standards Stencils, deterioration of, 5 Storage containers for protection from nitrogen dioxide exposure, 19-20 see also File boxes; Microenvironments Sulfate pulp, paper production from, 34 Sulfur dioxide air quality standards for, 12, 26 indoor levels of, 19 leather damage from absorption of, 16 paper damage from absorption of, 15 removal systems, 21 textile damage from, 16, 18 T Tannic acid, damage to archival materials from, 15 control recommendations for collections management, 24-25, 27, 38,53,56, 61, effects on paper properties, 38 Textiles, air pollutant damage to, 16, 18 Thermofaxes deacidification of, 83-84 deterioration of, 5, 80 Toners j copying machine), archival quality, 44 U Ultraviolet photometric monitors, 28-29 V Ventilation systems nitrogen oxide attenuation by, 20 particulate matter reduction by, 13, 23-24 see also Pollutant removal systems Victoria and Albert Museum, sulfur dioxide levels in, 19 Video tapes, 62-64 Videodisks, description of, 71 W White paper, production of, 34 Wood fibers, paper production from, 34 X Xerographic processes, archival quality, 44

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Photo Credits Glen R. Cass, Environmental Quality Laboratory, California Institute of Technology: page 10 Genealogical Society of Utah: pages 14, 48 Library of Congress: page 85 John C. Mallinson, Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California, San Diego: page 60 National Security Agency: pages 67, 70 Nekoosa Papers Inc.: page 36 YoichiR. Okamoto: page 40 Hugh Talman, NationalArchives: cover, frontispiece, pages xvii), xx, 3,4,7,17,32,43,50,54,77,78 108