terrestrial and marine habitats; and (3) using indicators of environmental quality as a tool to maintain the health of the Gulf of Maine. These three issues were discussed in concurrent sessions. Symposium participants identified general means for improving the interactions between science and policy as well as specific means for improving the use of science for policy making in the three issue areas. The three issue papers presented at the symposium are included in this volume, together with summaries of the discussions of the issue sessions.

The papers and issue group discussions provide useful information about successful science and policy interactions in Gulf of Maine coastal areas, as well as failures in interactions and reasons for these failures. These sections also suggest ways in which interactions could be improved. The report contains opinions and judgements of individual authors that are offered to provoke thought, but are not necessarily the opinion of the NRC bodies that hosted the symposium and published this report.

Two additional symposia on science-policy interactions have been convened: one was held in California in November 1992 and the other was held in the Gulf of Mexico region in January 1995. Considerable activity exists in both of these regions in terms of both coastal policy and coastal science; it is hoped that these symposia will advance the interaction between the realms of science and policy in the context of specific issues in these regions. A proceedings report will be produced for each symposium. The Committee on Science and Policy for the Coastal Ocean (see Appendix D for biographies of committee members) prepared a synthesis report of the information gathered from the three regional symposia, comparing the problems and solutions for all three regions (NRC, 1995). The goal was to produce a set of recommendations for improving science-policy interactions that can be generalized for use in the variety of coastal areas of the United States and of other nations.


Brewer, G.D., and P. deLeon. 1983. The Foundations of Policy Analysis, Dorset Press, Homewood, Ill.

National Research Council (NRC). 1995. Science, Policy, and the Coast: Improving Decisionmaking. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). 1995. Setting a New Course for U.S. Coastal Ocean Science. National Science and Technology Council, Washington, D.C.

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