reduction of 60 percent in the phosphates entering an estuary), to bottom-line, outcome-oriented goals and require systematic monitoring and reporting of those goals. This shift will soon make clear to all concerned that we probably do not know how to achieve the desired goals because of gaps in our understanding of the targeted ecosystems. Policymakers and managers will see that, one way or the other, funds must be found to close these gaps and to begin to manage in a more informed way. Once the policymakers and managers see that they must avail themselves of more and better (more relevant) “science,” ways will be found to fund such work. I suggest that among CZM grants, Sea Grant grants, NOAA Coastal Ocean Program funding, and funding for research through the National Estuarine Research Reserve System, a rather sizable amount of money exists that could potentially be directed toward these needs. Perhaps some funds could be set aside in the Coastal Ocean Program or in the Sea Grant Program to match funding made available by field-level coastal zone managers to confront specific, critically important research needs. This kind of leverage is needed given the limited funding that field program managers tend to have to support their needs for management-oriented applied science.

The suggestions made here are not complex, nor do they require new scientific breakthroughs. Rather, these suggestions represent a return to basics. Ask the interested public what they want from a “restored ” Chesapeake Bay, Puget Sound, or Gulf of Maine and then ask establish a management system to achieve it and a monitoring system to measure progress along the way. The pressure for relevant science to be applied will be, I feel, strong and immediate, and money will be found to fund it.

References

Brewer, G.D., and P. deLeon. 1983. The Foundations of Policy Analysis, Dorset Press, Homewood, Ill.

Cicin-Sain, B. 1986. Ocean resources and intergovernmental relations: An analysis of patterns. In Ocean Resources and U.S. Intergovernmental Relations in the 1980s, Maynard Silva, ed. Westview Press, Boulder, Colo.

Lowry, K. 1985. Assessing the implementation of federal consistency policy. American Planning Association Journal 51:288-298.

National Research Council. 1993. Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program: IV Lessons and Opportunities. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.



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