PART IV: ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN BUILDINGS



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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy PART IV: ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN BUILDINGS

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy This page in the original is blank.

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy ENERGY USE IN BUILDINGS IN UPPER SILESIA Jan Uruski, Dariusz Choinski, Andrzej Kozak, Andrzej Mika Voivodship Office of Katowice Katowice, Poland ABSTRACT This paper deals with the general situation regarding the management of energy in the building sector of Upper Silesia in southwestern Poland. We present the structure of the heat supply system and suggest ways to solve the problem of its optimization, paying special attention to the modernization and automatic control of district heating systems in metropolitan areas. The implementation of these solutions can achieve short-term results, at rather low capital investment. However, at present no program of efficient energy management in the building sector exists in our region. Local authorities and other organizations active in the energy branch do not have sufficient financial means to develop such a program. This paper stresses the urgent need for financial and technical aid in achieving efficient energy management in the building industry. 1. THE STRUCTURE OF HOUSING HEATING DEMANDS District heating system Upper Silesia is a region with highly concentrated mining (mainly hard coal) and metallurgical industries. The region, with an area of 27,000 square kilometers and population of 3.5 million, includes 42 cities where some 40% of houses and blocks of flats are heated by district heating plants. Heat distribution networks are very extensive and are summarized in Table 1 and Table 2. Table 1. District Heating System in Upper Silesia Number of cities 42 Number of heated flats 520,000 Total heated area 25.7 million square meters. Total heated volume 169 million cubic meters Total heating power 6217 megawatts

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy Table 2. Heat distribution network Total length 1433 km Including high parameter 500 km Large heat exchange station 1903 Thermal centers 4889 The heating power is provided from 15 state-owned thermal-electric power plants (total power 2923 MW) 43 heat plants run by industrial enterprises (total power 1135 MW) 510 heat plants (total power 2159 MW) Individually heated homes The total volume of flats heated by means of coal furnaces and other individual heat sources in the Upper Silesia Region is estimated to be 253.5 million m3 The flats are located in old (usually 50-80 years old and sometimes more) multistory buildings, usually situated in central city areas or in single family houses. These buildings can not be easily adapted for district heating. Problems with the existing structure Upper Silesian heating systems were created under the communist economic system and thus reflect all the faults of the system, including: monopolistic heating structures (single-source heating networks covering whole cities), subsidized fuel and thermal energy prices, consumer charges on the basis of heated area and no metering of actual energy used, and extensive enlargement of the network without use of thermostatic control units. These conditions inevitably imply wasting of thermal energy,

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy excessive fuel consumption at thermal power stations that have no equipment for removal of sulfur from the flue gases, creating catastrophic environmental conditions in Poland and beyond its borders, poor technical conditions for creating energy savings, energy charges independent from actual consumption, and non-optimal parameters of heat distribution system, leading to additional losses. In the entire heating system, there is practically no instrumentation. The network owners control over the network's performance is limited, and the consumer has no means of saving energy. This system, without controls, in which every consumer pays for the heated area instead of the energy consumed, does not promote energy saving and even encourages wastefulness. 2. RESTRUCTURING THE MANAGEMENT OF CENTRAL DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS. Development prospects To make the introduction of modern management systems for energy production and distribution possible, two conditions must be satisfied: a thermal energy balance sheet must be established, and optimal control of the heat distribution must be provided. The task will be achieved by means of complex automation of the heating network. We propose the following policies: The consumer shall pay for the energy really used. The consumer is provided with the technical means to save energy, such as thermostatic control. The control of performance and effectiveness of the heat supplying network is provided from a single decision center. Technical means are provided for heat distribution with minimum losses.

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy A program for implementing these policies called the Master Plan for Complex Modernization and Automation of the Heat Distribution Network has been developed by Hydro-Eco-Invest Ltd. for a selected Silesian city with 100,000 inhabitants. The project proposal includes determination of number and types of necessary equipment, scheduling, and cost estimation. The work is divided into two stages. First, every heat consumer in the city will be provided with a thermal energy meter, and controls will be installed for individual heating cycles for specific buildings, such as schools, kindergartens, shops, offices, etc. The control functions can be accomplished by constructing a telemetric network incorporating all the devices in the system and controlled from a dispatching center. The second stage will include installing automatic control units, regulating the temperature of the heated medium and circulating warm water parameters, and minimizing thermal energy production and heat distribution costs. The information provided by the instrumentation installed at the first stage will provide the data for an actual energy balance sheet for the city, being a starting point for: determination of maximum required heating plant capacity, and modernization of the city network so that the necessary thermal throughput values may be achieved. Modernization of heat production and distribution technology (fluidized furnace heaters, preinsulated pipes, plate heat exchangers, etc.) requires much time and will involve high costs. For this reason, the schedule for these works should be prepared with particular care and should be based on the information derived from the instrumentation installed in the first stage. Choice of equipment manufacturers A detailed analysis of software and hardware suppliers has been performed taking into account Polish technical, economic, and social considerations. The primary criteria for selection are: the variety and amount of production of equipment for heating systems automation, the degree to which technical solutions represent the state of the art, design and manufacturing capabilities available in Poland, experience in working with large control systems of power distribution networks, quality of installation and maintenance services rendered in Poland, and

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy potential for cooperation with Polish manufacturers of elements and units of automatic control systems. Investment outlay Automation of the heating network of the sample 100,000-inhabitant city would involve an estimated expenditure for imported equipment of about $2 million (US) which is about 80 % of the total expenditure. The cost of the first stage of the project includes: equipment costs (in foreign currencies): 1,800,000 DM, and design and construction costs: 2,000 million Zloty, which totals $1,200,000 (US). The cost of the second stage is estimated at $1,300,000 (US). The equipment for this stage should be leased. Savings created by implementing automatic control systems will generate funds to pay the leasing installments, although, according to Polish regulations, a 20% prepayment is required, which may make such arrangements more difficult. Nevertheless, it seems to us that the leveraged lease is a good solution for this type of investment. Leveraged leases offer the lessee advantages of depreciation as well as interest deductions. 3. MODIFICATIONS TO BUILDINGS WITH INDIVIDUAL HEAT SOURCES We estimate the total thermal power required in Upper Silesia by dwellings that are heated by individual coal furnaces and manually fed stoves is 6338 MW, corresponding to 2.5 million tons of coal and coke burned annually. The combustion of coal at this rate creates dangerous environmental problems, particularly air pollution in the forms of carbon and sulfur oxides that exceed allowable limits by several hundred percent. In typical buildings, the heat losses consist of the following components: through walls: 30 % through doorways and window openings: 43 % through floors and roofs: 27 %. Wall insulation improvement is difficult to perform due to architectural details. Therefore, the insulation of the remaining elements is of major interest. An extensive project is necessary, concerning

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy window standardization and replacement by heat-tight models, widespread installation of roller blinds, and additional roof, floor, and ceiling insulation (in old buildings the floors are usually wooden with no heat insulation provided). The power system does not have sufficient capacity for widespread electric heating. However, in some cases such as old buildings, particularly in historic city centers, replacement of individual coal heaters with electric heating units having thermal storage capacity may be the best solution. Modernization of existing coal-fired heating systems and limitation of their numbers is also possible. We suggest the following: the design of typical central heating installations for single or several buildings, since stoves and installations for this power range are the most effective with respect to unit power rate; design studies of furnaces for carbon-derived fuels that minimize environmental pollution; studies of the natural gas distribution system and the feasibility of widespread use of natural gas for building heating; the design of typical automated central heating systems for single-family houses, improving the heating system efficiency; and the analysis of waste-heat utilization systems. The modernization of heating systems in flats heated by individual heat sources is costly mainly because of the greatly distributed investments required. We estimate the following costs (per 1 square meter of heated area): modernization of individual heat sources, $5/m2 additional building insulation, $2/m2. The total estimated cost is $570 million (US), including imported devices and technology costs of $400 million (US). 4. CONCLUSIONS Upper Silesia is in a state of ecological disaster, so projects to improve the environment must be started immediately and proceed at a rapid pace.

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy Immediate actions leading to energy savings involve decreasing the manufacturing costs of energy-saving equipment and creating new jobs, the latter being particularly important because of the unemployment being created in Upper Silesia by restructuring in the mining and metallurgical industries. The financial support of the United States and other countries (to cover part of the equipment costs) is of particular significance. According to our analysis, and assuming increasing fuel and energy prices, the economic return on even partial realization of the proposed projects can make subsequent projects self financing. The funds necessary to begin modernization of the central district heating system amount to some 16 % of the total project expenditures, $400,000 (US) for a city having 100,000 inhabitants. Accounting for the profits generated by the investments, self financing, and potential leasing, the funds required to begin restructuring the residential heating systems with individual heat sources, covering mainly design and research expenses, is $4,000,000 (US). The estimated funds required to begin similar projects over the whole area of Upper Silesia are about $19,000,000 (US). Technical studies should be undertaken allowing better determination of real demand for heat energy and the associated expenditures.

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy This page in the original is blank.

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy ENERGY CONSERVATION AND END-USE RESEARCH IN BUILDINGS Leslie K. Norford Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts USA 1. INTRODUCTION Improved energy efficiency in the United States has saved enormous financial and fuel resources since the sharp increases in oil prices in the early 1970s. A report to the U.S. Working Group on Global Energy Efficiency states that end-use efficiency improvements have displaced the equivalent of more than 14 million barrels of oil per day, worth about $150 billion per year (Levine et al 1991). The keystone of this successful effort has been a growing realization of the benefits that can accrue from isolating individual services and then analyzing required material and energy inputs. Ongoing studies continue to identify enhanced end-use efficiencies that can save fuel at a fraction of the cost of supply. Further incentive for the end-use efficiency approach comes from steadily increasing knowledge of the environmental damage, both local and global, that is associated with profligate consumption of energy. This paper describes three areas of end-use energy efficiency research that the author and colleagues are conducting: improved operation of building ventilation systems; strategies for reducing the energy consumption of office electronics; and a significantly different approach to indoor illumination. A review of this work serves not only to inform new-found colleagues in Poland, but also to encourage future collaboration and focus the efforts of nascent energy-efficiency industries. 2. ELECTRICITY SAVINGS THROUGH IMPROVED CONTROL OF VENTILATION FANS Improved control of ventilation systems can provide enhanced service, often in the form of thermal comfort or health of building occupants; reduced energy consumption of ventilation system fans; or both. Work at MIT and earlier studies at Princeton University have focused on reduced energy use with no impact on delivered airflows. Both the analyses and the control strategies can be applied to water pumping systems as well as air systems, particularly when centrifugal fans and pumps are the prime movers. The ensuing description of ventilation system research is intended, therefore, to identify energy conservation opportunities for both air and water systems, applied to either industrial processes or the thermal conditioning of buildings. Shown in Figure 1 is a ventilation system in which airflow varies from a minimum appropriate for periods of low thermal load to a maximum value required to cool the building under peak thermal loads. At issue is how the airflow is controlled. In individual thermal

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy Figure 4. Electrical power for fixed-pressure and variable-pressure control. Data are averaged over a three-month period, during which the system was switched between fixed-pressure and variable-pressure control. Power data for variable-pressure control correspond to the same period as the pressure data shown in Figure 3. The substantial savings in electricity add to savings due to installing an adjustable-speed motor drive on the fan motor and in fact are only possible when the motor-drive has replaced large central dampers and when digital controls permit communication between the fan controller and the dampers that throttle airflow to individual building areas.

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy Figure 5. Electric power requirements of computers and printers, from Norford et al (1990).

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy Figure 6. Schematic of centralized light generation and heat removal system.

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy THE ACT2 PROJECT: DEMONSTRATION OF MAXIMUM ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN REAL BUILDINGS Merwin Brown, Project Director Research and Development Pacific Gas and Electric Co. San Ramon, California, USA 1. INTRODUCTION In 1990, Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG&E) established a project to determine whether the use of emerging energy-efficient end-use technologies would economically achieve substantial energy savings, perhaps as high as 75%. The Advanced Customer Technology Test (ACT2) for Maximum Energy Efficiency project is a research program of field experiments designed to test scientifically the hypothesis, proposed by many energy-efficiency advocates and environmentalists, that substantial energy-efficiency improvements can be achieved in buildings and other facilities at costs competitive with those of acquiring new electricity generating supply. The strategy being used in the ACT2 project is to demonstrate the maximum energy savings economically achievable by designing and installing optimized, integrated packages of energy-saving measures in a cross section of residential and commercial buildings, as well as in industrial and agricultural sites, in PG &E's service territory. The ultimate objective of the project is energy efficiency, i.e., “doing more with less energy,” rather than energy conservation, i.e., “freezing in the dark.” 2. PROJECT RATIONALE Background PG&E is one of the largest investor-owned utilities in the United States, with 1990 revenues exceeding $9 billion. We serve an area of 94,000 mi2(244,000 km2 in central and northern California. In 1990, peak electric demand was near 20,000 MW, which was met with 15,000 MW of company-owned generation composed of hydroelectric, geothermal, nuclear, and natural gas-fired steam generation. The balance of load was met by purchases from non-utility generators, including significant wind and some solar photovoltaic generation, and from other utilities in the region. The ACT2 project is one of many ways in which PG&E is pursuing a cleaner, healthier environment as it strives to meet our customers' needs. We have concluded that sound environmental policy and sound business practice go together. A major focus of our environmental policy is improving customer energy efficiency (CEE). CEE decreases the need

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy for energy production, thereby reducing impacts on the environment while deferring the cost of acquiring new generating resources. PG &E is relying primarily on energy efficiency with some load management as the cheapest and cleanest way to meet 2500 MW of the 3400 MW needed by the year 2000. Furthermore, the state agency regulating the electricity rates now allows California utilities to earn on investments in CEE through a shared savings incentive program. Consequently, PG&E is aggressively pursuing such investments; up to $2 billion will be spent on CEE over the next 10 years. By 2010, we project that we will have 3900 MW of CEE “capacity”. Ultimately, this strategy will benefit utility customers through relatively lower utility bills (perhaps higher rates, but lower consumption) and improved environmental quality. Currently, to achieve our energy efficiency objectives, we mainly rely on relatively simple, single energy-efficiency measures (EEMs). Some time about the mid-to-late 1990s, we will likely have to turn to the more complex approach of using integrated packages of energy-saving technologies to achieve additional energy-efficiency levels consistent with our goals. ACT2 will help to achieve these goals by determining the technological potential for energy efficiency and exploring how it can be achieved and measured. The ACT2 project and other energy-efficiency research projects reflect growing concerns in the United States about the environment, dependence on imported oil, and global competition. New energy-saving technologies, like high-efficiency lighting, adjustable-speed-drive motors, and selective coatings on glazing, have led experts to project that substantial energy savings, perhaps as high as 75%, can be achieved at economic costs. These savings will be realized by using the most modern technologies, fully characterizing their performance, including all opportunities for savings no matter how small, and taking advantage of synergistic effects. Projections of energy savings of this magnitude have been verified only in part, usually based on individual EEM performance. Scientifically defensible field tests of packages of these advanced technologies, integrated for maximum energy efficiency, have not yet been conducted. The ACT2 project proposes to conduct these tests and measure the effects of component interactions on energy performance, life-cycle economics, and customer/end-user acceptance. Project Benefits First and foremost, the project will provide a scientific characterization of the cost-effective maximum technical potential for utility customer energy efficiency. Other major benefits include providing demonstrations of modern energy-saving technologies operating successfully at customer sites to help utility customers to adopt these environmentally beneficial technologies;

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy identifying and developing design approaches for optimum integrated technology packages, as well as measurement and evaluation techniques, that can maximize end-use energy savings at costs competitive with new electricity generation; providing hands-on learning about what to do and what not to do for design, installation, commissioning, and operation of new energy-saving technologies; revealing unforeseen benefits, like improved productivity, and problems, like deterioration of power quality; and providing guidance and direction for future energy-efficiency research and development (R&D). 3. PROJECT APPROACH Planning and Organization One of PG&E's environmental policies is to work with environmental groups to improve our CEE programs. We invited leading U.S. experts on environment and energy efficiency to serve as a steering committee for the ACT 2 project. The committee's role is to guide the design and execution of the project to ensure valid results acceptable to the scientific and environmental communities. The committee is composed of representatives of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Natural Resources Defense Council, Rocky Mountain Institute, and PG&E. PG&E's R&D department is the project manager for this multi-year effort, providing $10 million for the initial three-year period. An additional $9 million for future years is pending regulatory approval and co-funding is being pursued. The ACT2 mission is to provide scientific field test information on the maximum energy savings possible, at or below projected competitive costs, by using modern high-efficiency end-use technologies in integrated packages acceptable to the customer. The strategy is to demonstrate these packages in selected customer facilities, both existing and new. Each package will be optimized to maximize the energy savings subject to the constraints that the cost be less than or equal to the avoided utility costs of supply and delivery, and that it not detract from the health, productivity, etc., of the customer/user. So that the costs of energy efficiency and supply can be compared, the cost of the “negawatt-hour,” i.e., the KWh saved, is determined by treating the investment in the energy-saving package as if it were a power plant investment. Furthermore, since many of the candidate EEMs are just entering the market and are still relatively expensive, we are using “mature market ” cost projections to more accurately represent the costs that will be experienced in the late 1990s. We chose a learn-by-doing approach for developing the project plan, energy-efficient design methods, and measurement and monitoring techniques. Overall project planning was

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy performed concurrently with a pilot demonstration so that the planning would be responsive to lessons learned in the pilot demonstration. A pilot demonstration approach was selected because of the great risk of failure, given the high level of funding ($10 million), the high visibility of the project, and the potential negative impact of mistakes on future CEE efforts. Furthermore, host customers might be adversely affected by big mistakes, such as designs that cannot be properly installed or equipment that does not operate correctly. A pilot demonstration allows us to put technologies in the field early under tightly controlled conditions, thereby improving the likelihood that follow-on demonstrations would be properly designed, installed, operated, maintained, and monitored. Pilot Demonstration Building The pilot demonstration began in 1990 in an existing office building in San Ramon, California. The site is a 22,000-ft2 (2,050-m2) portion of the leased two-story Sunset Building occupied in part by PG&E's R&D department. The annual energy use in the test portion of the building was estimated to be 480,000 KWh and 15,000 therms (1582 GJ). The Sunset Building was chosen because it is typical of many low-rise office buildings in California and because the ACT2 project team is housed in the building. This proximity allows the team to experience firsthand the daily problems and successes of installing the new technologies. Detailed metering of the building's pre-demonstration energy consumption at the end-use level began in June 1990. Data are being collected in 30-minute intervals for heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, plug loads, and major office equipment. The building load profile is consistent with air conditioning loads dominated by internal heat gains. Other ongoing or one-time baseline measurements include indoor temperature; indoor air quality; relative humidity; lighting quality, including lighting level, glare, and flicker; power quality, including power factor and harmonics; noise level and spectrum; local weather, including temperature, humidity, and solar data; and surveys of both number of occupants and their comfort. The Design Challenge To develop the approach to the pilot demonstration, the ACT2 team discussed many options with designers and researchers from around the world. We decided to have a design competition because it provided a way of comparing different approaches to design and gave the competitors an incentive to be innovative. Of 70 firms invited to participate, 11 responded. From these, we selected five firms and asked each to prepare a conceptual design for maximum energy efficiency. Each firm was paid a fixed amount for the work, so that we would own the designs and each firm would be more willing to discuss their ideas with the others. The design firms first participated in a

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy technology briefing to ensure that they all had up-to-date information on the latest near-commercial, energy-efficient technologies. The briefing covered HVAC design, high-efficiency lighting products and design, windows and daylighting, and high-efficiency office equipment. The firms were also provided with plans of the physical layout as well as constraints imposed by the existing structure and the building owner, followed by a walk-through of the Sunset Building. A baseline simulation model calibrated to the end-use metered data was also given to the design teams for information. The simulation results were from the DOE-2.1D building energy simulation program. The design firms then had 8 weeks during which to create their conceptual designs. In January 1991, a panel of experts in building energy efficiency was convened to decide the outcome of the design competition. Panel members included a chief HVAC designer in a large West Coast firm, a design engineer with a large public building organization, a university professor of building technology, a building researcher from a national laboratory, and the building architect and mechanical engineer representing the owner of the Sunset Building. In a verbal presentation, each design firm described how, why, and what its team had done. The other design firms and the ACT2 project team also participated. The design teams also documented their process and conceptual designs in written reports. After reviewing the approaches of each firm and their proposed design concept, the panel recommended one team to design the retrofit of the pilot demonstration building. Because the other designs had interesting and unique features, it also recommended that the other firms be used as consultants for the final design activities. Overall, predicted energy savings ranged from 65% to 85%. The winning firm reviewed all five design concepts to create a final design based on the best of the concepts and approaches presented. The final level of investment in the pilot demonstration installations has not yet been decided; consequently, the products and systems actually installed may turn out to be a subset of measures proposed in the final design. The final package of energy technologies is currently being selected. 4. DEMONSTRATION RESULTS TO DATE The design challenge component of the pilot demonstration resulted in several important lessons. Some are applicable to other energy-efficiency efforts: Designs for large energy savings are achievable using utility economics. Four of the five firms created designs that saved more than 70% of the gas and electric energy consumption in the building. The design process varied somewhat across firms, and their different approaches yielded large energy savings. No specific design process is necessary to create a building design that maximizes energy savings.

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy No single firm had all the good ideas; each learned something from the others' designs. The best ideas came from the experience and creativity of the designers. The issue of technology reliability is important for designers; they are unwilling to incorporate new products into their building designs until those products have been demonstrated to be reliable. Sizing equipment to exactly meet the load and to take advantage of synergism can also be unacceptable to building owners. Equipment sizing needs to be flexible for future unknown tenant uses and needs. Correct HVAC sizing may not make sense, even with utility economics, if all the equipment must be replaced each time a new tenant moves in. Such planned replacement may be neither reasonable nor acceptable to owners of commercial property. The use of utility economics opens an entire new world of technological options for saving energy, and designers need help in identifying and sorting through those options. For the ACT2 project, we found that good design firms could, if the design criteria and constraints were carefully defined, produce an energy-efficient design that maximizes energy savings. However, at the outset, designers must begin their investigations with a list of technologies that may fit the economic criteria. In addition, the baseline building energy simulation must be documented very carefully—many of the available models are inherently limited in dealing with innovative design solutions. There is no single correct way to maximize energy efficiency; it takes creativity, innovation, and skill. Nevertheless, as shown in the pilot demonstration, it can be done—at least on paper. 5. FUTURE PLANS FOR ACT2 In November 1991, retrofit construction will begin on the Sunset Building. Because the demonstration space is occupied, construction will be carried out in two phases. Overall construction is expected to take approximately four months. At the same time, detailed energy end-use monitoring will continue so that ACT2 will have both pre- and post-installation information on actual energy performance of the building. In the near term, the ACT2 team is recruiting other existing and proposed new buildings as potential demonstration sites. The first phase demonstrations will ultimately involve approximately a dozen sites, the ultimate number depending on the actual cost of each demonstration, with emphasis on residential and commercial buildings. Data will be collected for two to three years to enable ongoing impact evaluations. This phase of the project will be completed by about the end of 1996.

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Poland's Transition to a Market Economy: Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Sciences on Strategies for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Conservation During the Transition to a Market Economy We are currently considering whether to expand the project to another ten to twenty sites in a second phase to provide a better cross section of site types. To that end, 35 site types from more than a hundred in the residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial sectors have been identified and prioritized. The second phase demonstrations would start in 1993 and continue through 1998.

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