contributors to air pollution in many areas, such as the old city center of Krakow and parts of Upper Silesia. Sulfur dioxide removal from flue gases occurs rarely in Poland.

Thus, Poland's transition to a market economy requires great investments both to improve the efficiency of production and to improve the quality of the environment. Achieving these goals will require a carefully devised long-term strategy to direct the severely limited funds presently available for investment. A particularly important component of this strategy will be projects aimed at improving the efficiency of energy conversion, distribution, and use. Such projects contribute simultaneously to economic efficiency and environmental quality by reducing energy costs and by reducing pollution emissions. Because of its heavy dependence on coal, Poland provides one of the best examples in the world of the direct link between the efficiency of energy use and the quality of the environment. A 50% reduction in energy use can frequently result in an identical reduction in pollution emissions.

Fortunately, there are many influential persons in Poland who are aware of the potential advantages of strategically directed investments in improved energy efficiency. One such group of experts has been assembled by the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) for the purpose of interacting with the international community of energy planners, managers, educators, and researchers. Most of these experts have been involved in Poland's energy sector for decades, and many have been working diligently for years to improve the efficiency of energy use in spite of minimal support under the previous government.

Interactions between this Polish group of energy experts and counterparts in the U.S., assembled by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS), began with a workshop in Poland hosted by PAN in 1990. The proceedings of that conference were published by PAN1. A second workshop was hosted by NAS in 1991 in Washington, D.C., and the papers included in this volume are based on presentations made at that workshop. The contacts among participants that occurred during these workshops and the associated visits to institutions in Poland and the U.S. have resulted in ongoing relationships and projects.

One example is the link between the PAN energy delegation and the Pennsylvania Energy Office (PEO), which is a branch of the state government under the direction of the Lieutenant Governor. Pennsylvania has characteristics of climate, industrial base, and energy supply similar to Poland's. PEO hosted the Polish group for a series of meetings and site visits at several locations in Pennsylvania during the week before the 1991 workshop. These meetings are listed in Appendix II of this volume. A delegation from PEO visited Poland for three weeks in 1992, and the Polish delegation returned to Pennsylvania in 1993 to continue the process of sharing information and developing joint projects.

The papers in this volume include contributions from the Polish participants in the workshop and from several of the U.S. participants. The primary focus is the situation in Poland regarding the prospects for improving energy efficiency and conserving energy


Energy Conservation Policy, Journal of the Center of Fundamental Problems of Mineral Resources and Energy Economy, Special Issue I/90, Polish Academy of Sciences, Ruda Slaska, Poland.

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