References

Blanchard, B. 1992. Outreach in the Fish and Wildlife Service. Draft. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.

Cochrane, W.G. 1983. Planning and Analysis of Observational Studies. New York: Wiley.

Committee on Natural Resources. House of Representatives. 1994. Ecosystem Management Sustaining the Nation's Trust Resources. Majority Staff Report. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Cook, T.D., and D.T. Campbell. 1979. Quasi-Experimentation: Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings . Chicago: Rand McNally.

DOI (U.S. Department of the Interior). 1990. Memorandum from Assistant Inspector General for Audits to Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Subject: Final Audit Report on Refuge Contaminants, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. No. 90-74. June 11, 1990. U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.

Eberhardt, L.L., and J.M. Thomas. 1991. Designing Environmental Field Studies. Ecol. Monogr. 61:53-74.

Environment Canada. 1991. Toxic Chemicals in the Great Lakes and Associated Effects, Vol. 1 . Contaminant Levels and Trends. En 37-95/1990-1E. March. Environment Canada, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987. EPA Toxics Release Inventory. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1992. Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment. EPA/630/R-92/001. February. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

FWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 1986. Division of Refuge Management, Preliminary Survey of Contaminant Issues of Concern on National Wildlife Refuges. April. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.

FWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 1987. Division of Biological Sciences (DBS). Review of Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) in Response to FY 86 Habitat Resources (HR) Program Advice Task. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.



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A Review of the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Program: The Draft Detailed Plan References Blanchard, B. 1992. Outreach in the Fish and Wildlife Service. Draft. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. Cochrane, W.G. 1983. Planning and Analysis of Observational Studies. New York: Wiley. Committee on Natural Resources. House of Representatives. 1994. Ecosystem Management Sustaining the Nation's Trust Resources. Majority Staff Report. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Cook, T.D., and D.T. Campbell. 1979. Quasi-Experimentation: Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings . Chicago: Rand McNally. DOI (U.S. Department of the Interior). 1990. Memorandum from Assistant Inspector General for Audits to Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Subject: Final Audit Report on Refuge Contaminants, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. No. 90-74. June 11, 1990. U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. Eberhardt, L.L., and J.M. Thomas. 1991. Designing Environmental Field Studies. Ecol. Monogr. 61:53-74. Environment Canada. 1991. Toxic Chemicals in the Great Lakes and Associated Effects, Vol. 1 . Contaminant Levels and Trends. En 37-95/1990-1E. March. Environment Canada, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987. EPA Toxics Release Inventory. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1992. Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment. EPA/630/R-92/001. February. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. FWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 1986. Division of Refuge Management, Preliminary Survey of Contaminant Issues of Concern on National Wildlife Refuges. April. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. FWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 1987. Division of Biological Sciences (DBS). Review of Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) in Response to FY 86 Habitat Resources (HR) Program Advice Task. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.

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A Review of the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Program: The Draft Detailed Plan FWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 1990a. Monitoring Fish and Wildlife Service Resource Responsibilities for Contaminant Effects. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. FWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 1990b. Environmental Contaminants: Biomonitoring. Briefing: Office of Management and Budget, October 25, 1990, Washington, D.C. FWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 1993. Division of Environmental Contaminants, Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Draft Detailed Plan. June. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. GAO (U.S. General Accounting Office). 1987. National Refuge Contamination Is Difficult to Confirm and Clean Up . GAO/RCED 87-128. U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. Hill, A.B. 1965. The environment and disease: Association or causation. Proc. R. Soc. Med. 58:295-300. Hoffman, D.J. , B.A. Rattner, L. Sileo, D. Docherty, and T.J. Kubiak. 1987. Embryotoxicity, teratogenicity and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in Forster's terns on Green Bay, Lake Michigan. Environ. Res. 42:176-184. Holland, P.W. 1986. Statistics and causal inference. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 79:9-33. Huggett, R.J., R.A. Kimerle, P.M. Mehvle, Jr., and H.L. Bergman, eds. 1992. Biomarkers: Biochemical, Physiological, and Histological Markers of Anthropogenic Stress. Boca Raton, Fla.: Lewis Publishers.347 pp. INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory). 1990. The State of the Wildlife Refuge System. December 10. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Kendall, R.J., and J. Akerman. 1992. Terrestrial wildlife exposed to agrochemicals: An ecological risk assessment perspective. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 11:1727-1749. Kendall, R.J., and T.E. Lacher, Jr., eds. 1994. Wildlife Toxicology and Population Modeling: Interrelated Studies of Agroecosystems. Chelsea, Mich.: CRC Press/Lewis Publisher. 576 pp. Kubiak, T.J., H.J. Harris, L.M. Smith, T.R. Schwartz, D.L. Stalling, J.A. Trick, L. Sileo, D.E. Docherty, and T.C. Erdman. 1989. Microcontaminants and reproductive impairment of the Forster's tern on Green Bay, Lake Michigan-1993. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 18:706-727. Mac, M.J., and C.C. Edsall. 1991. Environmental contaminants and reproductive success of lake trout in the Great Lakes: An epidemiological approach. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 33:375-394. McCarthy, J.F., and L.R. Shugart, eds. 1990. Biomarkers of Environmental Contamination. Chelsea, Mich.: Lewis Publishers. 457 pp. NBS (National Biological Survey). 1994. Contaminants Problem Identification Manual. Review Draft. National Biological Survey, Washington, D.C. NRC (National Research Council). 1991. Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants: Advances and Opportunities . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1992a. Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). Interim Report. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1992b. Water Transfers in the West: Efficiency, Equity, and the Environment . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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A Review of the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Program: The Draft Detailed Plan NRC (National Research Council). 1993. A Biological Survey for the Nation. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1994a. Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: Forests and Estuaries . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1994b. Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: Surface Waters . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). 1987. Technologies to Maintain Biodiversity. OTA-F-331. March. Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, D.C. Ohlendorf, H.M., R.L. Hothem, and D. Welsh. 1989. Nest success, cause-specific nest failures and hatchability of aquatic birds: Selenium contaminated Kesterson reservoir and a reference site. Cantor 91: 787-796. Olson, G.L., and R.P. Breckenridge. 1990. Federal Contaminant Monitoring Programs and Databases: A Fish and Wildlife Perspective. Report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service under Department of Energy Contract by the Center for Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Idaho Falls, Idaho: EG&G Idaho, Inc. Orians, G.H. 1981. Aggregations: Curse and necessity. Pp. 57-66 in National Research Council/1980: Issues and Current Studies. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. Platt, J.R. 1964. Strong inference. Science 146:347-353. Rope, R., and B. Breckenridge. 1993. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands Biomonitoring Operations Manual, Vol. 1. Report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service under Department of Energy Contract by the Center for Environment al Monitoring and Assessment. Idaho Falls, Idaho: EG&G Idaho, Inc. Smith, G.J. 1993. Toxicology and Pesticide Use in Relation to Wildlife: Organophosphorus and Carbamate Compounds. Boca Raton, Fla.: Smoley/CRC Press. 171 pp. Steffeck, D.W. 1993. The role of monitoring in assessing pesticide effects on avian species and their habitat. Chapter 5 in Wildlife Toxicology and Population Modeling: Integrated Studies of Agroecosystem, Part 5, R.J. Kendall and T.E. Lacher, Jr., eds. Chelsea, Mich.: Lewis Publishers. Suter, G.W. II. 1993. Ecological Risk Assessment. Boca Raton, Fla.: Lewis Publishers. Tillitt, D.E., G.T. Ankley, J.P. Giesy, J.P. Ludwig, H. Kurita-Matsuba, D.V. Weseloh, P.S. Ross, C.A. Bishop, L. Sileo, K.L. Stromberg, J. Larson, and T.J. Kubiak. 1992. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues and egg mortality in double-crested cormorants from the Great Lakes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 11:1281-1288. Tillitt, D.E., T.J. Kubiak, G.T. Ankley, and J.P. Giesy. 1993. Dioxin-like potency in Forster's tern eggs from Green Bay, Lake Michigan, North America. Chemosphere 26:2079-2084. WGA (Western Governors' Association). 1992. Regional innovations: Western water management evolves rapidly. In Pioneering New Solutions: Directing Our Destiny, Pilot Project Report . Western Governor's Association, Denver, Colo.