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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please REFERENCES 63 Owens, D. A., and Wolf, K. S. (1983). Accommodation, binocular vergence, and visual fatigue. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 24, 23. Owens, D. A., Mohindra, I., and Held, R. (1980). The effectiveness of a retinoscope beam as an accommodative stimulus. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 19, 942-949. Owens, R. L., Sterling, R. H., and Owens, D. A. (1982). The Clinical Determination of Night Driving Corrections. Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Optometry, Philadelphia. Owsley, C., Sekuler, R., and Siemsen, D. (1983). Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood. Vision Research, 23, 689-699. Pollen, D. A., and Ronner, S. F. (1982). Spatial computation performed by simple and complex cells in the visual cortex of the cat. Vision Research, 22, 101-118. Pollen, D. A., Nagler, M., Daugman, J., Kronauer, R., and Cavanagh, P. (1984). Use of Gabor elementary functions to probe receptive field substructure of posterior inferotemporal neurons in the owl monkey. Vision Research, 24, 233-241. Post, R. B., and Leibowitz, H. W. (1982). The effect of convergence on the vestibulo-ocular reflex and implications for perceived movement. Vision Research, 22, 461-465. Post, R. B., Owens, R. L., Owens, D. A., and Leibowitz, H. W. (1979). Correction of empty-field myopia on the basis of the dark focus of accommodation. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 69, 89-91. Proenza, L. M., Enoch, J. M., and Jampolsky, A., Eds. (1981). Clinical Applications of Visual Psychophysics. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Raymond J. E., Lindblad, I. M., and Leibowitz, H. W. (1984a). The effect of contrast on sustained detection. Vision Research 24, 183-188. Raymond, J. E., Lindblad, I. M., and Leibowitz, H. W. (1984b). Contrast sensitivity function of the accommodative system. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Suppl.), 22, 126. Reading, V. M. (1972a). Visual resolution as measured by dynamic and static tests. Pflugers Archiv, 333, 17-26. Reading, V. M. (1972b). Analysis of eye movement responses and dynamic visual acuity. Pflugers Archiv, 333, 27-34. Reason, J. R., and Brand, J. J. (1975). Motion Sickness. New York: Academic Press. use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please REFERENCES 64 Regan, D., and Beverley, K. I. (1983). Spatial-frequency discrimination and detection: Comparison of postadaptation thresholds. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 73, 1684-1690. Regan, D., and Cynader, M. (1982). Neurons in cat visual cortex tuned to direction of motion in depth: Effect of stimulus speed. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 22, 535-550. Regan, D., and Neima, D. (1983). Low-contrast letter charts as a test of visual function. Ophthalmology, 90, 1192-1200. Regan, D., and Neima, D. (1984). Low-contrast letter charts in early diabetic retinopathy, ocular hypertension, glaucoma, and Parkinson's disease. British Journal of Ophthalmalogy, 68, 555-559. Regan, D., Bartol, S., Murray, T. J., and Beverley, K. I. (1982). Spatial frequency discrimination in normal vision and in patients with multiple sclerosis. Brain, 105, 735-754. Regan, D., Raymond, J., Ginsburg, A.P., and Murray, T.J. (1981). Contrast sensitivity, visual acuity and the discrimination of Snellen letters in multiple sclerosis. Brain, 104, 333-350. Roscoe, S.N. (1982). Landing airplanes, detecting traffic, and the dark focus. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 53, 970-976. Roscoe, S.N., and Hull, J.C. (1982). Cockpit visibility and contrail detection. Human Factors, 24, 659-672. Rovamo, J., and Virsu, V. (1979). An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor. Experimental Brain Research, 37, 495-510. Schade, O.H. (1956). Optical and photoelectric analog of the eye. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 46, 721-739. Schneider, G. E. (1967). Contrasting visuomotor functions of tectum and cortex in the golden hamster. Psychologische Forschung, 31, 52-62. Schober, H.A.W. (1954). Uber die Akkommodationsruhelage. Optik, 11, 282-290. Schor, C.M., Johnson, C.A., and Post, R.B. (1984). Adaptation of tonic accommodation. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 4, 133-137. Schwartz, E. L. (1980). Computational anatomy and functional architecture of striate cortex: A spatial mapping approach to perceptual coding. Vision Research, 20, 645-669. Sekuler, R., Wilson, H. R., and Owsley, C. (1984). Structural modeling of spatial vision. Vision Research, 24, 689-700. use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please REFERENCES 65 Shebilske, W. (1981). Visual direction illusions in everyday situations: Implications for sensorimotor and ecological theories. In D. F. Fisher, R. A. Monty, and J. W. Senders, eds., Eye Movements; Cognition and Visual Perception. Hillsdale, N.Y.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Simonelli, N. M. (1983). The dark focus of the human eye and its relation to age and visual defect. Human Factors, 25, 85-92. Stevens, S. S. (1951). Mathematical measurements and psychophysics. Pp. 1-49 in S. S. Stevens, Ed., Handbook of Experimental Psychology. New York: John Wiley. Stromeyer, C. F., III, and Julesz, B. (1972). Spatial frequency masking in vision: Critical bands and spread of masking. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 62, 1221-1232. Swets, J. A. (1961). Is there a sensory threshold? Science, 134, 168-177. Swets, J. A., Tanner, W. P., Jr., and Birdsall, T. G. (1961). Decision processes in perception. Psychological Review, 68, 301-340. Townsend, J. T., and Ashby, F. G. (1984). Measurement scales and statistics: The misconception misconceived. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 394-401. Trevarthen, C. (1968). Two mechanisms of vision in primates. Psychologische Forschung, 31, 299-337. Virsu, V., and Rovamo, J. (1979). Visual resolution, contrast sensitivity, and the cortical magnification factor. Experimental Brain Research, 37, 475-494. Wald, G., and Griffin, D. R. (1947). The change in refractive power of the human eye in dim and bright light. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 37, 321-336. Watson, A. B., Barlow, H. B., and Robson, J. G. (1983). What does the eye see best? Nature, 302, 419-422. Weiskrantz, L., Warrington, E. K., Sanders, M. D., and Marshall, J. (1974). Visual capacity in the hemianopic field following a restricted occipital ablation. Brain, 97, 709-728. Weissman, S., and Freeburne, C. M. (1965). Relationship between static and dynamic visual acuity. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70, 141-146. Weisz, C. L. (1980). The accommodative resting state: Theoretical implications of lens prescriptions. Review of Optometry, 117, 60-70. Westheimer, G. (1957). Accommodation measurements in empty visual fields. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 47, 714-718. use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please REFERENCES 66 Westheimer, G. (1960). Modulation thresholds for sinusoidal light distributions on the retina. Journal of Physiology, 152, 67-74. Westheimer, G., and McKee, S. P. (1975). Visual acuity in the presence of retinal-image motion. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 65, 847-850. Whiteside, T. C. D. (1952). Accommodation of the human eye in a bright and empty visual field. Journal of Physiology (London), 118, 65. Whiteside, T. C. D. (1957). The Problem of Vision in Flight at High Altitude. AGARD/NATO. London: Butterworths. Wolkstein, M., Atkin, A., and Bodis-Wollner, I. (1980). Contrast sensitivity in retinal disease. Ophthalmology, 87, 1140-1149. Wood, G. (1977). Fundamentals of Psychological Research. 2nd ed. Boston: Little, Brown. use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. REFERENCES 67