SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK

Committee on Remediation of Buried and Tank Wastes

Board on Radioactive Wastes Management

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

WASHINGTON, DC 1995



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK Committee on Remediation of Buried and Tank Wastes Board on Radioactive Wastes Management Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council WASHINGTON, DC 1995

OCR for page R1
SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Support for this study on Remediation of Buried and Tank Wastes was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Grant No. DE-FC01-94EW54069. All opinions, findings, conclusions, and recommendations expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Energy. Cover art by Mary M. Bernstein - Ensnarement Additional copies of this report are available from: Board on Radioactive Wastes Management 2001 Wisconsin Avenue, N.W. HA456 Washington, D.C. 20007 Telephone: 202/334-3066 Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

OCR for page R1
SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK COMMITTEE ON REMEDIATION OF BURIED AND TANK WASTES ROBERT J. BUDNITZ, Chair, Future Resources Associates, Berkeley, California THOMAS A. BURKE, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland ROBERT J. CATLIN, University of Texas (ret.), Houston JAMES H. CLARKE, Eckenfelder, Inc., Nashville, Tennessee THOMAS A. COTTON, JK Research Associates, Inc, Vienna, Virginia RODNEY C. EWING, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque DONALD R. GIBSON, JR., TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Vienna, Virginia JAMES H. JOHNSON, JR., Howard University, Washington, DC THOMAS M. LESCHINE, University of Washington, Seattle W. HUGH O'RIORDAN, Givens Pursley & Huntley, Boise, Idaho GLENN PAULSON, Paulson and Cooper, Inc., Jackson Hole, Wyoming BENJAMIN ROSS, Disposal Safety Incorporated, Washington, DC PAUL A. WITHERSPOON, University of California, Berkeley RAYMOND G. WYMER, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ret.), Tennessee Staff ROBERT S. ANDREWS, Senior Staff Officer DENNIS DuPREE, Senior Project Assistant ANGELA TAYLOR, Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK BOARD ON RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT MICHAEL C. KAVANAUGH, Chair, ENVIRON Corporation, Emeryville, California B. JOHN GARRICK, Vice-Chair, PLG, Incorporated, Newport Beach, California JOHN F. AHEARNE, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina JEAN M. BAHR, University of Wisconsin, Madison LYNDA L. BROTHERS, Davis Wright Tremaine, Seattle, Washington SOL BURSTEIN, Wisconsin Electric Power (ret.), Milwaukee MELVIN W. CARTER, Georgia Institute of Technology (emeritus), Atlanta PAUL P. CRAIG, University of California, Davis (emeritus) MARY R. ENGLISH, University of Tennessee, Knoxville ROBERT D. HATCHER, JR., University of Tennessee/Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville DARLEANE C. HOFFMAN, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California H. ROBERT MEYER, Keystone Scientific, Inc., Fort Collins, Colorado PERRY L. McCARTY, Stanford University, California CHARLES McCOMBIE, National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes, Wettingen, Switzerland PRISCILLA P. NELSON, University of Texas, Austin D. KIRK NORDSTROM, U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, Colorado D. WARNER NORTH, Decision Focus, Incorporated, Mountain View, California GLENN PAULSON, Paulson and Cooper, Inc., Jackson Hole, Wyoming PAUL SLOVIC, Decision Research, Eugene, Oregon BENJAMIN L. SMITH, Independent Consultant, Columbia, Tennessee Staff CARL A. ANDERSON, Staff Director KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Associate Director ROBERT S. ANDREWS, Senior Staff Officer KARYANIL T. THOMAS, Senior Staff Officer THOMAS KIESS, Staff Officer SUSAN B. MOCKLER, Research Associate LISA J. CLENDENING, Administrative Assistant REBECCA BURKA, Senior Project Assistant ROBIN L. ALLEN, Senior Project Assistant DENNIS L. DuPREE, Senior Project Assistant PATRICIA A. JONES, Project Assistant ANGELA TAYLOR, Project Assistant ERIKA WILLIAMS, Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES M. GORDON WOLMAN, Chairman, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania JAMES P. BRUCE, Canadian Climate Program Board, Ottawa, Ontario WILLIAM L. FISHER, University of Texas, Austin GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, University of Virginia, Charlottesville DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Foundation, Washington, D.C. PERRY L. McCARTY, Stanford University, California JUDITH E. McDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts S. GEORGE PHILANDER, Princeton University, New Jersey RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park ELLEN SILBERGELD, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore STEVEN M. STANLEY, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida Staff STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director MORGAN GOPNIK, Assistant Executive Director GREGORY SYMMES, Reports Officer JAMES MALLORY, Administrative Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate SUSAN SHERWIN, Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

OCR for page R1
SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK PREFACE The study reported herein, requested by the Office of Environmental Restoration, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provided the Committee on Remediation of Buried and Tank Wastes an opportunity to focus on a specific example of buried radioactive waste, the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS). Much of the background information was gathered and analyzed by a subcommittee, which also prepared initial drafts of this report. We acknowledge the efforts of the Committee members that served on that subcommittee, Tom Burke, Bob Catlin (Chair), Jim Johnson, and Ray Wymer. The Committee offers thanks to the representatives from DOE and its contractors at the NFSS and the Fernald Environmental Management Project site who gave generously of their time and efforts in providing briefings and documents and responding in a timely manner to all questions. We also extend thanks to those representatives from federal and state agencies and other organizations, as well as to other interested members of the public, who offered comments.

OCR for page R1
SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK This page in the original is blank.