APPENDIX B: REFERENCE TABLES

TABLE B-1. Estimated Occupational Injuries and Deaths for the Alternatives (U.S. Department of Energy, 1986, Table 2.2, pp 2-4 and 2-5)

Alternative

Transportation

Other

 

Injuries

Deaths

Injuries

Deaths

1

None

None

0.13

0.0015

2a

0.19

0.11

12

0.0064

2b

0.19

0.11

24

0.012

3a

66

3.9

100

0.044

3b

22

1.4

100

0.042

4a

6.9

0.44

36

0.018

4b

22

1.3

85

0.038

4c

2.5

0.15

42

0.018

4d

17

1.0

91

0.040



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SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK APPENDIX B: REFERENCE TABLES TABLE B-1. Estimated Occupational Injuries and Deaths for the Alternatives (U.S. Department of Energy, 1986, Table 2.2, pp 2-4 and 2-5) Alternative Transportation Other   Injuries Deaths Injuries Deaths 1 None None 0.13 0.0015 2a 0.19 0.11 12 0.0064 2b 0.19 0.11 24 0.012 3a 66 3.9 100 0.044 3b 22 1.4 100 0.042 4a 6.9 0.44 36 0.018 4b 22 1.3 85 0.038 4c 2.5 0.15 42 0.018 4d 17 1.0 91 0.040

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SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK TABLE B-2. Estimated Additional Radiological Health Effects for Alternatives (U.S. Department of Energy, 1986 - Sect. 4.1.4, Tables 4,24,4.3 and 4.5, and Paragraphs 4.1.1.2 and 4.1.2.3)   Estimated Adverse Radiological Health Effects from Doses Incurred During   General Public Workers Resident Intruder 1 Alternative Type of Management/Disposal Action Action Period (∼ 10 yr) (total) Monit. & Maint. Period (10-200 yr) (total) Year 1000 (per million persons/yr) Action Period (∼ 10 yr) (total) (after 200 yr or loss of controls) 1 No Action <0.0000005 <0.0000005 0.00021 0.0013 1 (per intruder) 2a Long-Term Mgt. - Modified Containment <0.0000005 <0.0000005 <0.0000005 0.0051 1 (per intruder) 2b Long-Term Mgt. - Modified Containment and From 0.017 <0.0000005 <0.0000005 0.10 (not estimated) 3a Long-Term Mgt. At Arid Site 0.090 0.0039 0.00074 0.24 (not estimated) 3b Long-Term Mgt. At A Humid Site 0.066 <0.0000005 <0.0000005 0.15 (not estimated) 4a Storage of Residues and Long-Term Mgt. of Wastes 0.054 0.036 0.0061 0.18 (not estimated) 4b Storage of Residues and Ocean Disposal of Wastes 0.30 0.036 0.0061 0.20 (not estimated) 4c Storage of Residues and Long-Term Mgt. of Wastes 0.040 <0.0000005 <0.0000005 0.12 (not estimated) 4d Storage of Residues and Ocean Disposal of Wastes 0.28 <0.0000005 <0.0000005 0.13 (not estimated) 1 Death to resident Intruder within a few years from large dose to bronchial epithelium from Inhalation of short-lived radon-222 decay products

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SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK TABLE B-3. Estimated Adverse Radiological Health Effects and Doses to Intruder's Bronchial Epithelium or Lungs for Alternatives (U.S. Department of Energy, 1986- Sect. 4, Paragraphs 4.1.1.2 and 4.1.2.3., and Table 4.24; Bechtel National, Inc., 1994a - Sect. 6.0)   Resident-intruder Impacts 1 Intruder Exploratory Drilling 3 Alternative Type of Management/Disposal Action Disposal Site and Type of Disposed Wastes Working Level (WL) Bronchial Epithelium Dose 2 (rem/yr) Fatal Cancer 2 (per intruder) External Dose (rem per48-h drill period) 1 No Action NFSS - residues 110 8,000 1 (not est.) 2a Long-Term Mgt. - Modified Containment NFSS - residues 110 8,000 1 0.507 2b Long-Term Mgt. - Modified Containment and Form NFSS - modified residues 11 800 (not est.) (not est.) 3a Long-Term Mgt. At Arid Site Hanford - wastes and residues 5.2 400 (not est,) (not est.) 3b Long-Term Mgt. At A Humid Site Oak Ridge - wastes and residues 6.4 480 (not est.) (not est.) 4a Storage of Residues and Long-Term Mgt. of Wastes Hanford - residues NFSS-wastes 21 0.058 1,600 4.30 (not est.) (not est.) (not est.) (not est.) 4b Storage of Residues and Ocean Disposal of Wastes Hanford - residues Ocean Site 106 wastes 21 1,600 (not est.) (not applicable) (not est.) (not applicable) 4c Storage of Residues and Long-Term Mgt. of astes Oak Ridge - residues NFSS - wastes 29 0.058 2,200 4.30 (not est.) (not est.) (not est.) (not est.) 4d Storage of Residues and Ocean Disposal of Wastes Oak Ridge - residues Ocean Site 106 wastes 29 2,200 (not est.) (not applicable) (not est.) (not applicable) 1 Loss of site controls praised at 200 years or later (up to 1,000 years or more) 2 Death of resident intruder within a few years from large dose to bronchial epithelium from Inhalation of short-lived radon-222 decay products 3 Loss of site controls projected at 100 years.

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SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK TABLE B-4. Areas Covered by NFSS Residues and Wastes for Alternatives (U.S. Department of Energy, 1986 - Table 4.16)   Area Covered by Residues & Wastes Alternative Type of Management/Disposal Action Disposal Site Type of Disposed Wastes m2 acres 1 No Action NFSS K-65 residues & overlying wastes L-30/F-32 residues and overlying wastes Wastes only Total 1,700 1,700 29,000 32,000 0.4 0.4 7.2 8.0 2a Long-Term Mgt. - Modified Containment NFSS K-65 residues & overlying wastes L-30/F-32 residues and overlying wastes Wastes only Total 1,700 1,700 29,000 32,000 0.4 0.4 7.2 8.0 2b Long-Term Mgt. - Modified Containment and Form NFSS K-65 residues & overlying wastes L-30/F-32 residues and overlying wastes Wastes only Total 1,700 1,700 29,000 32,000 0.4 0.4 7.2 8.0 3a Long-Term Mgt. At Arid Site Hanford Residues and overlying wastes Wastes only Total 14,000 81,000 95,000 3.4 20 23.0 3b Long-Term Mgt. At A Humid Site Oak Ridge Residues and overlying wastes Wastes only Total 14,000 62,000 76,000 3.4 15 18 4a Storage of Residues and Long-Term Mgt. of Wastes Hanford NFSS Residues Wastes only 14,000 32,000 3.4 8.0 4b Storage of Residues and Ocean Disposal of Wastes Hanford Ocean Site 106 Residues Wastes only 14,000 3.4 4c Storage of Residues and Long-Term Mgt. of Wastes Oak Ridge NFSS Residues Wastes only 14,000 32,000 3.4 8.0 4d Storage of Residues and Ocean Disposal of Wastes Oak Ridge Ocean Site 106 Residues Wastes only 14,000 3.4

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SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK TABLE B-5. Design Requirements for the NFSS Waste Containment Structure (Bechtel National, Inc., 1994a - Table 4.1) Description Existing Cap Long Term Cap Dike and Cutoff Walls Bottom Remarks 1. Design Service Life 25-50 years 200-1000 years 200-1000 years 200-1000 years   2. Safety Factor: Cutoff Walls Slope Stability Static conditions Earthquake 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.0 -- -- -- --   3. Surface Drainage Slope Top Surface Side Slopes 5-10% Max. 3H to IV 5-10% Max. 3H to IV -- -- -- --   4. Surface Erosion Protection Shallow-rooted grass Shallow-rooted grass Riprap to elevation 98.4 m (323 ft) -- --   5. Intrusion Barrier Required No YES -- --   6. Frost Penetration 48 in. 48 in. - - Assume bare ground 7. Radon Barrier Required YES (20 pCi/m2/s) Yes (20 pCi/m2/s) -- --   8. Radiation Barrier Required YES (100 mrem/yr) YES (100 mrem/yr) -- --   9. Component Construction Topsoil/clay Topsoil/rock layer/clay Clay Natural clay strata   10. Clay Permeability 10−7 cm/s 10−7 cm/s Approx 10−7 cm/s Approx 10−7 cm/s   11. Clay Adsorption Coefficient Natural Uranium Radium-226 5 ml/g 500 ml/g 5 ml/g 500 ml/g 5 ml/g 500 ml/g 5 ml/g 500 ml/g  

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SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK 12. Inspection and Maintenance Required Yes (design life) Yes No No   13. Earthquake Pseudostatic Coefficient 0.1g 0.15g 0.15g   14. DOE Concentration Guide for Radionuclide Migration (groundwater concentration, uncontrolled areas) Natural Uranium Radium-226, -228 -- -- 600 pCi/l 30 pCi/l 600 pCi/l 30 pCi/l   15. Temperature Extremes −29° to 34°C −20° to 94°C −29° to 34°C −20° to 94°C −29° to 34°C −20° to 94°C --   16. Rainfall per Year 74 cm (29 in.) 74 cm (29 in.) -- --   17. Wind Speed and Direction (80 mph) southwest (80 mph) southwest -- --   18. Anual Deep-Infiltration Rate 2.54 cm (1.0 in.) 2.54 cm (1.0 in.) -- --   19. Design Flood Plain Elevation Elevation 96.6 m Flood (PMF) 98.4 m (373 ft) Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) 98.4 m (373 ft) Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) 98.4 m (323 ft)     20. Groundwater Elevation (high) - - - Elevation 96 m (315 ft) m.s.l. (Exclusive of PMF)   21. Snowfall Per Year 2.4 m (93 in.) 2.4 m (93 in.) - -   22. Internal Cap Drainage Layer None Yes -- --   23. Waste Containment Consolidation Minimize settlement (95% compaction) Minimize settlement (95 % compaction) 95 % compaction --   24. Shrinkage, Swelling, and Frost Action Requirements Yes (3 to 5% in volume expansion) Yes (3 to 5% in volume expansion Yes (3 to 5% in volume expansion) No  

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SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK 25. Migration Limits Not to exceed EPA primary drinking water standards in off-site groundwater Not to exceed EPA primary drinking water standards in off-site groundwater Not to exceed EPA primary drinking water standards in off-site groundwater Not to exceed EPA primary drinking water standards in off-site groundwater   26. Buffer Zone (measure from lateral limit of waste) 30.5 m (100 ft) 30.5 m (100 ft) -- --   27. Groundwater Hydraulic Gradient (saturated zone) - - - 0.0015  

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SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK TABLE B-6. Monitoring Networks for Radioactive Materials at NFSS for Period 1985-1994 (Not Inclusive) (Bechtel National, Inc., 1994a)   Number of Sampling Location Locations Not Sampled 1993-94 Parameter On Site Within WCS On Site at WCS Perimeter On Site OutsideWCS Off NFSS Site Total Locations Number % Radon In Air ? 0 3 14 17 0 0 External Gamma Exposure Rate ? 0 3 14 17 0 0 Total U & Ra-226 - Surface Water - Sediment ? ? 0 0 3 3 2 2 5 5 0 0 0 0 Total U In Groundwater - Upper Groundwater - Lower Groundwater - TOTAL 1 0 1 8 5 13 15 13 28 0 1 1 24 19 43 17 17 34 71 89 79 Ra-226 In Groundwater - Upper Groundwater - Lower Groundwater - TOTAL 1 0 1 8 5 13 15 13 28 0 1 1 24 19 43 15 17 32 63 89 74

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SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK TABLE B-7. Distribution of Radium-226 and Thorium-230 in the NFSS Waste Containment Structure (Bechtel National, Inc., 1994a - Table 3-1; U.S. Department of Energy, 1986 - Table 3.4)   Volume Ra-226 Th-230 Description m3(yd3) % of Total Vol. Cumul. % of Total Inventory (Ci) % of Total Ci Cumul. % of Total Inventory (Ci) % of Total Ci Cumul. % of Total K-65 reidues 3,000 (3,925) 1.6 1.6 1,881 94.9 94.9 195 65.8 65.8 L-30 residues combined with 6,000 (7,850) 3.1 4.7 87 4.4 99.3 87 29.4 95.2 F-32 residues 500 (655) 0.3 5.8 0.2 0.0 99.6 0.2 0.1 97.3 L-50 residues 1,500 (1,960) 0.8 5.5 6 0.3 99.6 6 2.0 97.2 Contam. wastes R-10 residues and soil 45,000 (58,860) 23.6 29.4 5 0.25 99.85 5 1.7 99.0 Remaining Contaminated soils 134,500 (175,925) 70.6 100.0 3 0.15 100.0 3 1.0 100.0 TOTAL 190,500 (249,175) 100.0 - 1,982.2 100.0 - 296.2 100.0 -

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SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK Table B-8 Inventories of Radium-226 in the Waste Containment Structure Over the next 10,000 Years (Bechtel National, Inc., 1994a, Table 3-3) Time (years) Waste Material (Ci) R-10 Residues and Soil (Ci) L-50 Residues (Ci) F-32 Residues (Ci) L-30 Residues (Ci) K-65 Residues (Ci) Totals for WCS (Ci) 0 3 5 6 0.2 87 1881 1982.2 100 3.00 5.00 5.99 0.20 86.92 1809.45 1910.56 200 2.99 4.99 5.99 0.20 86.85 1740.92 1841.94 300 2.99 4.99 5.98 0.20 86.77 1675.29 1776.22 400 2.99 4.98 5.98 0.20 86.70 1612.43 1713.28 500 2.99 4.98 5.97 0.20 86.62 1552.23 1652.99 600 2.98 4.97 5.97 0.20 86.55 1494.56 1595.23 700 2.98 4.97 5.96 0.20 86.47 1439.33 1539.91 800 2.98 4.97 5.96 0.20 86.40 1386.43 1486.94 900 2.98 4.96 5.95 0.20 86.32 1335.77 1436.18 1,000 2.97 4.96 5.95 0.20 86.25 1287.24 1387.57 2,000 2.95 4.91 5.90 0.20 85.51 901.42 1000.89 3,000 2.92 4.87 5.85 0.19 84.77 650.52 749.12 4,000 2.90 4.83 5.80 0.19 84.04 487.16 584.92 5,000 2.87 4.79 5.75 0.19 83.31 380.61 477.52 6,000 2.85 4.75 5.70 0.19 82.59 310.91 406.99 7,000 2.82 4.71 5.65 0.19 81.88 265.14 360.39 8,000 2.80 4.67 5.60 0.19 81.18 234.90 329.34 9,000 2.77 4.62 5.55 0.18 80.47 214.73 308.32 10,000 2.75 4.59 5.50 0.18 79.78 201.11 293.91

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SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK TABLE B-9. Inventories of Thorium-230 in the Waste Containment Structure Over the next 10,000 Years (Bechtel National, Inc., 1994a, Table 3-4) Time (years) Waste Material (Ci) R-10 and Soil Residues (Ci) L-50 Residues (Ci) F-32 Residues (Ci) L-30 Residues (Ci) K-65 Residues (Ci) Totals for WCS (Ci) 0 3 5 6 0.2 87 195 296.2 100 3.00 5.00 5.99 0.20 86.92 194.83 295.94 200 2.99 4.99 5.99 0.20 86.85 194.66 295.68 300 2.99 4.99 5.98 0.20 86.77 194.49 295.42 400 2.99 4.98 5.98 0.20 86.70 194.33 295.18 500 2.99 4.98 5.97 0.20 86.62 194.16 294.92 600 2.98 4.97 5.97 0.20 86.55 193.99 294.66 700 2.98 4.97 5.96 0.20 86.47 193.82 294.40 800 2.98 4.97 5.96 0.20 86.40 193.65 294.16 900 2.98 4.96 5.95 0.20 86.32 193.49 293.90 1,000 2.97 4.96 5.95 0.20 88.25 193.32 293.65 2,000 2.95 4.91 5.90 0.20 85.51 191.65 291.12 3,000 2.92 4.87 5.85 0.19 84.77 190.00 288.60 4,000 2.90 4.83 5.80 0.19 84.04 188.36 286.12 5,000 2.87 4.79 5.75 0.19 83.31 186.73 283.64 6,000 2.85 4.75 5.70 0.19 82.59 185.12 281.20 7,000 2.82 4.71 5.65 0.19 81.88 183.53 278.78 8,000 2.80 4.67 5.60 0.19 81.18 181.94 276.38 9,000 2.77 4.62 5.55 0.18 80.47 180.37 273.96 10,000 2.75 4.59 5.50 0.18 79.78 178.82 271.62

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SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK Table B-10 Inventories of Radium-226 in the Waste Containment Structure Over the next 10,000 Years After Selected Residue Removals in Year 1 (after Bechtel National, Inc., 1994a, Tables 3-1 and 3-3)     Inventories of Remaining Ra-226 After Removals Time (years) Total Ra-226 Inventory in Residues & Wastes WCS (Ci) K-65 Residues Removed (Ci) K-65, L-30 & F-32 Residues Removed (Ci) K-65, L-30, F-32 & L-50 Residues Removed (Ci) All Residues Removed (Ci) 0 1982.2 101.2 14.0 8 3 100 1910.56 101.11 13.99 8.00 3.00 200 1841.94 101.02 13.97 7.98 2.99 300 1776.22 100.93 13.96 7.98 2.99 400 1713.28 100.85 13.95 7.97 2.99 500 1652.99 100.76 13.94 7.97 2.99 600 1595.23 100.67 13.92 7.95 2.98 700 1539.91 100.58 13.91 7.95 2.98 800 1486.94 100.51 13.91 7.95 2.98 900 1436.18 100.41 13.89 7.94 2.98 1,000 1387.57 100.33 13.88 7.93 2.97 2,000 1000.89 99.47 13.76 7.86 2.95 3,000 749.12 98.60 13.64 7.79 2.92 4,000 584.92 97.76 13.53 7.73 2.90 5,000 477.52 96.91 13.41 7.66 2.87 6,000 406.99 96.08 13.3 7.6 2.85 7,000 360.39 95.25 13.18 7.53 2.82 8,000 329.34 94.44 13.07 7.47 2.80 9,000 308.32 93.59 12.94 7.39 2.77 10,000 293.91 92.80 12.84 7.34 2.75 Removal Volume - m3(yd3) - 3,000 (3,925) 9,000 (11,775) 11,000 (14,390) 56,000 (73,250)

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SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK Table B-11 Inventories of Thorium-230 in the Waste Containment Structure Over the next 10,000 Years After Selected Residue Removals in Year 1 (after Bechtel National, Inc., 1994a, Tables 3-1 and 3-4)     Inventories of Remaining Th-230 After Removals Time (years) Total Th-230 Inventory in Residues & Wastes WCS (Ci) K-65 Residues Removed (Ci) K-65, L-30 & F-32 Residues Removed (Ci) K-65, L-30, F-32 & L-50 Residues Removed (Ci) All Residues Removed (Ci) 0 296.2 101.2 14.0 8 3 100 295.94 101.11 13.99 8.00 3.00 200 295.68 101.02 13.97 7.98 2.99 300 295.42 100.93 13.96 7.98 2.99 400 295.18 100.85 13.95 7.97 2.99 500 294.92 100.76 13.94 7.97 2.99 600 294.66 100.67 13.92 7.95 2.98 700 294.40 100.58 13.91 7.95 2.98 800 294.16 100.51 13.91 7.95 2.98 900 293.90 100.41 13.89 7.94 2.98 1,000 293.65 100.33 13.88 7.93 2.97 2,000 291.12 99.47 13.76 7.86 2.95 3,000 288.60 98.60 13.64 7.79 2.92 4,000 286.12 97.76 13.53 7.73 2.90 5,000 283.64 96.91 13.41 7.66 2.87 6,000 281.20 96.08 13.30 7.60 2.85 7,000 278.78 95.25 13.18 7.53 2.82 8,000 276.38 94.44 13.07 7.47 2.80 9,000 273.96 93.59 12.94 7.39 2.77 10,000 271.62 92.80 12.84 7.34 2.75 Removal Volume -m3 (yd3) - 3,000 (3,925) 9,000 (11,775) 11,000 (14,390) 56,000 (73,250)

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SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK TABLE B-12. NON-RADIOACTIVE ELEMENT Selected Non-Radioactive Elements in Residues Average Concentration, ppm Element K-65 L-30 L-50 Acceptable Limit in Ground water, mg/L * Barium 30,000 6,100 20,000 1.0 Boron 300 140 100   Cerium 2,000 1,200 240   Chromium +6 100 244 140 0.05 Cobalt 2,000 5,100 7,700   Copper 500 2,300 2,400 1.0 Iron 5,000 26,000 20,000 0.3 Lanthanum 2,000 1,000 220   Lead 56,000 13,000 4,900 0.025 Manganese 100 31,000 71,000 0.3 Molybdenum 10,000 860 300   Neodymium 1,000 160 100   Nickel 3,000 17,000 24,000   Palladium 20 3.5 2.4   Praseodymium 2,000 55 24   Strontium 500 240 240   (Uranium) (3,800) (5,000) (790)   Vanadium 2,000 2,400 2,400   Zirconium 300 100 71   Source: U.S. Department of Energy, 1986, Table 3.7. * New York Department of Environmental Conservation Groundwater Quality Standards, Title 6, Part 703.

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SAFETY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL URANIUM ORE RESIDUES AT THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE, LEWISTON, NEW YORK TABLE B-13. Organic Compounds (U.S. Department of Energy, 1986) Estimated Concentration, ppb* Compound Wastes Acceptable Limit in Ground Water, ppb ** Polychlorobiphenols (PCBs) <26 0.1 Lindane, etc. <10 Not detectable Toxaphene <13 Not Detectable Heptachlor <10 Not Detectable Chlordane <10 0.1 Dieldrin <10 Not Detectable Phenol <10 1 Benzo(a)pyrene <10 Not Detectable *Note: The symbol “<” indicates that some of the sample concentrations were reported as upper limits. ** New York Department of Environmental Conservation Groundwater Quality Standards, Title 6, Part 703, 9/1/78.